Gender & International Law
Confronting the patriarchal origins and male-dominated institutions of international law, over the last several decades serious thinking about gender and international law has developed into a flourishing discourse within its host discipline. From the lecture theatres and conferences of academia to the corridors of international institutions frequented by non-governmental organizations, diplomats, and the bureaucrats of international institutions, gender issues are now placed firmly on the international-law agenda. Indeed, scholarship on gender and international law is now an important and dynamic area of critique that continues to challenge the failures of the political, legal, and institutional frameworks of international law.
As research in gender and international law continues to flourish, this new four-volume collection from Routledge’s Critical Concepts in Law series brings together the most influential scholarship to date, gathering foundational and canonical theoretical work, together with innovative and cutting-edge applications and interventions. It provides an understanding of the development of the field of gender and international law, as well as highlighting areas of thought-provoking research to stimulate future developments in the field.
The first volume in the collection (‘Defining Gender and International Law’) assembles key works to illustrate the development of the field and provide users with a clear understanding of the concepts, methods, and theoretical underpinnings of gender and international law. Volume II (‘Doing Gender and International Law: Actors and Institutions’) brings gender and international law to life as an action-orientated field, theoretically sophisticated, but focused on and contributing to changes in how international and national law-makers treat gendered issues. Volume III (‘Key Legal Themes in Gender and International Law’) provides an overview of the different legal themes that have engaged scholars analysing international law from feminist, women-centred, or gendered perspectives. The scholarship assembled in the final volume (‘Critical Movements and Emerging Issues in Gender and International Law’) collects work that encourages critical reflections about gendered analyses of contemporary issues in international law. It also highlights where increased attention is needed, or where current approaches by feminist international legal scholars might require further scrutiny.
With a full index, together with a comprehensive introduction, newly written by the learned editors, which places the collected material in its historical and intellectual context, Gender and International Law is an essential work of reference and will be welcomed by researchers, advanced students, practitioners, and policy-makers.
Table of Contents
Volume I: Adding, Stirring, and Inventing: Making Women Matter in International Law
Part A: Becoming a Discipline
1. Hilary Charlesworth, Christine Chinkin, and Shelley Wright, ‘Feminist Approaches to International Law’, American Journal of International Law, 1991, 85, 613–45.
2. Anne Orford, ‘Feminism, Imperialism and the Mission of International Law’, Nordic Journal of International Law, 2002, 71, 275–96.
3. Karen Knop, ‘Re/Statements: Feminism and State Sovereignty in International Law’, Transnational Law and Contemporary Problems, 1993, 3, 293–344.
4. Kristen Walker, ‘An Exploration of Article 2(7) of the United Nations Charter as an Embodiment in International Law’, International Law and Politics, 1994, 26, 173–99.
5. Isabelle R. Gunning, ‘Arrogant Perception, World-Travelling and Multicultural Feminism: The Case of Female Genital Surgeries’, Columbia Human Rights Law Review, 1991, 23, 189–248.
6. Ruth Buchanan and Sundhya Pahuja, ‘Collaboration, Cosmopolitanism and Complicity’, Nordic Journal of International Law, 2002, 71, 297–324.
Part B: Activism and Transformation
7. Hilary Charlesworth, ‘Women as Sherpas: Are Global Summits Useful for Women?’, Feminist Studies, 1996, 22, 3, 537–47.
8. Doris Buss, ‘Racing Populations, Sexing Environments: The Challenges of a Feminist Politics in International Law’. Legal Studies, 2000, 20, 4, 463–84.
9. Dianne Otto, ‘Holding Up Half the Sky But for Whose Benefit? A Critical Analysis of the Fourth World Conference on Women’, Australian Feminist Law Journal, 1996, 6, 7–28.
10. Sari Kouvo, ‘A "Quick and Dirty" Approach to Women’s Emancipation and Human Rights’, Feminist Legal Studies, 2008, 16, 37–46.
11. Julie Mertus, ‘Road Blocks, Blind Spots, Speed Bumps: A Feminist Look at the Post-9/11 Landscape for NGOs’, in Sari Kouvo and Zoe Pearson (eds.), Feminist Perspectives on Contemporary International Law (Hart Publishing, 2011), pp. 97–108.
Part C: From Making Women Matter to Mainstreaming Gender Within the United Nations
12. Hilary Charlesworth, ‘Transforming the United Men’s Club: Feminist Futures for the United Nations’, Transnational Law & Contemporary Problems, 1994, 4, 421–54.
