1st Edition

# Geomechanics from Micro to Macro

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**Geomechanics from Micro to Macro** contains 268 papers presented at the International Symposium on Geomechanics from Micro and Macro (IS-Cambridge, UK, 1-3 September 2014). The symposium created a forum for the dissemination of new advances in the micro-macro relations of geomaterial behaviour and its modelling. The papers on experimental investigations show findings from micro-scale experiments, non-destructive imaging, element testing (coarse grained materials, fine grained materials and mixtures), physical model tests and field tests. The subjects of the investigations include particle effects (shape, size and grading), partial saturation, creep and aging, fluid-grain coupling, biological and chemical effects, and thermal effects. The papers on discrete based modelling examine pre- and post-failure behaviour, particle shapes and size effects, particle crushing, dynamic behaviour, bonding effects, fracturing and fragmentation, interface behaviour, and fluid-grain coupling. The contributions on continuum based modelling include stress-strain relationships, multi-scale modelling, multiphase modelling, fluid flow modelling, and numerical modelling based on continuum based models and particle based models.

**Geomechanics from Micro to Macro** will be of interest to academics and engineers involved in granular physics, soil mechanics, rock mechanics, geotechnical engineering and geological engineering.

Preface

International advisory committee

Organising committee

**Volume I**

*Keynotes*

Granular plastic flow and fabric-based internal variables

F. Radjai & S. Roux

Advancing geomechanics using DEM

C. O’Sullivan

Meso-scale structural characteristics of clay deposit studied by 2D Discrete Element Method

A. Suzuki &T. Matsushima

**Part I: Discrete-based modelling**

*Pre-failure behaviour*

Modelling soft-particle materials

S. Nezamabadi, F. Radjai, J. Averseng & J.-Y. Delenne

Pre-peak deformation of model granular materials: A DEM study

J.-N. Roux

Grain-scale discrete analysis methods for real granular matter: Granular element and coupled Level Set-Discrete Element Methods

K.-W. Lim, R. Kawamoto & J.E. Andrade

Capturing the state-dependent nature of soil response using DEM

X. Huang, C. O’Sullivan, K.J. Hanley & C.Y. Kwok

Investigation of fabric evolution in elliptical granular materials for kinematic models using the Discrete Element Method

M.J. Jiang & T. Li

Fabric of monosized granular media

J. Sánchez, G. Auvinet & B. Cambou

Change of scale in 2D granular materials: Behavior at meso- and macro-scales

S.K. Nguyen, H. Magoariec, E. Vincens & B. Cambou

Fabric evolution of 3D granular materials in rotational shear

D.S. Yang, X. Li & H.-S. Yu

Micro and macro behavior of granular materials in simple shear

M. Gutierrez & A. Muftah

Effects of sample preparation methods in DEM

M.L. Bernhardt, C. O’Sullivan & G. Biscontin

Characterization of induced microstructures in a simulated triaxial specimen

Y. Lu &Y. Tan

Comparison between geometrical and dynamic particle packing

I. Koval, M. Roozbahani & D. Frost

Incremental stress and microstructural response of granular soils under undrained axisymmetric deformation

N. Kumar, S. Luding & V. Magnanimo

*Post-failure behaviour*

Anisotropic Coulomb failure criterion: From DEM to experiments

P. Fu, Z. Tong & Y.F. Dafalias

Investigation of Christensen’s two-parameter failure criterion for brittle materials

K.J. Hanley, C. O’Sullivan & X. Huang

Instability in granular materials – a micromechanical investigation

J.C. Lopera Perez, C.Y. Kwok, C. O’Sullivan, K.H. Hanley & X. Huang

Characteristic lengths in granular piles exhibiting steady surface flows

J.-F. Camenen & P. Richard

Flow patterns in quasi-static deformation of dry granular materials

K. Viswanathan, A. Mahato, T.G. Murthy, T. Koziara & S. Chandrasekar

Comparison of fabric tensors for granular materials

A. Theocharis, E. Vairaktaris, P. Fu & Y.F. Dafalias

On the role of meso-structures on the instability mechanism of granular soils

J.Wang & B. Zhou

Simulation of granular soil behaviour using physics engines

M. Pytlos, M. Gilbert & C.C. Smith

A microstructural cluster-based description of diffuse and localized failures

N. Hadda, F. Bourrier, L. Sibille, F. Nicot, R.Wan & F. Darve

*Particle shape and size effects*

Effect of mean grain diameter on vortices, force chains and local volume changes in granular shear zones

