Stimulated anew in the 1990s by the slaughter and the so-called ‘ethnic cleansing’ in the former Yugoslavia, and by the horrors of Rwanda, research about and around genocide flourishes as never before. Genocide studies has now accrued a large, sophisticated, and growing, body of scholarly literature. This growth looks set to continue: historians and social scientists are increasingly casting their analytical nets further into the past to investigate whether group destruction and population expulsions have been constitutive of imperial and state expansion over millennia. And, moreover, events such as the Sudanese government’s genocidal counter-insurgency in Darfur suggest that, like war, genocide is a pervasive feature of human society that is here to stay.
Addressing the need for an authoritative and comprehensive reference work to enable users to make sense of—and to navigate around—the ever more complex research corpus, Genocide is a new title in Routledge’s Critical Concepts in Historical Studies series. Edited by A. Dirk Moses of the University of Sydney, it is a six-volume collection of foundational and the very best cutting-edge scholarship.
Genocide is at once a legal, historical, and sociological concept; it is subject to considerable definitional dispute. Volume I (‘The Discipline of Genocide Studies’) brings together the most important and influential thinking on its contested definition (what, for instance, is the relationship of genocide to mass murder and war crimes?). It also gathers work on the various attempts to explain the occurrence of genocide.
The collection is characterized by its broad temporal and geographical coverage; Volumes II (‘Genocide Before Modernity’) and III (‘Colonial and Imperial Genocides’) collect the key research on genocidal phenomena across history and in all parts of the globe. The scholarship gathered here includes work on the Roman Empire, the Spanish conquest of the Americas, and the campaigns against its indigenous peoples by settler colonies in the New World.
Volumes IV–VI of the collection focus on genocide in the twentieth century and beyond. Volume IV is devoted to the Holocaust, and to the Nazi extermination policies more generally, and to Stalin’s genocidal policies in the Soviet Union. Volume V (‘Post-Colonial and -Imperial Genocide’) gathers key research on often overlooked—and sometimes wilfully ignored—episodes. Topics covered here include the partition of India; Nigeria, 1967–70; and the ongoing events in Darfur.
The scholarship assembled in the final volume (‘Humanitarian Intervention, the Prosecution of Genocide, Trauma, and Recovery’) brings together vital research on anti-genocide international law since 1948. It also focuses on the work of international criminal tribunals. Finally, Volume VI also explores the emergence of the controversial ‘duty to protect’ doctrine.
Genocide is supplemented with a full index and other scholarly apparatus. It also includes a comprehensive introduction, newly written by the editor, which places the collected material in its historical and intellectual context. The collection is a landmark reference work and is destined to be valued by scholars and students as a vital one-stop research and pedagogic resource.
Table of Contents
Volume I: THE DISCIPLINE OF GENOCIDE STUDIES
Part 1: Conceptual Origins and the United Nations Convention
1. Daniel Marc Segesser and Myriam Gessler, ‘Raphael Lemkin and the International Debate on the Punishment of War Crimes (1919–1948)’, Journal of Genocide Research, 2005, 7, 4, 453–68.
2. Raphael Lemkin, ‘Genocide: A Modern Crime’, Free World, Apr. 1945, 9, 4, 39–43.
3. William A. Shabas, ‘Drafting of the Convention and Subsequent Normative Developments’, Genocide in International Law (Cambridge University Press, 2000), pp. 51–101.
4. Ad Hoc Committee Draft, Second Draft Genocide Convention Prepared by the Ad Hoc Committee of the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) at a meeting between 5 Apr. 1948 and 10 May 1948.
5. Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, Adopted by Resolution 260 (III) A of the UN General Assembly on 9 Dec. 1948.
Part 2: Definitions
6. Berel Lang, ‘The Concept of Genocide’, The Philosophical Forum, 1984–5, 16, 1–18.
7. Mohammed Abed, ‘Clarifying the Concept of Genocide’, Metaphilosophy, 2006, 37, 3–4, 308–30.
8. A. Dirk Moses, ‘Conceptual Blockages and Definitional Dilemmas in the Racial Century: Genocide of Indigenous Peoples and the Holocaust’, Patterns of Prejudice, 2002, 36, 4, 7–36.
