Gas Turbine Combustion: Alternative Fuels and Emissions, Third Edition, 3rd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Gas Turbine Combustion

Alternative Fuels and Emissions, Third Edition, 3rd Edition

By Arthur H. Lefebvre, Dilip R. Ballal

CRC Press

558 pages | 266 B/W Illus.

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Reflecting the developments in gas turbine combustion technology that have occurred in the last decade, Gas Turbine Combustion: Alternative Fuels and Emissions, Third Edition provides an up-to-date design manual and research reference on the design, manufacture, and operation of gas turbine combustors in applications ranging from aeronautical to power generation. Essentially self-contained, the book only requires a moderate amount of prior knowledge of physics and chemistry.

In response to the fluctuating cost and environmental effects of petroleum fuel, this third edition includes a new chapter on alternative fuels. This chapter presents the physical and chemical properties of conventional (petroleum-based) liquid and gaseous fuels for gas turbines; reviews the properties of alternative (synthetic) fuels and conventional-alternative fuel blends; and describes the influence of these different fuels and their blends on combustor performance, design, and emissions. It also discusses the special requirements of aircraft fuels and the problems encountered with fuels for industrial gas turbines. In the updated chapter on emissions, the authors highlight the quest for higher fuel efficiency and reducing carbon dioxide emissions as well as the regulations involved.

Continuing to offer detailed coverage of multifuel capabilities, flame flashback, high off-design combustion efficiency, and liner failure studies, this best-selling book is the premier guide to gas turbine combustion technology. This edition retains the style that made its predecessors so popular while updating the material to reflect the technology of the twenty-first century.

Table of Contents

Basic Considerations


Early Combustor Developments

Basic Design Features

Combustor Requirements

Combustor Types


Primary Zone

Intermediate Zone

Dilution Zone

Fuel Preparation

Wall Cooling

Combustors for Low Emissions

Combustors for Small Engines

Industrial Chambers

Combustion Fundamentals


Classification of Flames

Physics or Chemistry?

Flammability Limits

Global Reaction-Rate Theory

Laminar Premixed Flames

Laminar Diffusion Flames

Turbulent Premixed Flames

Flame Propagation in Heterogeneous Mixtures of Fuel Drops, Fuel Vapor, and Air

Droplet and Spray Evaporation

Ignition Theory

Spontaneous Ignition



Adiabatic Flame Temperature



Diffuser Geometry

Flow Regimes

Performance Criteria


Effect of Inlet Flow Conditions

Design Considerations

Numerical Simulations



Reference Quantities

Pressure-Loss Parameters

Relationship between Size and Pressure Loss

Flow in the Annulus

Flow through Liner Holes

Jet Trajectories

Jet Mixing

Temperature Traverse Quality

Dilution Zone Design

Correlation of Pattern Factor Data

Rig Testing for Pattern Factor

Swirler Aerodynamics

Axial Swirlers

Radial Swirlers

Flat Vanes versus Curved Vanes

Combustion Performance


Combustion Efficiency

Reaction-Controlled Systems

Mixing-Controlled Systems

Evaporation-Controlled Systems

Reaction- and Evaporation-Controlled Systems

Flame Stabilization

Bluff-Body Flameholders

Mechanisms of Flame Stabilization

Flame Stabilization in Combustion Chambers


Assessment of Ignition Performance

Spark Ignition

Other Forms of Ignition

Factors Influencing Ignition Performance

The Ignition Process

Methods of Improving Ignition Performance

Fuel Injection

Basic Processes in Atomization

Classical Mechanism of Jet and Sheet Breakup

Prompt Atomization

Classical or Prompt?

Drop-Size Distributions

Atomizer Requirements

Pressure Atomizers

Rotary Atomizers

Air-Assist Atomizers

Airblast Atomizers

Effervescent Atomizers


Fuel Nozzle Coking

Gas Injection

Equations for Mean Drop Size

SMD Equations for Pressure Atomizers

SMD Equations for Twin-Fluid Atomizers

SMD Equations for Prompt Atomization

Internal Flow Characteristics

Flow Number

Discharge Coefficient

Spray Cone Angle

Radial Fuel Distribution

Circumferential Fuel Distribution

Combustion Noise


Direct Combustion Noise

Combustion Instabilities

Control of Combustion Instabilities

Modeling of Combustion Instabilities

Heat Transfer


Heat-Transfer Processes

Internal Radiation

External Radiation

Internal Convection

External Convection

Calculation of Uncooled Liner Temperature

Film Cooling

Correlation of Film-Cooling Data

Practical Applications of Transpiration Cooling

Advanced Wall-Cooling Methods

Augmented Cold-Side Convection

Thermal Barrier Coatings


Liner Failure Modes





Mechanisms of Pollutant Formation

Pollutants Reduction in Conventional Combustors

Pollutants Reduction by Control of Flame Temperature

Dry Low-Oxides of Nitrogen Combustors

Lean Premix Prevaporize Combustion

Rich-Burn, Quick-Quench, Lean-Burn Combustor

Catalytic Combustion

Correlation and Modeling of Oxides of Nitrogen and Carbon Monoxide Emissions

Concluding Remarks

Alternative Fuels


Types of Hydrocarbons

Production of Liquid Fuels

Fuel Properties

Combustion Properties of Fuels

Classification of Liquid Fuels

Classification of Gaseous Fuels

Alternative Fuels

Synthetic Fuels


References appear at the end of each chapter.

About the Authors

Arthur H. Lefebvre (1923–2003) was Emeritus Professor at Cranfield University and Purdue University.

Dilip R. Ballal is Hans von Ohain Distinguished Chair Professor at the University of Dayton.

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