13. Sari Kouvo, ‘The United Nations and Gender Mainstreaming: Limits and Possibilities’, in Doris Buss and Ambreena Manji (eds.), International Law: Modern Feminist Approaches (Hart Publishing, 2005), pp. 237–52.
14. Dianne Otto, ‘The Exile of Inclusion: Reflections on Gender Issues in International Law Over the Last Decade’, Melbourne Journal of International Law, 2009, 10, 11–26.
Volume II: Doing Gender and International Law: Human Rights
Part A: Approaching International Human Rights Law
15. Berta Esperanza Hernandez-Truyol, ‘Human Rights Through a Gendered Lens: Emergence, Evolution, Revolution’, in Kelly D. Askin and Dorean M. Koenig (eds.), Women and International Human Rights Law, Vol. I (Transnational Publishers Inc., 1999).
16. Rebecca Cook, ‘Women’s International Human Rights Law: The Way Forward’, Human Rights Quarterly, 1993, 15, 230–61.
17. Karen Engle, ‘International Human Rights and Feminisms: Where Discourses Keep Meeting’, in Doris Buss and Ambreena Manji (eds.), International Law: Modern Feminist Approaches (Hart Publishing, 2005), pp. 47–66.
Part B: Transforming International Human Rights Law
18. Hilary Charlesworth and Christine Chinkin, ‘The Gender of Jus Cogens’, Human Rights Quarterly, 1995, 15, 63–76.
19. Ratna Kapur, ‘The Tragedy of Victimization Rhetoric: Resurrecting the "Native" Subject in International/Post-Colonial Feminist Legal Politics’, Harvard Human Rights Journal, 2002, 15, 1–37.
20. Elizabeth Sepper, ‘Confronting the "Sacred and Unchangeable": The Obligation to Modify Cultural Patterns under the Women’s Discrimination Treaty’, University of Pennsylvania Journal of International Law, 2008, 30, 585–639.
21. Kirsten Anderson, ‘Violence Against Women: State Responsibilities in International Human Rights Law to Address Harmful "Masculinities"’, Netherlands Quarterly of Human Rights, 2008, 26, 173–97.
22. Fleur van Leeuwen, ‘A Woman’s Right to Decide? The United Nations Human Rights Committee, Human Rights of Women, and Matters of Human Reproduction’, Netherlands Quarterly of Human Rights, 2007, 25, 97–116.
23. Nura Taefi, ‘The Synthesis of Age and Gender: Intersectionality, International Human Rights Law and the Marginalisation of the Girl-Child’, International Journal of Children’s Rights, 2009, 17, 345–76.
Part C: Regional Approaches, and Human Rights in Development
24. Celestine Nyamu, ‘How Should Human Rights and Development Respond to Cultural Legitimization of Gender Hierarchy in Developing Countries’, Harvard International Law Journal, 2000, 41, 381–418.
25. J. Oloka-Onyango and Sylvia Tamale, ‘"The Personal is Political" or Why Women’s Rights are Indeed Human Rights: An African Perspective on International Feminism’, Human Rights Quarterly, 1995, 17, 4, 691–731.
26. Kumaralingam Amirthalingam, ‘Women’s Rights, International Norms, and Domestic Violence: Asian Perspectives’, Human Rights Quarterly, 2005, 27, 683–708.
27. Janet Afary, ‘The Human Rights of Middle Eastern and Muslim Women: A Project for the 21st Century’, Human Rights Quarterly, 2004, 26, 106–25.
28. Berta Esperanza Hernandez-Truyol, ‘Law, Culture, and Equality—Human Rights’ Influence on Domestic Norms: The Case of Women in the Americas’, Florida Journal of International Law, 2000, 13, 33–51.
Volume III: Doing Gender and International Law: Insecurity and Violence
Part A: Women, Peace, and Security
29. Anne Orford, ‘Muscular Humanitarianism: Reading the Narratives of the New Interventionism’, European Journal of International Law, 1999, 10, 4, 679–711.
30. Christine Bell and Catherine O’Rourke. ‘Peace Agreements or Pieces of Paper? The Impact of UNSC Resolution 1325 on Peace Processes and Their Agreements’, International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 2010, 59, 4, 941–80.
31. Karen Engle, ‘"Calling in the Troops": The Uneasy Relationship Among Women’s Rights, Human Rights, and Humanitarian Intervention’, Harvard Human Rights Journal, 2007, 20, 189–226.
Part B: Humanitarian Law
32. Helen Durham and Katie O’Byrne, ‘The Dialogue of Difference: Gender Perspectives on International Humanitarian Law’, International Review of the Red Cross, 2010, 92, 31–52.
