1st Edition

Gender and Psychology

Edited By Vivien Burr
    1728 Pages
    by Routledge

    Nearly forty years after the passage of the Sex Discrimination and the Equal Pay Acts in the UK, and after similar legislative and judicial interventions in other jurisdictions around the world, women and men are still – by and large – following traditionally gendered educational and work careers. Everywhere, women, on average, earn less than men. (In Japan, for example, the International Federation of Business and Professional Women calculated that the wage difference between men and women was 29.4 per cent.) Women also remain significantly under-represented in the top jobs – including those fields of employment traditionally dominated by women. So, are women and men basically different kinds of people? Are they ‘programmed’ with different natural skills and abilities, things that we might call ‘masculinity’ and femininity’? And can these differences explain the continuing gender inequalities in our societies, or should we look for alternative explanations? If ‘gender’ is thought of as ‘the social significance of sex’, can the work of psychologists – alongside thinking from related disciplines – make sense of the apparently stubborn differences, divisions, and inequalities that continue to separate men and women in the twenty-first century?

    This new four-volume collection from Routledge’s acclaimed Critical Concepts in Psychology series addresses these and other urgent questions by bringing together the best foundational and cutting-edge scholarship on gender and psychology. And as serious academic and practical thinking continues to develop, the collection also enables users to navigate the rapidly growing, and ever more complex, corpus of literature.

    With a full index, and thoughtful introductions newly written by the editor, Gender and Psychology will be valued by scholars, students, and professionals in the field as a vital and enduring resource.

    Volume I

    Part 1: Sex Differences

    1. H. T. Woolley, ‘Psychological Literature: A Review of the Recent Literature on the Psychology of Sex’, Psychological Bulletin, 1910, 7, 335–42.

    2. E. E. Maccoby and C. N. Jacklin, The Psychology of Sex Differences (Stanford University Press, 1978), pp. 349–74.

    3. L. M. Terman and C. C. Miles, ‘Rationale of the Masculinity-Femininity Test’, Sex and Personality (McGraw-Hill, 1936), pp. 1–10.

    4. A. Constantinople, ‘Masculinity-Femininity: An Exception to a Famous Dictum?’, Psychological Bulletin, 1973, 80, 5, 389–407.

    5. S. Bem, ‘The Measurement of Psychological Androgyny’, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1974, 47, 2, 155–62.

    6. R. K. Unger, ‘Towards a Redefinition of Sex and Gender’, American Psychologist, 1979, 34, 1085–94.

    7. W. Mischel, ‘A Social Learning View of Sex Differences in Behaviour’, in E. E. Maccoby (ed.), The Development of Sex Differences (Stanford University Press, 1966), pp. 56–81.

    8. A. Eagly, ‘The Analysis of Sex Difference in Social Behaviour: A New Theory and a New Method’, Sex Differences in Social Behaviour: A Social Role Interpretation (Lawrence Erlbaum, 1987), pp. 12–34.

    9. V. Burr, ‘Judging Gender from Samples of Adult Handwriting: Accuracy and Use of Cues’, Journal of Social Psychology, 2002, 142, 6, 691–700.

    10. A. Eagly, ‘On Comparing Men and Women’, Feminism and Psychology, 1994, 4, 4, 513–22.

    11. R. T. Hare-Mustin and J. Maracek, ‘Asking the Right Questions: Feminist Psychology and Sex Differences’, Feminism and Psychology, 1994, 4, 4, 531–7.

    12. D. P. Schmitt, A. Realo, M. Voracek, and J. Allik, ‘Why Can’t a Man Be More Like a Woman? Sex Differences in Big Five Personality Traits Across 55 Cultures’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2008, 94, 1, 168–82.

    Part 2: Gender and Biology

    13. S. Freud, ‘Some Psychical Consequences of the Anatomical Distinction Between the Sexes’ [1925], in P. Gay (ed.), The Freud Reader (Vintage Books, 1995), pp. 670–8.

    14. M. Mead, ‘The Standardization of Sex-Temperament’, Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies (1935), pp. 279–89.

    15. S. de Beauvoir, ‘The Data of Biology’ [1949], The Second Sex (Picador, 1988), pp. 35–69.

    16. A. Oakley, ‘Genes and Gender’ [1981], in Oakley (ed.), The Ann Oakley Reader (Polity Press, 2005), pp. 13–20.

    17. S. A. Shields, ‘Functionalism, Darwinism and the Psychology of Women’, American Psychologist, 1975, 30, 739–54.

    18. E. O. Wilson, ‘Sex’, On Human Nature (Harvard University Press, 1978), pp. 123–48.

    19. A. Fausto-Sterling, ‘Of Genes and Gender’, Myths of Gender: Biological Theories About Women and Men, 2nd edn. (Basic Books, 1985), pp. 61–89.

