Gender and the Environment
Campaigns to redress gender inequities and injustices have resulted in significant achievements towards equality, especially for well-educated, career-orientated, white women in the West. However, such campaigns have primarily been conducted in the male-dominated arenas of public politics, paid work, and education, and the ‘successes’ of women’s equality are usually calculated by the masculinist values of politics and the workplace. These, the learned editor of this new Routledge Major Works collection avers, are the very values—predicated on continuous economic and material growth, fuelled by consumption and competition, and combative politics—which are destroying the world’s environment at a dizzying rate. However, since the late 1960s, a growing environmental awareness, combined with the third-wave feminist movement in the West, has challenged this worldview, particularly the liberal notion of ‘equality’ based on women achieving masculinist economic and social norms. Uneasy with the horror of a world in which everyone striving for ‘equality’ would end up consuming at the rate of an average Western male, the newly emerging ecological feminism of the 1970s argued that what constitutes ‘success’ needs to be reimagined, in other—arguably feminist/feminine—ways. This way of thinking prompted a reconceptualization of the relationship between environment and gender, with distinctive debates emerging variously in North America, Australia, New Zealand, the UK, Scandinavia, and France.
The work of feminist critics in the Global South have both developed and challenged these debates, and have drawn to public attention the most egregious examples of how environmental impacts consistently, and structurally, exacerbate the inequalities that women and girls endure, especially in poorer parts of the world. Literature developing the links between environment, development, and gender has broadened the earlier Western eco-feminism discourse, and has also influenced—albeit selectively—various development strategies by global institutions (such as the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank, and various UN agencies) and NGOs (notably, for example, Oxfam).
Questions about how we want to live in relation to our environment have arguably never been more urgent and this new title from Routledge’s Critical Concepts in the Environment series answers the need for an authoritative reference work to make sense of the growing—and ever more complex—corpus of scholarly and campaigning literature on gender and the environment, and the continuing explosion in research output.
Drawing on a wide variety of sources, Susan Buckingham has brought together in four volumes canonical and cutting-edge work to produce an indispensable ‘mini library’. The collection is fully indexed and includes comprehensive introductions, newly written by the editor, which place the collected materials in their historical and intellectual context. It is an essential reference collection and is certain to be valued by scholars and students—as well as by serious policy-makers and practitioners—as a vital one-stop research and pedagogic resource.
Part 1: Introduction
1. Rachel Carson, Silent Spring (Penguin, 1962), pp. 117–21.
2. Donna Haraway, ‘A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century’, Simians, Cyborgs, and Women: The Reinvention of Nature (Free Association Books, 1991), pp. 149–82.
3. Elinor Ostrom, Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action (Cambridge University Press, 1990), pp. 214–16.
4. Sandra Steingraber, Living Downstream: An Ecologist’s Personal Investigation of Cancer and the Environment, 2nd edn. (Da Capo Press, 2010), pp. 123–41.
5. Avril Maddrell, ‘An Interview With Anne Buttimer: An Autobiographical Window on Geographical Thought and Practice 1965–2005’, Gender, Place and Culture, 2009, 16, 6, 741–65.
6. Kathleen Jamie, ‘A Lone Enraptured Male’, London Review of Books, 6 Mar. 2008, 25–7.
7. Kathleen Jamie, Sightlines (Sort Of Books, 2012), pp. 21–41.
8. Women and Geography Study Group, ‘Feminism and Methods of Teaching and Research in Geography’, Geography and Gender: An Introduction to Feminist Geography (Hutchinson, 1984), pp. 123–43.
Part 2: The Urban Environment
9. Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities  (Pelican, 1965), pp. 60–5.
10. Clara Greed, ‘Planning for Women’, Women & Planning: Creating Gendered Realities (Routledge, 1994), pp. 173–93.
11. Greater London Council, ‘Preface’, Changing Places: Positive Action on Women and Planning (GLC, 1985), pp. 1–3.
12. Franziska Ullmann, ‘Choreography of Life: Two Pilot Projects of Social Housing in Vienna’, in Ines Sanchez de Madariaga and Marion Roberts (eds.), Fair Shared Cities: The Impact of Gender Planning in Europe (Ashgate, 2013), pp. 297–324.