Part 3: Frameworks
9. Leo Kuper, ‘Social Structure and Genocide: Colonization, Decolonization and Succession’, Genocide: Its Political Use in the Twentieth Century (Penguin, 1981), pp. 57–83.
10. Mark Levene, ‘Continuity and Discontinuity in the Historical Record’, Genocide in the Age of the Nation-State, Vol. 1 (The Meaning of Genocide) (I. B. Tauris, 2005), pp. 144–206.
11. Jacques Semelin, ‘The Political Uses of Massacre and Genocide’, Purify and Destroy: The Political Uses of Massacre and Genocide (Columbia University Press, 2005), pp. 310–61.
12. Martin Shaw, ‘The Minimal Euphemism’, What is Genocide? (Polity Press, 2007), pp. 48–62.
13. Mahmood Mamdani, ‘The Politics of Naming: Genocide, Civil War, Insurgency’, London Review of Books, 5 Mar. 2007.
Part 4: Enablers
14. Barry Posen, ‘The Security Dilemma and Ethnic Conflict’, Survival, 1993, 35, 27–47.
15. Adam Jones, ‘Gendercide and Genocide’, Journal of Genocide Research, 2000, 2, 2, 185–211.
16. Dan Stone, ‘Genocide as Transgression’, European Journal of Social Theory, 2004, 7, 1, 45–65.
17. Christian Gerlach, ‘Extremely Violent Societies: An Alternative to the Concept of Genocide’, Journal of Genocide Research, 2006, 8, 4, 455–71.
Volume II: GENOCIDE BEFORE MODERNITY
Part 1: Pre-History, Biblical and Classical Antiquity
18. R. Brian Ferguson, ‘Archaeology, Cultural Anthropology and the Origins and Intensification of War’, in Elizabeth N. Arkush and Mark W. Allen (eds.), The Archaeology of Warfare: Prehistories of Raiding and Conquest (University of Florida Press, 2006), pp. 469–523.
19. David W. Freyer, ‘Ofnet: Evidence of Mesolithic Massacre’, in Debra Martin and David W. Frayer (eds.), Troubled Times: Violence and Warfare in the Past (Gordon and Breach, 1997), pp. 321–55.
20. Louis H. Feldman, ‘Parallels with a Divine Command to Eliminate a Group of People’, ‘Remember Amalek!’: Vengeance, Zealotry, and Group Destruction in the Bible According to Philo, Pseudo-Philo, and Josephus (Hebrew Union Press, 2004), pp. 84–147.
21. Benjamin H. Isaac, ‘Conquest and Imperialism’, The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity (Princeton University Press, 2004), pp. 215–24.
22. David Konstan, ‘Anger, Hatred, and Genocide in Ancient Greece’, Common Knowledge, 2007, 13, 1, 170–87.
Part 2: Medieval and Early Modern Periods
23. Len Scales, ‘Bread, Cheese and Genocide: Imagining the Destruction of Peoples in Medieval Western Europe’, History, 2007, 92, 284–300.
24. John Joseph Saunders, ‘Chingis Kahn’, The History of the Mongol Conquests (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001), pp. 44–73.
25. Peter C. Purdue, ‘The Final Blows, 1734–1771’, China Marches West: The Qing Conquest of Central Eurasia (Harvard University Press, 2005), pp. 256–302.
26. Ben Kiernan, ‘Genocidal Massacres in Early Modern Southeast Asia’, Blood and Soil: A World History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur (Yale University Press, 2007), pp. 133–61.
Part 3: ‘Tribal’ Societies
27. Jeffrey P. Blick, ‘The Iroquois Practice of Genocidal Warfare’, Journal of Genocide Research, 2001, 3, 3, 405–29.
28. R. Brian Ferguson and Neil L. Whitehead ‘The Violent Edge of Empire’, in Ferguson and Whitehhead (eds.), War in the Tribal Zone: Expanding States and Indigenous Warfare (School of American Research Press, 1992), pp. 1–30.
Volume III: COLONIAL AND IMPERIAL GENOCIDES
29. Michael A. McDonnell and A. Dirk Moses, ‘Raphael Lemkin as Historian of Genocide in the Americas’, Journal of Genocide Research, 2005, 7, 4, 501–29.
30. Hilary Beckles, ‘The Genocide Policy in English-Karifuna Relations in the Seventeenth Century’, in Martin Daunton and Rick Halpern (eds.), Empire and Others: British Encounters with Indigenous Peoples, 1600–1850 (UCL Press, 1999), pp. 280–302.