33. Sandesh Sivakumaran, ‘Sexual Violence Against Men in Armed Conflict’, European Journal of International Law, 2007, 18, 253–76.
Part C: International Criminal Law
34. Kelly D. Askin, ‘Prosecuting Wartime Rape and Other Gender-Related Crimes Under International Law: Extraordinary Advances, Enduring Obstacles’, Berkeley Journal of International Law, 2003, 21, 248–88.
35. Janet Halley, ‘Rape in Berlin: Reconsidering the Criminalisation of Rape in the International Law of Armed Conflict’, Melbourne Journal of International Law, 2008, 9, 1, 78–124.
36. Valerie Oosterveld, ‘The Definition of "Gender" in the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: A Step Forward or Back for International Criminal Justice?’, Harvard Human Rights Journal, 2005, 18, 55–84.
37. Susan Pritchett, ‘Entrenched Hegemony, Efficient Procedure, or Selected Justice: An Inquiry into Charges for Gender-Based Violence at the International Criminal Court’, Transnational Law & Contemporary Problems, 2008, 17, 265–305.
Part D: Transitional Justice
38. Fionnuala Ni Aolain, ‘Women, Security, and the Patriarchy of Internationalized Transitional Justice’, Human Rights Quarterly, 2009, 31, 4, 1055–85.
39. Vasuki Nesiah, ‘Missionary Zeal for a Secular Mission: Bringing Gender to Transitional Justice and Redemption to Feminism’, in Sari Kouvo and Zoe Pearson (eds.), Feminist Perspectives on Contemporary International Law (Hart Publishing, 2011), pp. 137–57.
40. Brandon Hamber, ‘Masculinity and Transitional Justice: An Exploratory Essay’, International Journal of Transitional Justice, 2007, 1, 375–90.
Volume IV: Mobility, Borders, and Global Markets
Part A: Migrants and Refugees
41. Joan Fitzpatrick and Katrina R. Kelly, ‘Gendered Aspects of Migration: Law and the Female Migrant’, Hastings International and Comparative Law Review, 1998–9, 22, 47–112.
42. Alice Edwards, ‘Transitioning Gender: Feminist Engagement with International Refugee Law and Policy 1950–2010’, Refugee Survey Quarterly, 2010, 29, 21–45.
43. J. Oloka-Onyango, ‘The Plight of the Larger Half: Human Rights, Gender Violence and the Legal Status of Refugee and Internally Displaced Women in Africa’, Denver Journal of International Law and Policy, 1995, 24, 349–94.
Part B: Sex Work and Trafficking
44. Anna Carline and Zoe Pearson, ‘Complexity and Queer Theory Approaches to International Law and Feminist Politics: Perspectives on Trafficking’, Canadian Journal of Women and the Law, 2007, 19, 1, 73–118.
45. Jo Doezema, ‘Now You See Her, Now You Don’t: Sex Workers at the UN Trafficking Protocol Negotiations’, Social and Legal Studies, 2005, 14, 1, 61–89.
46. Jennifer Murray, ‘Who Will Police the Peace-Builders: The Failure to Establish Accountability for the Participation of United Nations Civilian Police in the Trafficking of Women in Post-Conflict Bosnia and Herzegovina’, Columbia Human Rights Law Review, 2003, 34, 475–528.
47. Ulrika Andersson, ‘Trafficking in Human Beings: Vulnerability, Criminal Law and Human Rights’, in Sari Kouvo and Zoe Pearson (eds.), Feminist Perspectives on Contemporary International Law: Between Resistance and Compliance (Hart Publishing, 2011), pp. 177–92.
Part C: Global Markets, Trade, and Development
48. Shelley Wright, ‘Women and the Global Economic Order: A Feminist Perspective’, American University Journal of International Law and Policy, 1994–5, 10, 861–87.
49. Sundhya Pahuja, ‘Trading Spaces: Locating Sites for Challenge within International Trade Law’, Australian Feminist Law Journal, 2000, 14, 38–54.
50. Kate Bedford, ‘Gender and Institutional Strengthening: The World Bank’s Policy Record in Latin America’, Contemporary Politics, 2009, 15, 2, 197–214.
51. Ambreena Manji, ‘Eliminating Poverty? "Financial Inclusion", Access to Land, and Gender Equality in International Development’, Modern Law Review, 2010, 73, 985–1003.
52. Anne Stewart, ‘Who Do We Care About? Reflections on Gender Justice in a Global Market?’, Northern Ireland Legal Quarterly, 2007, 58, 358–74.
Zoe Pearson, Keele University and Sari Kouvo, University of Kent
The editors explain the importance of this collection in bringing together some of the most influential scholarship to date.