13. Liisa Horelli, Christine Booth, and Rose Gilroy, The EuroFem Toolkit for Mobilizing Women into Local and Regional Development (Helsinki University for Technology, 2000), pp. 13–14.
14. Dolores Hayden, ‘What Would a Non-sexist City Be Like? Speculations on Housing, Urban Design, and Human Work’, Signs, 1980, 5, 3, 170–87.
15. Marion Roberts, Living in a Man Made World: Gender Assumptions in Modern Housing Design (Routledge, 1991), pp. 30–42, 79–104.
16. Liz Bondi, 1991 ‘Gender Divisions and Gentrification: A Critique’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 1991, 16, 2, 190–98.
17. Octavia Hill, Homes of the Urban Poor (Macmillan, 1875) (extract).
18. Carrie Mott and Susan M. Roberts, ‘Not Everyone Has (the) Balls: Urban Exploration and the Persistence of Masculinist Geography’, Antipode, 2013, 46, 1, 229–45.
Part 3: Theorizing Gender–Environment Relations: Eco-feminism, Ecological Feminisms and Feminist Political Ecology
19. Carolyn Merchant, ‘The Death of Nature: Women and Ecology in the Scientific Revolution’, Earthcare: Women and the Environment (Routledge, 1996), pp. 75–90.
20. Rebecca Solnit, ‘Tangled Banks and Clear-Cut Examples’, Storming the Gates of Paradise (University of California Press, 2007), pp. 275–81.
21. Andrea Nightingale, ‘The Nature of Gender: Work, Gender, and Environment’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 2006, 24, 165–85.
22. Irene Diamond and Gloria Feman Orenstein, Reweaving the World: The Emergence of Ecofeminism (Sierra Club Books, 1990), pp. ix–xv.
23. Janet Biehl, ‘Introduction’, Finding Our Way: Rethinking Ecofeminist Politics (Black Rose Books, 1991), pp. 1–7.
24. Melissa Leach, ‘Earth Mother Myths and Other Ecofeminist Fables: How a Strategic Notion Rose and Fell’, Development and Change, 2007, 38, 1, 67–85.
25. Dianne Rocheleau, Barbara Thomas-Slayter, and Esther Wangari, ‘Gender and Environment: A Feminist Political Ecology Perspective’, Feminist Political Ecology: Global Issues and Local Experiences (Routledge, 1996), pp. 3–23.
26. Wendy Harcourt, ‘What is Body Politics’, Body Politics in Development: Critical Debates in Gender and Development (Zed Books, 2009), pp. 12–26.
27. Dianne Rocheleau, ‘Political Landscapes and Ecologies of Zambrana-Chacuey: The Legacy of Mama Tingo’, in Wendy Harcourt and Arturo Escobar (eds.), Women and the Politics of Place (Kumarian Press, 2005), pp. 72–85.
28. Rebecca Elmhirst, ‘Introducing New Feminist Political Ecologies’, Geoforum, 2011, 42, 129–32.
29. Bina Agarwal, ‘The Gender and Environment Debate: Lessons from India’, Feminist Studies, 1992, 18, 1, 119–58.
30. Vandana Shiva, ‘Women’s Indigenous Knowledge and Biodiversity Conservation’, in Maria Mies and Vandana Shiva, Ecofeminism (Zed Books, 1993), pp. 164–73.
31. Maria Mies and Vandana Shiva, ‘Introduction’, Ecofeminism (Zed Books, 1993), pp. 13–21.
32. Mary Mellor, ‘Women and Nature: The Challenge of Ecofeminism’, Breaking the Boundaries: Towards a Feminist Green Socialism (Virago, 1992), pp. 50–81.
33. Val Plumwood, Feminism and the Mastery of Nature (Routledge, 1993), pp. 19–40.
34. Ariel Salleh, ‘Triangulating Political Ecology’, Eco-Sufficiency & Global Justice: Women Write Political Ecology (Pluto Press, 2009), pp. 3–14.
35. Sherilyn MacGregor, ‘From Care to Citizenship: Calling Ecofeminism Back to Politics’, Ethics and the Environment, 2004, 9, 1, 56–84.