    20. D. Haraway, ‘The Past is the Contested Zone: Human Nature and Theories of Production and Reproduction in Primate Behaviour Studies’, Simians, Cyborgs, and Women: The Reinvention of Nature (Free Association Books, 1991), pp. 21–42.

    21. D. Cameron, ‘Sex/Gender, Language and the New Biologism’, Applied Linguistics, 2009, 31, 2, 173–92.

    Volume II

    Part 3: Gender Identity Development and Family

    22. N. Chodorow, ‘The Sexual Sociology of Adult Life’ and ‘The Psychodynamics of the Family’, The Reproduction of Mothering: Psychoanalysis and the Sociology of Gender (University of California Press, 1978), pp. 173–90, 205–9.

    23. C. Gilligan, ‘In a Different Voice: Women’s Conceptions of Self and Morality’ [1977], Harvard Educational Review, 1998, 47, 4, 481–517.

    24. J. A. Will, P. A. Self, and N. Datan, ‘Maternal Behaviour and Perceived Sex of Infant’, American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 1976, 46, 1, 135–9.

    25. B. Davies, ‘Becoming Male or Female’ [1989], in S. Jackson and S. Scott (eds.), Gender: A Sociological Reader (Routledge, 2002), pp. 281–90.

    26. H. Garfinkel, ‘Passing and the Managed Achievement of Sex Status in an "Intersexed" Person, Part 1’, Studies in Ethnomethodology (Prentice-Hall Inc., 1967), pp. 116–33.

    27. C. Delphy and D. Leonard, ‘The Variety of Work Done by Wives’ [1992], The Polity Reader in Gender Studies (Polity Press, 1994), pp. 159–65.

    28. N. Edley and M. Wetherell, ‘Imagined Futures: Young Men’s Talk About Fatherhood and Domestic Life’, British Journal of Social Psychology, 1999, 8, 2, 181–94.

    29. D. Langdridge, ‘Gay Fathers, Gay Citizenship: On the Power of Reproductive Futurism and Assimilation’, Citizenship Studies, 2013, 17, 6–7, 728–41.

    30. K. S. Lee, ‘Gender, Care Work and the Complexity of Family Membership in Japan’, Gender & Society, 2010, 24, 5, 647–71.

    31. F. Boonzaier, ‘"If the Man Says You Must Sit, Then You Must Sit": The Relational Construction of Woman Abuse: Gender, Subjectivity and Violence’, Feminism & Psychology, 2008, 18, 2, 183–206.

    Part 4: Education and Work

    4.1 Education

    32. G. Lobban, ‘Sex-roles in Reading Schemes’, Educational Review, 1975, 27, 202–10.

    33. Y. Foroutan, ‘Gender Representation in School Textbooks in Iran: The Place of Languages’, Current Sociology, 2012, 60, 6, 771–87.

    34. J. Raynor, ‘Schooling Girls: An Intergenerational Study of Women’s Burdens in Rural Bangladesh’, in S. Fennell and M. Arnot (eds.), Gender Education and Equality in a Global Context: Conceptual Frameworks and Policy Perspectives (Routledge, 2008), pp. 117–30.

    35. K. Clarricoates, ‘Classroom Interaction’, in J. Whyld (ed.), Sexism in the Secondary Curriculum (Harper-Row, 1983), pp. 46–61.

    36. V. Walkerdine, ‘Sex, Power and Pedagogy’ [1981], in Arnot and Weiner (eds.), Gender and the Politics of Schooling (Hutchinson, 1987), pp. 166–74.

    37. P. Salmon, ‘School Boys’, Life at School (Constable and Company, 1998), pp. 139–58.

    38. M. Arnot, ‘Gender Relations and Schooling in the New Century: Conflicts and Challenges’, Reproducing Gender: Essays on Educational Theory and Feminist Politics (Routledge-Falmer, 2002), pp. 256–66.

    39. C. Leathwood, ‘Gender Equity in Post-secondary Education’, in C. Skelton, B. Francis, and L. Smulyan (eds.), The Sage Handbook of Gender and Education (Sage, 2006), pp. 166–78.

    4.2 Work

    40. R. M. Kanter, ‘The Players and the Stage’, ‘Structures and Processes’, and ‘Understanding and Action’, Men and Women of the Corporation (Basic Books, 1977), pp. 25–8, 158–61, 260–4.

    41. C. Cockburn, In the Way of Women: Men’s Resistance to Sex Equality in Organizations (Macmillan, 1991), pp. 3–6, 86–104.

    42. J. Acker, ‘Hierarchies, Jobs, Bodies: A Theory of Gendered Organizations’, Gender & Society, 1990, 4, 2, 139–58.

    43. J. Hearn and W. Parkin, ‘Organisation Sexuality: A Paradox’, Sex at Work (St Martin’s Press, 1987), pp. 131–50.

    44. P. Dick, ‘The Politics of Experience: A Discursive Psychology Approach to Understanding Different Accounts of Workplace Sexism’, Human Relations, 2013, 66, 5, 645–69.

