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2nd Edition

Fungi in Ecosystem Processes




ISBN 9781482249057
Published March 8, 2016 by CRC Press
408 Pages 5 Color & 105 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

This new edition of Fungi in Ecosystem Processes continues the unique approach of examining the roles of fungi from the perspective of ecosystem functions. It explores how fungi have adapted to survive within particular constraints, how they help to maintain homeostasis in ecosystems, how they facilitate resistance to perturbations, and how they influence the communities of other organisms.

Updated and revised, the second edition

  • Expands the section on plant pathogens, invasive species, and insect–fungal interactions
  • Provides more extensive coverage on insect–fungal interactions, including entomopathogens, the links between entomopathogens and endophytes, and symbiotic and mutualistic interactions
  • Adds a new section on fungi in the built environment
  • Presents new material on below-ground to above-ground interactions mediated through fungi, such as mycorrhizal signaling systems for herbivory defense

The book also includes expanded coverage of the role of fungi in suppressive soils, aquatic and marine fungi, modern methods of following food chains in fungal–invertebrate trophic interactions, and the physiology of nutrient uptake by mycorrhizae.

A necessary update and expansion to previous material, this book provides an essential reference on the current understanding of fungal roles in ecosystem processes. It also identifies directions for future study, including an emphasis on the need for further research on fungi in built environments.

Table of Contents

Introduction
Why Fungi?
What Are Fungi?
What Are Ecosystems and Ecosystem Functions?
Specific Ecosystem Services Carried Out by Fungi
Conclusions
References

Making Nutrients Available for Primary Production
Making Soils
Breaking Down the Dead: Adding Fertility
Where Does Soil Begin and End?
Keeping Soils Together
Nutrient Availability in Aquatic and Marine Ecosystems
Conclusions
References

Role of Fungi in Promoting Primary Production
Lichens as Primary Producers
Mycorrhizae Help Primary Production
Succession and Plant Community Composition
Plant Communities
Plugging into the Hyphal Network
Interactions with Other Microbes
Mycorrhizae and Stress Tolerance
Mycorrhizae in Aquatic and Estuarine Systems
Fungal Endophytes and Primary Production
Conclusion
References

Role of Fungi in Reducing Primary Production
Pathogenic Fungi and Natural Plant Communities
Pathogens and Agroecosystems
Interactions between Mycorrhizae and Plant Pathogens
Saprotroph–Pathogen Interactions—Biocontrol
Allelopathy
Conclusions
References

Fungi and Secondary Productivity
Fungi in Diet of Vertebrates
Fungi in Diet of Invertebrates
Influence of Faunal Grazing on Decomposition
Influence of Faunal Grazing on Mycorrhizal Function
Influence of Fauna on Fungal Dispersal
Influence of Invertebrate Grazing on Fungal Pathogens
Specific Fungal–Faunal Interactions
Fungal–Faunal Interactions in Aquatic and Marine Ecosystems
Conclusions
References

Fungi as Animal Pathogens: Negative Impacts on Faunal Productivity
Entomopathogens
Nematode Pathogens and Predators
Emerging Vertebrate Fungal Pathogens
Pathogens in Aquatic and Marine Ecosystems
Conclusion
References

Fungal Interactions with Pollutants and Climate Change
Fungi and Acidifying Pollutants
Fungi and Heavy Metals
Organic Pollutants
Fungi and Radionuclides
Fungi and Climate Change
Conclusions
References

Fungi in the Built Environment
Decomposition of Fabric of Buildings
Air Spora, Health Problems, and Molds on Structures
Hot Spots of Fungal Activity Related to Environment
Degradation of Artifacts
Possible Protection of Artifacts
Food Spoilage
Conclusion
References

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Author(s)

Biography

John Dighton earned his MSc in ecology from Durham University, UK, and his PhD from London University, UK. After a brief spell of teaching high school, he worked for 15 years for the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Merlewood, UK, where he studied ectomycorrhizal fungi, forest soil ecology, forest nutrition, and the impacts of pollutants on fungi. He moved to the United States and started working with Rutgers University to run their Pinelands Field Station in the pine barrens of New Jersey. He has published more than 100 scientific papers; serves on the editorial boards of Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Fungal Biology, and Fungal Ecology; and has edited books on soil and mycology-related topics.