36. Niamh Moore, ‘The Rise and Rise of Ecofeminism as a Development Fable. A Response to Melissa Leach’s "Earth Mothers and Other Ecofeminist Fables: How a Strategic Notion Rose and Fell"’, Development and Change, 2008, 39, 3, 461–75.
37. Dolores Hayden, ‘Audobonnet’, Nymph, Dun and Spinner (David Robert Books, 2010), pp. 74–5.
Part 4: Women’s Work
38. Cecile Jackson, ‘Gender Analysis of Land: Beyond Land Rights for Women’, Journal of Agrarian Change, 2003, 3, 4, 453–80.
39. Bina Agarwal, ‘Women’s Land Rights and the Trap of Neo-Conservatism: A Response to Jackson’, Journal of Agrarian Change, 2003, 3, 4, 571–85.
40. Cynthia Hamilton, ‘Women, Home, and Community: The Struggle in an Urban Environment’, in Irene Diamond and Gloria Feman Orenstein, Reweaving the World: The Emergence of Ecofeminism (Sierra Club Books, 1990), pp. 215–22.
41. Iris Marion Young, Intersecting Voices: Dilemmas of Gender, Political Philosophy, and Policy (Princeton University Press, 1997), pp. 12–37.
42. Virginie Le Masson, Exploring Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation from a Gender Perspective: Insights from Ladakh, India (Brunel University PhD thesis, 2013), pp. 158–68.
43. Marilyn Waring, ‘The Statistical Conspiracy: Sources for the National Accounts’ , Counting for Nothing: What Men Value and What Women are Worth (University of Toronto Press, 1993), pp. 93–117.
44. Selma James, ‘The Global Kitchen’  and ‘Sixth Global Women’s Strike Call’ , Sex, Race and Class: The Perspective of Winning—A Selection of Writings 1952–2011 (PM Press, 2012), pp. 161–73, 236–8.
45. Farhana Sultana, ‘Suffering for Water, Suffering from Water: Emotional Geographies of Resource Access, Control and Conflict’, Geoforum, 2011, 42, 2, 163–72.
46. Lucy Siegle, ‘Fashion Crimes and Fashion Victims’, To Die For: Is Fashion Wearing Out the World? (Fourth Estate, 2011), pp. 39–64.
47. Kathleen Jamie, ‘The Galilean Moons’, The Overhaul (Picador, 2012), pp. 34–5.
Part 5: Environmental Justice
48. Giovanna di Chiro, ‘Living Environmentalisms: Coalition Politics, Social Reproduction, and Environmental Justice’, Environmental Politics, 2008, 17, 2, 276–98.
49. Rakibe Kulcur, Environmental Injustice? An Analysis of Gender in Environmental Non-governmental Organisations (ENGOS) in the United Kingdom and Turkey (Brunel University PhD thesis, 2013), pp. 294–320.
50. Sandra Steingraber, Living Downstream. An Ecologist’s Personal Investigation of Cancer and the Environment, 2nd edn. (Da Capo Press, 2010), pp. 71–87.
51. Elaine Enarson, ‘Women and Girls Last? Averting the Second Post-Katrina Disaster’ (from the Social Science Research Council forum on ‘Understanding Katrina’, 11 June 2006).
52. Maureen Fordham, ‘Making Women Visible in Disasters: Problematising the Private Domain’, Disasters, 1998, 22, 2, 126–43.
53. Sandra Wachholz, ‘At Risk: Climate Change and its Bearing on Vulnerability to Male Violence’, in Piers Bierne and Nigel South (eds.), Issues in Green Criminology: Confronting Harms Against Environments, Humanity and Other Animals (Routledge, 2007), pp. 161–85.
54. Ana Isla, ‘Who Pays for the Kyoto Protocol?’, in Ariel Salleh (ed.), Eco-Sufficiency & Global Justice: Women Write Political Ecology (Pluto Press, 2009), pp. 199–217.
55. Elinor Ostrom, ‘Reflections on the Commons’, Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action (Cambridge University Press, 1990), pp. 1–28.
