3rd Edition

Gas Turbine Combustion Alternative Fuels and Emissions, Third Edition

By Arthur H. Lefebvre, Dilip R. Ballal Copyright 2010
    558 Pages 266 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Reflecting the developments in gas turbine combustion technology that have occurred in the last decade, Gas Turbine Combustion: Alternative Fuels and Emissions, Third Edition provides an up-to-date design manual and research reference on the design, manufacture, and operation of gas turbine combustors in applications ranging from aeronautical to power generation. Essentially self-contained, the book only requires a moderate amount of prior knowledge of physics and chemistry.

    In response to the fluctuating cost and environmental effects of petroleum fuel, this third edition includes a new chapter on alternative fuels. This chapter presents the physical and chemical properties of conventional (petroleum-based) liquid and gaseous fuels for gas turbines; reviews the properties of alternative (synthetic) fuels and conventional-alternative fuel blends; and describes the influence of these different fuels and their blends on combustor performance, design, and emissions. It also discusses the special requirements of aircraft fuels and the problems encountered with fuels for industrial gas turbines. In the updated chapter on emissions, the authors highlight the quest for higher fuel efficiency and reducing carbon dioxide emissions as well as the regulations involved.

    Continuing to offer detailed coverage of multifuel capabilities, flame flashback, high off-design combustion efficiency, and liner failure studies, this best-selling book is the premier guide to gas turbine combustion technology. This edition retains the style that made its predecessors so popular while updating the material to reflect the technology of the twenty-first century.

    Basic Considerations
    Early Combustor Developments
    Basic Design Features
    Combustor Requirements
    Combustor Types
    Primary Zone
    Intermediate Zone
    Dilution Zone
    Fuel Preparation
    Wall Cooling
    Combustors for Low Emissions
    Combustors for Small Engines
    Industrial Chambers

    Combustion Fundamentals
    Classification of Flames
    Physics or Chemistry?
    Flammability Limits
    Global Reaction-Rate Theory
    Laminar Premixed Flames
    Laminar Diffusion Flames
    Turbulent Premixed Flames
    Flame Propagation in Heterogeneous Mixtures of Fuel Drops, Fuel Vapor, and Air
    Droplet and Spray Evaporation
    Ignition Theory
    Spontaneous Ignition
    Adiabatic Flame Temperature

    Diffuser Geometry
    Flow Regimes
    Performance Criteria
    Effect of Inlet Flow Conditions
    Design Considerations
    Numerical Simulations

    Reference Quantities
    Pressure-Loss Parameters
    Relationship between Size and Pressure Loss
    Flow in the Annulus
    Flow through Liner Holes
    Jet Trajectories
    Jet Mixing
    Temperature Traverse Quality
    Dilution Zone Design
    Correlation of Pattern Factor Data
    Rig Testing for Pattern Factor
    Swirler Aerodynamics
    Axial Swirlers
    Radial Swirlers
    Flat Vanes versus Curved Vanes

    Combustion Performance
    Combustion Efficiency
    Reaction-Controlled Systems
    Mixing-Controlled Systems
    Evaporation-Controlled Systems
    Reaction- and Evaporation-Controlled Systems
    Flame Stabilization
    Bluff-Body Flameholders
    Mechanisms of Flame Stabilization
    Flame Stabilization in Combustion Chambers
    Assessment of Ignition Performance
    Spark Ignition
    Other Forms of Ignition
    Factors Influencing Ignition Performance
    The Ignition Process
    Methods of Improving Ignition Performance

    Fuel Injection
    Basic Processes in Atomization
    Classical Mechanism of Jet and Sheet Breakup
    Prompt Atomization
    Classical or Prompt?
    Drop-Size Distributions
    Atomizer Requirements
    Pressure Atomizers
    Rotary Atomizers
    Air-Assist Atomizers
    Airblast Atomizers
    Effervescent Atomizers
    Fuel Nozzle Coking
    Gas Injection
    Equations for Mean Drop Size
    SMD Equations for Pressure Atomizers
    SMD Equations for Twin-Fluid Atomizers
    SMD Equations for Prompt Atomization
    Internal Flow Characteristics
    Flow Number
    Discharge Coefficient
    Spray Cone Angle
    Radial Fuel Distribution
    Circumferential Fuel Distribution

    Combustion Noise
    Direct Combustion Noise
    Combustion Instabilities
    Control of Combustion Instabilities
    Modeling of Combustion Instabilities

    Heat Transfer
    Heat-Transfer Processes
    Internal Radiation
    External Radiation
    Internal Convection
    External Convection
    Calculation of Uncooled Liner Temperature
    Film Cooling
    Correlation of Film-Cooling Data
    Practical Applications of Transpiration Cooling
    Advanced Wall-Cooling Methods
    Augmented Cold-Side Convection
    Thermal Barrier Coatings
    Liner Failure Modes

    Mechanisms of Pollutant Formation
    Pollutants Reduction in Conventional Combustors
    Pollutants Reduction by Control of Flame Temperature
    Dry Low-Oxides of Nitrogen Combustors
    Lean Premix Prevaporize Combustion
    Rich-Burn, Quick-Quench, Lean-Burn Combustor
    Catalytic Combustion
    Correlation and Modeling of Oxides of Nitrogen and Carbon Monoxide Emissions
    Concluding Remarks

    Alternative Fuels
    Types of Hydrocarbons
    Production of Liquid Fuels
    Fuel Properties
    Combustion Properties of Fuels
    Classification of Liquid Fuels
    Classification of Gaseous Fuels
    Alternative Fuels
    Synthetic Fuels


    References appear at the end of each chapter.


    Arthur H. Lefebvre (1923–2003) was Emeritus Professor at Cranfield University and Purdue University.

    Dilip R. Ballal (1946–2012) was Hans von Ohain Distinguished Chair Professor at the University of Dayton.