31. Philippe Girard, ‘Caribbean Genocide: Racial War in Haiti, 1802–1804’, Patterns of Prejudice, 2005, 39, 2, 144–67.
32. Ronald Karr, ‘"Why Should You Be So Furious": The Violence of the Pequot War’, Journal of American History, 1998, 85, 3, 876–909.
33. Karl Jacoby, ‘"The Broad Platform of Extermination": Nature and Violence in the Nineteenth-Century North American Borderlands’, Journal of Genocide Research, 2008, 10, 2, 249–67.
34. A. Dirk Moses, ‘Genocide and Settler Society in Australian History’, in A. Dirk Moses (ed.), Genocide and Setter Society: Frontier Violence and Stolen Indigenous Children (Berghahn Books, 2004), pp. 3–48.
35. Richard W. Slatta, ‘Civilization’ Battles "Barbarism": The Limits of Argentine Indian Frontier Struggle’, in James C. Bradford (ed.), The Military and Conflict Between Cultures: Soldiers at the Interface (A. & M. University Press, 1997), pp. 131–46.
36. Jürgen Zimmerer, ‘Colonial Genocide: The Herero and Nama War (1904–1908) in German Southwest Africa and its Significance’, in Dan Stone (ed.), The Historiography of Genocide (Palgrave Macmillan, 2008), pp. 323–44.
37. John L. Tone, ‘Reconcentration’, War and Genocide in Cuba, 1895–1898 (University of North Carolina Press, 2006), pp. 193–224.
38. Paul A. Kramer, ‘Race-Making and Colonial Violence in the US Empire: The Philippine-American War as Race War’, Diplomatic History, 2006, 30, 2, 169–210.
39. Willis Brooks, ‘Russia’s Conquest and Pacification of the Caucasus: Relocation Becomes a Pogrom in the Post-Crimean War Period’, Nationalities Papers, 1995, 23, 4, 675–86.
40. Donald Bloxham, ‘The Armenian Genocide of 1915–16: Cumulative Radicalisation and the Development of a Destruction Policy’, Past and Present, 2003, 181, 141–91.
41. Gavan McCormack, ‘Reflections on Modern Japanese History in the Context of the Concept of Genocide’, in Robert Gellately and Ben Kiernan (eds.), The Spectre of Genocide: Mass Murder in Historical Perspective (Cambridge University Press, 2003), pp. 265–86.
42. John Gooch, ‘Reconquest and Suppression: Fascist Italy’s Pacification of Libya and Ethiopia, 1922–1929’, Journal of Strategic Studies, 2005, 28, 6, 1005–32.
Volume IV: TWENTIETH-CENTURY IMPERIAL GENOCIDES: THE SOVIET UNION AND NAZI GERMANY
Part 1: Russia and the Soviet Union
43. Peter Holquist, ‘Violent Russia, Deadly Marxism? Russia in the Epoch of Violence, 1905–1921’, Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History, 2003, 4, 3, 627–52.
44. Michael Ellman, ‘The Role of Leadership Perceptions and of Intent in the Soviet Famine of 1931–1934’, Europe-Asia Studies, 2005, 57, 6, 823–41.
45. Jeffrey Burds, ‘The Soviet War Against "Fifth Columnists": The Case of Chechyna, 1942–4’, Journal of Contemporary History, 2007, 42, 2, 267–314.
46. Stephen G. Wheatcroft, ‘The Scale and the Nature of Stalinist Repression and its Demographic Significance’, Europe-Asia Studies, 2000, 52, 6, 1143–59.
Part 2: The Nazi Empire and its Victims
47. Claudia Koonz, ‘Eugenics, Gender, and Ethics in Nazi Germany: The Debate about Involuntary Sterilization, 1933–1936’, in Thomas Childers and Jane Caplan (eds.), Reevaluating the Third Reich (Holmes and Meier, 1993), 66–85.
48. Geoffrey J. Giles, ‘The Institutionalization of Homosexual Panic in the Third Reich’, in Robert Gellately and Nathan Stolzfus (eds.), Social Outsiders in Nazi Germany (Princeton University Press, 2001), pp. 233–55.