    Volume III

    Part 5: Sexualities

    45. R. von Krafft-Ebing, Psychopathia Sexualis, 13th edn. (Rebman Company, 1906), pp. 13–24.

    46. A. C. Kinsey, W. B. Pomeroy, and C. E Martin, ‘Sexuality of the Human Male’ [1948], in M. Brake (ed.), Human Sexual Relations: Towards a Redefinition of Sexual Politics (Pantheon Books, 1982), pp. 145–7.

    47. A. C. Kinsey, W. B. Pomeroy, C. E Martin, and P. H. Gebhard, ‘Social Significance of Homosexuality’, Sexual Behavior of the Human Female (Indiana University Press, 1953), pp. 476–87.

    48. M. McIntosh, ‘The Homosexual Role’, Social Problems, 1968, 16, 2, 182–92.

    49. M. Foucault, ‘Part Three: Scientia Sexualis’, The History of Sexuality, Vol. I (Penguin, 1978), pp. 51–73.

    50. J. Weeks, ‘A Never-ceasing Duel? "Sex" in Relation to "Society"’, Sexuality and its Discontents (Routledge, 1985), pp. 96–123.

    51. J. Butler, ‘Performative Subversions’ [1990], in S. Jackson and S. Scott (eds.), Gender: A Sociological Reader (Routledge, 2002), pp. 48–50.

    52. K. Plummer, ‘Making Sexual Stories’, Telling Sexual Stories (Routledge, 1995), pp. 32–45.

    53. A. Rich, ‘Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence’, Signs, 1980, 5, 4, 631–60.

    54. C. Kitzinger, ‘The Regulation of Lesbian Identities’, in J. Shotter and K. J. Gergen (eds.), Texts of Identity (Sage, 1989), pp. 82–98.

    55. G. Rubin, ‘Thinking Sex: Notes for a Radical Theory of the Politics of Sexuality’, in C. S. Vance (ed.), Pleasure and Danger: Exploring Female Sexuality (Routledge and Keegan Paul, 1992), pp. 267–319.

    56. M. Barker and D. Langdridge, ‘Bisexuality: Working with a Silenced Sexuality’, Feminism and Psychology, 2008, 18, 3, 389–94.

    Part 6: Men and Masculinities

    57. I. Craib, ‘Masculinity and Male Dominance’, Sociological Review, 1987, 35, 4, 721–43.

    58. R. Connell, ‘The Big Picture: Masculinities in Recent World History’, Theory and Society, 1993, 22, 5, 597–623.

    59. A. Easthope, ‘The Male Body’, What a Man’s Gotta Do (Paladin, 1986), pp. 50–4.

    60. J. Hearn, ‘Male Bodies, Masculine Bodies, Men’s Bodies: The Need for a Concept of Gex’, in B. S. Turner (ed.), Routledge Handbook of Body Studies (Routledge, 2012), pp. 307–20.

    61. R. Mora, ‘"Do it For All Your Pubic Hairs!": Latino Boys, Masculinity, and Puberty’, Gender and Society, 2012, 26, 3, 433–60.

    62. A. Fausto-Sterling, ‘How to Build a Man’, in R. N. Lancaster and M. di Leonardo (eds.), The Gender/Sexuality Reader (Routledge, 1997), pp. 244–8.

    63. T. Jefferson, ‘Crime’, in P. Essed, D. T. Goldberg, and A. Kobayashi (eds.), A Companion to Gender Studies (Blackwell, 2005), pp. 212–38.

    64. J. Stoltenberg, ‘Sexual Objectification and Male Supremacy’ [1989], Refusing to Be a Man: Essays on Sex and Justice (UCL Press, 2000), pp. 32–47.

    65. M. S. Kimmel, ‘Pornography and Male Sexuality’, The Gender of Desire: Essays on Male Sexuality (State University of New York Press, 2005), pp. 65–95.

    66. M. S Kimmel, ‘Masculinity as Homophobia’, in M. M. Gergen and S. N. Davis (eds.), Toward a New Psychology of Gender (Routledge, 1997), pp. 223–42.

    67. S. F. Kiesling, ‘Homosocial Desire in Men’s Talk: Balancing and Re-creating Cultural Discourses of Masculinity’, Language in Society, 2005, 34, 695–726.

    68. G. Moussawi, ‘Not "Straight", But Still A "Man": Negotiating Non-heterosexual Masculinities in Beirut’, in S. Seidman, N. Fischer, and C. Meeks (eds.), Introducing the New Sexuality Studies, 2nd edn. (Routledge, 2011), pp. 159–65.