M. Nitka, J. Tejchman, J. Kozicki & D. Lesniewska

A discrete element analysis of the micromechanical interaction of non-spherical particles in cohesionless granular solids under K0 condition

H. Khan, J.P. Morrissey, J.Y. Ooi & J. Tod Pittam

Investigating the effects of particle shape on the normal compression of sand using DEM

J.P. de Bono & G.R. McDowell

Micromorphic continuum stress measures calculated from three-dimensional ellipsoidal discrete element simulations on granular media

R.A. Regueiro, B. Zhang & F. Shahabi

Characterizing and incorporating particle morphology in Discrete Element Modeling

S. Thomas, C. Hurt, C.E. Cary, D. Barrot, P. Giordano, J. Corriveau, S. Mandayam, N. Das, A. Daouadji & B. Sukumaran

Shape effect of elongated soil particles on Discrete Element Modelling of methane hydrate soil sediments

Y. Yu, Y.P. Cheng, X. Xu & K. Soga

A study on a shape effect in rockfall simulation using DEM

S. Moriguchi, I. Tachibana, K. Terada, S. Takase, T. Kyoya, J. Kato, S. Sawada & A. Yashima

A micromechanical study of the equivalent granular void ratio of soil mixtures using DEM

N.H. Minh & Y.P. Cheng

Coordination number and geometric anisotropy in binary sphere mixtures

J. Sánchez, G. Auvinet & B. Cambou

The influence of finer fraction and size-ratio on the micro-scale properties of dense bimodal materials

T. Shire, C. O’Sullivan & K. Hanley

The influence of particle shape for granular media: A Fourier-shape-descriptor-based micromechanical study

Z. Liu, J. Zhao & G. Mollon

*Particle crushing*

A contribution to the numerical simulation of aggregate crushing

A. Neveu, R. Artoni, P. Richard & Y. Descantes

Force chain evolution during the gravity induced crushing of a fractal granular mixture

Z.Wang & L.E. Vallejo

New approach to grain fragmentation for discrete element methods

D. Cantor, N. Estrada & E. Azéma

An evaluation of the progressive crushing of granular materials under compression

L.E. Vallejo, S. Lobo-Guerrero, C. Sbarro, Z. Liu & J.R. Valdes

DEM modelling of a double-porosity crushable granular material

M.O. Ciantia, M. Arroyo, J. Butlanska & A. Gens

Evolution of particle size distributions in crushable granular materials

D.-H. Nguyen, E. Azéma, P. Sornay & F. Radja

Compression behavior for assembly of DEM crushable cylindrical gravels

Y. Nakata & Y.Watabe

A DEM investigation of a simple shear test on crushable materials

Y.S.Wang, S.H. Liu, C.M. Shen & Z.J.Wang

A probability-based approach for predicting particle crushing of granular soil

B. Zhou & J.Wang

Model methodology for studying crushing of unbound granular materials during compaction

M.S. Ocampo, B. Caicedo & L.E. Vallejo

*Dynamic behaviour*

Micromechanics of seismic wave propagation in granular materials

J. O’Donovan, S. Hamlin, G. Marketos, C. O’Sullivan, E. Ibraim, M. Lings & D.M.Wood

Novel methods of bender element test analysis

J. O’Donovan, G. Marketos & C. O’Sullivan

Dynamic response of granular soils during dynamic compaction by PFC3D

M.C. Jia, X.H. Yang, S.H.Wu & J. Zhang

Macro and micro responses of granular materials under traffic load

J.G. Qian, Z.P. You, X.Q. Gu & M.S. Huang

Impact of seismic intensity on deformation of road embankment constructed by granular soil

J.Wang & R.Y.S. Pak

Dynamic soil-structure interaction around a monopile supporting a wind turbine

L. Cui & S. Bhattacharya

*Behaviour of bonded materials*

Numerical investigation on effect of bond size on the compressive behavior of rigid bonded granules by FEM and DEM approaches

F. Liu, C. Sun, M.J. Jiang, Z. Li & G. Deng

Three-dimensional DEM investigation on failure criterion of cylinder-shaped bond between spheres