49. Wolf Gruner, ‘Local Initiatives, Central Coordination: German Municipal Administration and the Holocaust’, in Gerald Feldman and Wolfgang Seibel (eds.), Networks of Nazi Persecution: Bureaucracy, Business and the Organization of the Holocaust (Berghahn Books 2006), pp. 269–94.
50. Jürgen Matthaeus, ‘Controlled Escalation: Himmler’s Men in the Summer of 1941 and the Holocaust in the Occupied Soviet Territories’, Holocaust and Genocide Studies, 2007, 21, 2, 218–42.
51. Ian Kershaw, ‘Hitler’s Role in the "Final Solution"’, Yad Vashem Studies, 2006, 34, 1–38.
52. Christian Streit, ‘Wehrmacht, Einsatzgruppen, Soviet POWS and Anti-Bolshevism in the Emergence of the Final Solution’, in David Cesarani (ed.), The Final Solution: Origins and Implementation (Routledge, 1994), pp. 103–18.
53. Omer Bartov, ‘Eastern Europe as the Site of Genocide’, Journal of Modern History, 2008, 80, 3, 557–93.
54. Dieter Pohl, ‘War, Occupation and the Holocaust in Poland’, in Dan Stone (ed.), The Historiography of the Holocaust (Palgrave Macmillan, 2004), pp. 88–120.
55. Dalia Ofer, ‘Intellectuals in the Warsaw Ghetto: Guilt, Atonement, and Beyond’, Journal of Jewish Identities, 2008, 1, 2, 7–28.
56. Tomislav Dulić, ‘Mass Killing in the Independent State of Croatia, 1941–1945: A Case for Comparative Research’, Journal of Genocide Research, 2006, 8, 3, 255–81.
57. Michael Zimmermann, ‘The National Socialist "Solution to the Gypsy Question"’, in Ulrich Herbert (ed.), National Socialist Extermination Policies (Berghahn Books, 2000), pp. 186–209.
Volume V: POST-COLONIAL AND -IMPERIAL GENOCIDE
58. Yang Su, ‘Mass Killings in the Cultural Revolution: a Study of Three Provinces’, in Joseph Esherick, Paul Pickowicz, and Andrew George Walder (eds.), The Chinese Cultural Revolution as History (Stanford University Press, 2006), pp. 96–123.
59. Robert Cribb, ‘Genocide in Indonesia, 1965–66’, Journal of Genocide Research, 2001, 3, 2, 219–39.
60. Stanley Diamond, ‘Who Killed Biafra?’, Dialectical Anthropology, 2007, 31, 1, 339–62.
61. International Commission of Jurists, The Events in East Pakistan, 1971: A Legal Study (ICJ, 1972).
62. René Lemarchand and David Martin, Selective Genocide in Burundi (Minority Rights Group, No. 20, 1974).
63. John D. Ciorciari, ‘"Auto-Genocide" and the Cambodia Reign of Terror’, in Dominik Schaller et al. (eds.), Enteignet, Vertrieben, Ermordet: Beiträge zur Genozidforschung (Chronos, 2004), pp. 413–37.
64. Ben Kiernan, ‘Genocide, Extermination, and Resistance in East Timor, 1975–1999: Comparative Reflections on Cambodia’, Genocide and Resistance in Southeast Asia: Documentation, Denial and Justice in Cambodia and East Timor (Transaction Books, 2007), pp. 105–36.
65. Mark Munzel, The Ache: Genocide Continues in Paraguay (International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs, Document No. 17) (Copenhagen, 1974).
66. Beatriz Manz, ‘Terror, Grief, and Recovery: Genocidal Trauma in a Mayan Village in Guatemala’, in Alexander Laban Hinton (ed.), Annihilating Difference: The Anthropology of Genocide (University of California Press, 2002), pp. 292–309.
67. Mark Levene, ‘The Chittagong Hill Tracts: A Case Study in the Political Economy of "Creeping" Genocide’, Third World Quarterly, 1999, 20, 2, 339–69.
68. Michiel Leezenburg, ‘The Anfal Operations in Iraqi Kurdistan’, in Samuel Totten and William S. Parsons (eds.), Century of Genocide: Critical Essays and Eyewitness Accounts, 3rd edn. (Taylor & Francis, 2008), pp. 385–403.
