3rd Edition

Gas Turbine Combustion
Alternative Fuels and Emissions, Third Edition




ISBN 9781420086041
Published April 26, 2010 by CRC Press
558 Pages 266 B/W Illustrations

USD $230.00

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Book Description

Reflecting the developments in gas turbine combustion technology that have occurred in the last decade, Gas Turbine Combustion: Alternative Fuels and Emissions, Third Edition provides an up-to-date design manual and research reference on the design, manufacture, and operation of gas turbine combustors in applications ranging from aeronautical to power generation. Essentially self-contained, the book only requires a moderate amount of prior knowledge of physics and chemistry.

In response to the fluctuating cost and environmental effects of petroleum fuel, this third edition includes a new chapter on alternative fuels. This chapter presents the physical and chemical properties of conventional (petroleum-based) liquid and gaseous fuels for gas turbines; reviews the properties of alternative (synthetic) fuels and conventional-alternative fuel blends; and describes the influence of these different fuels and their blends on combustor performance, design, and emissions. It also discusses the special requirements of aircraft fuels and the problems encountered with fuels for industrial gas turbines. In the updated chapter on emissions, the authors highlight the quest for higher fuel efficiency and reducing carbon dioxide emissions as well as the regulations involved.

Continuing to offer detailed coverage of multifuel capabilities, flame flashback, high off-design combustion efficiency, and liner failure studies, this best-selling book is the premier guide to gas turbine combustion technology. This edition retains the style that made its predecessors so popular while updating the material to reflect the technology of the twenty-first century.

Table of Contents

Basic Considerations
Introduction
Early Combustor Developments
Basic Design Features
Combustor Requirements
Combustor Types
Diffuser
Primary Zone
Intermediate Zone
Dilution Zone
Fuel Preparation
Wall Cooling
Combustors for Low Emissions
Combustors for Small Engines
Industrial Chambers

Combustion Fundamentals
Introduction
Classification of Flames
Physics or Chemistry?
Flammability Limits
Global Reaction-Rate Theory
Laminar Premixed Flames
Laminar Diffusion Flames
Turbulent Premixed Flames
Flame Propagation in Heterogeneous Mixtures of Fuel Drops, Fuel Vapor, and Air
Droplet and Spray Evaporation
Ignition Theory
Spontaneous Ignition
Flashback
Stoichiometry
Adiabatic Flame Temperature

Diffusers
Introduction
Diffuser Geometry
Flow Regimes
Performance Criteria
Performance
Effect of Inlet Flow Conditions
Design Considerations
Numerical Simulations

Aerodynamics
Introduction
Reference Quantities
Pressure-Loss Parameters
Relationship between Size and Pressure Loss
Flow in the Annulus
Flow through Liner Holes
Jet Trajectories
Jet Mixing
Temperature Traverse Quality
Dilution Zone Design
Correlation of Pattern Factor Data
Rig Testing for Pattern Factor
Swirler Aerodynamics
Axial Swirlers
Radial Swirlers
Flat Vanes versus Curved Vanes

Combustion Performance
Introduction
Combustion Efficiency
Reaction-Controlled Systems
Mixing-Controlled Systems
Evaporation-Controlled Systems
Reaction- and Evaporation-Controlled Systems
Flame Stabilization
Bluff-Body Flameholders
Mechanisms of Flame Stabilization
Flame Stabilization in Combustion Chambers
Ignition
Assessment of Ignition Performance
Spark Ignition
Other Forms of Ignition
Factors Influencing Ignition Performance
The Ignition Process
Methods of Improving Ignition Performance

Fuel Injection
Basic Processes in Atomization
Classical Mechanism of Jet and Sheet Breakup
Prompt Atomization
Classical or Prompt?
Drop-Size Distributions
Atomizer Requirements
Pressure Atomizers
Rotary Atomizers
Air-Assist Atomizers
Airblast Atomizers
Effervescent Atomizers
Vaporizers
Fuel Nozzle Coking
Gas Injection
Equations for Mean Drop Size
SMD Equations for Pressure Atomizers
SMD Equations for Twin-Fluid Atomizers
SMD Equations for Prompt Atomization
Internal Flow Characteristics
Flow Number
Discharge Coefficient
Spray Cone Angle
Radial Fuel Distribution
Circumferential Fuel Distribution

Combustion Noise
Introduction
Direct Combustion Noise
Combustion Instabilities
Control of Combustion Instabilities
Modeling of Combustion Instabilities

Heat Transfer
Introduction
Heat-Transfer Processes
Internal Radiation
External Radiation
Internal Convection
External Convection
Calculation of Uncooled Liner Temperature
Film Cooling
Correlation of Film-Cooling Data
Practical Applications of Transpiration Cooling
Advanced Wall-Cooling Methods
Augmented Cold-Side Convection
Thermal Barrier Coatings
Materials
Liner Failure Modes

Emissions
Introduction
Concerns
Regulations
Mechanisms of Pollutant Formation
Pollutants Reduction in Conventional Combustors
Pollutants Reduction by Control of Flame Temperature
Dry Low-Oxides of Nitrogen Combustors
Lean Premix Prevaporize Combustion
Rich-Burn, Quick-Quench, Lean-Burn Combustor
Catalytic Combustion
Correlation and Modeling of Oxides of Nitrogen and Carbon Monoxide Emissions
Concluding Remarks

Alternative Fuels
Introduction
Types of Hydrocarbons
Production of Liquid Fuels
Fuel Properties
Combustion Properties of Fuels
Classification of Liquid Fuels
Classification of Gaseous Fuels
Alternative Fuels
Synthetic Fuels

Index

References appear at the end of each chapter.

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Author(s)

Biography

Arthur H. Lefebvre (1923–2003) was Emeritus Professor at Cranfield University and Purdue University.

Dilip R. Ballal (1946–2012) was Hans von Ohain Distinguished Chair Professor at the University of Dayton.