    Volume IV

    Part 7: Language and Representations

    7.1 Language

    69. R. Lakoff, ‘Language and Woman’s Place’, Language in Society, 1973, 2, 1, 45–51, 57–62.

    70. W. M. O’Barr and B. K. Atkins, ‘"Women’s Language" or "Powerless Language"?’, in Sally McConnell-Ginet et al. (eds.), Women and Language in Literature and Society (Praeger, 1980), pp. 93–110.

    71. D. Spender, ‘Language and Reality: Who Made the World?’, Man Made Language (Pandora Press, 1980), pp. 138–51.

    72. C. West and D. H. Zimmerman, ‘Small Insults: A Study of Interruptions in Conversations Between Unacquainted Persons’, in B. Thorne, C. Kramarae, and N. Henley (eds.), Language, Gender and Society (Newbury House, 1983), pp. 102–17.

    73. D. Cameron, ‘"Is There Any Ketchup, Vera?": Gender, Power and Pragmatics’, Discourse and Society, 1998, 9, 4, 437–55.

    74. H. Abe, ‘Lesbian Bar Talk in Shinjuku, Tokyo’ [2004], in J. Coates and P. Pichler (eds.), Language and Gender: A Reader, 2nd edn. (Blackwell, 2011), pp. 375–83.

    75. A. M. Manago, ‘Negotiating a Sexy Masculinity on Social Networking Sites’, Feminism and Psychology, 2013, 23, 4, 478–97.

    7.2 Representations

    76. J. Berger, Ways of Seeing (Penguin, 1972), pp. 45–7, 63–4.

    77. A. Dworkin, ‘Pornography’ [1979], Pornography: Men Possessing Women (E. P. Dutton, 1981), pp. 199–202.

    78. R. Fung, ‘Looking for My Penis: The Eroticised Asian in Gay Video Porn’, in Bad Object Choices: How Do I Look? Queer Film and Video (Bay Press, 1991), pp. 145–60.

    79. L. Mulvey, ‘Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema’, Screen, 1975, 16, 3, 6–18.

    80. A. McRobbie, ‘Jackie: An Ideology of Adolescent Femininity’, in B. Waites, T. Bennett, and G. Martin (eds.), Popular Culture: Past and Present (Croom Helm Ltd, 1982), pp. 270–83.

    81. V. Walkerdine, ‘Some Day My Prince Will Come: Young Girls and the Preparation for Adolescent Sexuality’, Schoolgirl Fictions (Verso, 1990), pp. 87–106.

    82. R. Gill, ‘Empowerment/Sexism: Figuring Female Sexual Agency in Contemporary Advertising’, Feminism and Psychology, 2008, 18, 1, 35–60.

    Part 8: Feminist Critiques of Psychology

    83. L. S. Hollingworth, ‘Social Devices for Impelling Women to Bear Children’, American Journal of Sociology, 1916, 22, 19–29.

    84. N. Weisstein, ‘Psychology Constructs the Female: Or, the Fantasy Life of the Male Psychologist (With Some Attention to the Fantasies of His Friends, the Male Biologist and the Male Anthropologist)’ [1968], Feminism and Psychology, 1993, 3, 2, 195–210.

    85. C. W. Sherif, ‘Bias in Psychology’, in S. Harding (ed.), Feminism and Methodology (Indiana University Press, 1987), pp. 37–56.

    86. F. Cherry, ‘Kitty Genovese and Culturally Embedded Theorizing’, The Stubborn Particulars of Social Psychology: Essays on the Research Process (Routledge, 1995), pp. 16–29.

    87. C. Squire, ‘A Balanced Subject’, Significant Difference: Feminism in Psychology (Routledge, 1989), pp. 25–42.

    88. S. Harding, ‘What is Feminist Epistemology?’, Whose Science? Whose Knowledge? Thinking from Women’s Lives (Open University Press, 1991), pp. 105–37.

    89. E. Burman, ‘Differing with Deconstruction’, in I. Parker and J. Shotter (eds.), Deconstructing Social Psychology (Routledge, 1990), pp. 208–20.

    90. G. Greer, ‘The Psychological Sell’, The Female Eunuch [1970] (HarperCollins, 2006), pp. 103–12.

    91. I. Lee and M. Crawford, ‘Lesbians and Bisexual Women in the Eyes of Scientific Psychology’, Feminism and Psychology, 2007, 17, 1, 109–27.

    92. J. M. Ussher, ‘Are We Medicalizing Women’s Misery? A Critical Review of Women’s Higher Rates of Reported Depression’, Feminism and Psychology, 2010, 20, 1, 9–35.

    93. G. A. Hornstein, ‘Whose Account Matters? A Challenge to Feminist Psychologists’, Feminism and Psychology, 2013, 23, 1, 29–40.