69. Robert M. Hayden, ‘Schindler’s Fate: Genocide, Ethnic Cleansing, and Population Transfers’, Slavic Review, 1996, 55, 4, 727–48.
70. Johan Pottier, ‘Build-up to War and Genocide: Society and Economy in Rwanda and Eastern Zaire’, Reimagining Rwanda: Conflict, Survival and Disinformation in the Late Twentieth Century (Cambridge University Press, 2002), pp. 9–52.
71. Alex de Waal, ‘Sudan: The Turbulent State’, in Alex de Waal (ed.), War in Darfur and the Search for Peace (Global Equity Initiative, Harvard University, and Justice in Africa, 2007), pp. 1–38.
Volume VI: HUMANITARIAN INTERVENTION, THE PROSECUTION OF GENOCIDE, TRAUMA, AND RECOVERY
Part 1: Humanitarian Intervention
72. Bhikhu Parekh, ‘Rethinking Humanitarian Intervention’, International Political Science Review, 1997, 18, 1, 49–69.
73. Gareth Evans, ‘From Humanitarian Intervention to Responsibility to Protect’, Wisconsin International Law Journal, 2006, 24, 3, 703–22.
74. Mohammed Ayoob, ‘Third World Perspectives on Humanitarian Intervention and International Administration’, Global Governance, 2004, 10, 99–118.
75. Alex Bellamy and Paul D. Williams, ‘The UN Security Council and the Question of Humanitarian Intervention in Darfur’, Journal of Military Ethics, 2006, 5, 2, 144–60.
Part 2: International Law and Genocide Prosecution
76. Donald Bloxham, ‘Beyond "Realism" and Legalism: A Historical Perspective on the Limits of International Humanitarian Law’, European Review, 2006, 14, 4, 457–70.
77. Donald Bloxham, ‘Defeat, Due Process, and Denial: War Crimes Trials and Nationalist Revisionism in Comparative Perspective’, in Jenny Macleod (ed.), Defeat and Memory: Cultural Histories of Military Defeat in the Modern Era (Palgrave Macmillan, 2008), pp. 117–36.
78. Alexander Zahar and Goran Sluiter, ‘Genocide Law: An Education in Sentimentalism’, International Criminal Law: A Critical Introduction (Oxford University Press, 2008), ch. 5.
79. Jens Meierhenrich, ‘Conspiracy in International Law’, Annual Review of Law and Social Science, 2006, 2, 341–57.
80. William A. Schabas, ‘The Jelisic Case and the Mens Rea of the Crime of Genocide’, Leiden Journal of International Law, 2001, 14, 125–39.
81. Alexandra A. Miller, ‘From the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda to the International Criminal Court: Expanding the Definition of Genocide to include Rape’, Penn State Law Review, 2003, 108, 1, 349–73.
Part 3: Trauma and Recovery after Genocide
82. Vena Das and Ashis Nandy, ‘Violence, Victimhood and the Language of Silence’, in Veena A. Das (ed.), The Word and the World: Fantasy, Symbol and Record (Sage, 1986), pp. 177–90.
83. Ali Abdullatif Ahmida, ‘When the Subaltern Speak: Memories of Genocide in Colonial Libya, 1929 to 1933’, Italian Studies, 2006, 61, 2, 175–90.
84. Timothy Longman and Theoneste Rutagengwa, ‘Memory, Identity and Community in Rwanda’, in Eric Stover and Harvey M. Weinstein (eds.), My Neighbour, My Enemy: Justice and Community in the Aftermath of Mass Atrocity (Cambridge University Press, 2004), pp. 162–81.
85. Idith Zertal, ‘The Sacrificed and the Sanctified’, Israel’s Holocaust and the Politics of Nationhood (Cambridge University Press, 2005), pp. 9–51.
86. Brian Glyn Williams, ‘Commemorating "The Deportation" in Post-Soviet Chechnya’, History and Memory, 2000, 12, 101–34.
87. Victoria Sanford, ‘Excavations of the Heart: Healing Fragmented Communities’, Buried Secrets: Truth and Human Rights in Guatemala (Palgrave Macmillan, 2003), pp. 232–48.
88. Leslie Dwyer, ‘The Intimacy of Terror: Gender and the Violence of 1965–66’, Intersections: Gender, History and Culture in the Asian Context, 2004, 10.