56. Lois Gibbs, Love Canal: The Story Continues (New Society Publishers, 1998), pp. 19–61.
57. Hilda Kurtz, ‘Gender and Environment Justice in Louisiana: Blurring the Boundaries of Public and Private Spheres’, Gender, Place and Culture, 2007, 14, 4, 409–26.
58. Judy Sze, ‘Gender, Asthma Politics, and Urban Environmental Justice Activism’, in Rachel Stein (ed.), New Perspectives on Environmental Justice: Gender, Sexuality, and Activism (Rutgers University Press, 2004), pp. 177–90.
59. Matthew Gandy, 'Between Borinquen and the Barrio', in Concrete and Clay: Reworking Nature in New York City (MIT Press, 2002), pp. 156–86.
60. Sarah Maguire, ‘Cotton Boll’, The Pomegranates of Kandahar (Chatto and Windus, 2007), p. 12.
Part 6: Campaigning
61. Rebecca Solnit, ‘Other Daughters, Other American Revolutions’, Storming the Gates of Paradise (University of California Press, 2007), pp. 297–303.
62. Linda Lear, ‘Afterword’, in Rachel Carson, Silent Spring (Penguin Classic, 1999), pp. 258–64.
63. Rachel Carson, Silent Spring (Penguin, 1962), pp. 69–77.
64. Arundhati Roy, ‘The Ladies Have Feelings, So … Shall We Leave it to the Experts?’, The Algebra of Infinite Justice (Penguin India, 2001), pp. 187–215.
65. Barbara Harford and Sarah Hopkins (eds.), 'What is Greenham Common'? in Greenham Common: Women at the Wire (The Women’s Press, 1984), pp. 7–26.
66. Nazra Fidh, Egypt. Keeping Women Out. Sexual Violence Against Women in the Public Sphere (FIDH Violence Against Women Protestors, 2013), pp. 10–18.
67. Lois Gibbs, Love Canal: The Story Continues (New Society Publishers, 1998), pp. 197–202.
68. Wangari Maathi, The Green Belt Movement: Sharing the Approach and the Experience  (Lantern Books, 2006), pp. 6–32.
69. Masoumeh Ebtekhar, ‘Peace and Sustainability Depend on the Spiritual and the Feminine’, in Kathleen Dean Moore and Michael P. Nelson, Moral Ground, Ethical Action for a Planet in Peril (Trinity University Press, 2010), pp. 178–82.
70. Julia Scofield Russell, ‘The Evolution of an Ecofeminist’, in Irene Diamond and Gloria Feman Orenstein (eds.), Reweaving the World: The Emergence of Ecofeminism (Sierra Club Books, 1990), pp. 223–30.
71. Angela McRobbie, The Aftermath of Feminism: Gender, Culture and Social Change (Sage, 2009), pp. 150–70.
72. Irene Dankleman, ‘Women Organising for a Healthy Climate’, in Dankleman (ed.), Gender and Climate Change: An Introduction (Earthscan, 2010), pp. 223–39.
73. Maria-Pilar Garcia Guadilla, ‘Ecologia: Women, Environment and Politics in Venezuela’, in Sarah A. Radcliffe and Sallie Westwood (eds.), ‘Viva’ Women and Popular Protest in Latin America (Routledge, 1993), pp. 65–87.
74. Alice Walker, ‘Torture’, Horses Make a Landscape Look More Beautiful (The Women’s Press, 1985), p. 63.
Part 7: Decision-Making
75. Candice Stevens, ‘Are Women the Key to Sustainable Development?’, Sustainable Development Insights (Boston University, Apr. 2010).
76. Karen Morrow, ‘Climate Change, Major Groups and the Importance of a Seat at the Table: Women and the UNFCC Negotiations’, in Jereja Penca and Correa de Andrade (eds.), The Dominance of Climate Change in Environmental Law: Taking Stock for Rio +20 (European University Institute, 2012), pp. 26–36.
77. WEDO, Celebrating Momentum and Milestones: A WEDO History of Women Organising for a Healthy and Peaceful Planet (WEDO, 2012).
78. Christine Lagarde, ‘A New Multilateralism for the 21st Century’ (Richard Dimbleby Lecture, 2014).
79. Susan Buckingham, ‘Call in the Women’, Nature, 25 Nov. 2010, 468, 502.
80. Christina Ergas and Richard York, ‘Women’s Status and Carbon Dioxide Emissions: A Quantitative Cross-national Analysis’, Social Science Research, 2012, 41, 965–76.
81. United Nations, ‘Global Action for Women Towards Sustainable and Equitable Development’, Earth Summit ’92: The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development—Rio de Janeiro 1992 (The Regency Press, 1992), pp. 191–3.
82. Peggy Antrobus, ‘Critiquing the MDGs from a Caribbean Perspective’, in Caroline Sweetman (ed.), Gender and the Millennium Development Goals (Oxfam, 2005), pp. 94–104.
83. Women’s Major Group, ‘We Will Not Be Mainstreamed into a Polluted Stream: Feminist Visions of Structural Transformations for Achieving Women’s Human Rights and Gender Equality in the 2015 Development Agenda’ (Bonn: Development Alternatives with Women for a New Era and Women in Europe for a Common Future, 2013).
84. Alice Walker, ‘Songless’, Horses Make a Landscape Look More Beautiful (The Women’s Press, 1985), pp. 27–9.
Part 8: Climate Change
85. Ulricke Rohr, ‘A View from the Side? Gendering the Climate Change Negotiations’, Women Gender and Research, 2009, 3–4, 52–63.
86. Annica Carlsson-Kanyama, Isabel Ripa Julia, and Ulricke Rohr, ‘Unequal Representation of Women and Men in Energy Company Boards and Management Groups: Are There Implications for Mitigation?’, Energy Policy, 2010, 38, 4737–40.
87. Susan Buckingham, Dory Reeves, and Anna Batchelor, ‘Wasting Women: The Environmental Justice of Including Women in Municipal Waste Management’, Local Environment, 2005, 10, 4, 427–44.
88. Martin Hultman, 2013 ‘The Making of an Environmental Hero: A History of Ecomodern Masculinity, Fuel Cells and Arnold Schwarzenegger’, Environmental Humanities, 2013, 2, 83–103.
89. Seema Arora-Jonsson, ‘Virtue and Vulnerability: Discourses on Women, Gender and Climate Change’, Global Environmental Change, 2011, 21, 744–51.
90. Bernadette Resurreccion, ‘Persistent Women and Environmental Linkages in Climate Change and Sustainable Development Agendas’, Women’s Studies International Forum, 2013, 40, 33–43.
91. R. Raty and Annica Carlsson-Kanyama, ‘Energy Consumption by Gender in Some European Countries’, Energy Policy, 2010, 38, 646–9.
92. Ulricke Rohr, Meike Spitzner, Elisabeth Stiefel, and Uta Winterfeld, Gender Justice as the Basis for Sustainable Climate Policies (German Forum for the Environment and Development, 2008), pp 4–23.
93. Patricia Figueiredo and Patricia E. Perkins, ‘Women and Water Management in Times of Climate Change: Participatory and Inclusive Processes’, Journal of Cleaner Production, 2013, 60, 188–94.
94. Delia Villagrasa, 2002 ‘Kyoto Protocol Negotiations: Reflections on the Role of Women’, Gender and Development, 2002, 10, 2, 40–4.
95. Geraldine Terry, ‘No Climate Justice Without Gender Justice: An Overview of the Issues’, Gender and Development, 2009, 17, 1, 5–18.
96. WEDO, Open Letter to United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki-moon (9 Mar. 2010).
97. Sherilyn MacGregor, ‘Gender and Climate Change: From Impacts to Discourses’, Journal of the Indian Ocean Region, 2010, 6, 2, 223–38.
98. Joni Seager, ‘Death by Degrees: Taking a Feminist Hard Look at the 2o Climate Policy’, Women, Gender and Research, 2009, 3–4, 11–21.
99. Women’s Manifesto on Climate Change (Women’s Environmental Network/National Federation of Women’s Institutes, London, 2007).
100. Ruth Bond and Emily Cleevely, ‘National Federation of Women’s Institutes: Women Organising for a Healthy Climate’, in Irene Dankleman (ed.), Gender and Climate Change: An Introduction (Earthscan, 2010), pp. 244–6.