Z.F. Shen, M.J. Jiang & H.N.Wang

Shear behaviour of methane hydrate bearing sand: DEM simulations

J.S. Vinod, M. Hyodo, B. Indraratna & S. Kajiyama

DEM analysis of geomechanical behavior of methane hydrate-bearing sediments

Q.J. Yang & C.F. Zhao

DEM analysis on formation of shear band of methane hydrate bearing soil under different temperatures and water pressures

M.J. Jiang, D. Peng, F. Liu & Z.F. Shen

Three-dimensional DEM simulation of mechanical behavior of methane hydrate under triaxial compression

M.J. Jiang, J. He, J.F.Wang & F. Liu

DEM simulations of methane hydrate dissociation by thermal recovery

M.J. Jiang, C. Fu, L. Cui, Z.F. Shen & F.Y. Zhu

A simple three-dimensional bond contact model for cemented sands considering the influence of bond width and thickness

M.J. Jiang & F.G. Zhang

Discrete Element Method for modeling the mechanical behavior of unsaturated granular media

K. Tourani, A. Mahboubi & E.S. Hosseininia

Discrete Element Modeling on strength degradation of concrete induced by sulfate attack

M.J. Jiang, Z.W. Liao, H.N.Wang & S.L. Chen

Significance of DEM input parameters on the modelling of low strength soft rock mechanical behaviour

D. Barreto, M. Rouainia & D. Simpson

*Fracturing and fragmentation*

Blasting of cemented granular material and discrete element simulation of the process

N. Kikkawa, K. Itoh, T. Mizutani, T. Hori, Y. Toyosawa, M.J. Pender & R.P. Orense

Modelling fracturing process of geomaterial using Lattice Element Method

J.K.-W.Wong, K. Soga, X. Xu & J.-Y. Delenne

Coupled hydro-thermo-mechanical modeling of hydraulic fracturing in quasi-brittle rocks using DEM

I. Tomac & M. Gutierrez

*Interface behaviour*

Effects of joint geometry on the modelled material strengths of rock masses in the distinct element method

B.D. Roullier, P.A. Langston & X. Li

Particle flow modeling for direct shear behavior of rough joints

C.C. Xia, S.W. Zhou, S.G. Du &Y.L. Song

DEM investigation of geogrid–soil interaction under wheel load

Z.Wang, M. Ziegler, F. Jacobs & C. Yin

The influence of membranes on tests of coarse-grained materials at low cell pressures

L. Le Pen, J. Harkness, A. Zervos &W. Powrie

Exploring the influence of normal boundary conditions on interface shear test

S. Liu & J.Wang

*Fluid-grain coupling*

Lattice Boltzmann modeling of liquid clusters in granular media

J.-Y. Delenne, V. Richefeu & F. Radjai

Shear flow of dense granular suspensions by computer simulations

L. Amarsid, P. Mutabaruka, J.-Y. Delenne, Y. Monerie & F. Radjai

Underwater granular flows down inclined planes

K. Kumar, K. Soga & J-Y. Delenne

Coupled LBM-DEM modeling of Bingham fluids with suspended particles

S.G. Chen, C.H. Zhang, Q.C. Sun & F. Jin

A coupled CFD-DEM model for fluid-particle flows with free surface: Formulation and validation

L. Jing, C.Y. Kwok & Y.F. Leung

Coupled CFD-DEM simulations of submarine landslide induced by thermal dissociation of methane hydrate

M.J. Jiang, C. Sun,W.C. Zhang & F. Liu

Investigation of submerged debris flows via CFD-DEM coupling

T. Zhao, G.T. Houlsby & S. Utili

A new discontinuous model for three dimensional analysis of fluid-solid interaction behavior

H. Zhang, G. Chen, L. Zheng, Y. Zhang, Y.Q.Wu, Z. Han, F.S. Fan, P.D. Jing &W.Wang

Contact mechanics in presence of fluid under pressure

L. Mongiovi

Numerical simulation of liquefaction behavior on gravelly soil in dynamic triaxial test by particle flow code

Y.L.Wang, Z.L. Cheng, Y.Wang & Z.B.Wang

Microstructure evolution of granular soils during liquefaction process

J.Wei & G.Wang

Numerical analysis of internal stability of granular materials using discrete element method

N.A. Hama, T. Ouahbi, S. Taibi, J.M. Fleureau, A. Pantet & H. Souli

Numerical simulation of localised fluidisation due to a leaking pipe

J. Li, X.L. Cui, A.H.C. Chan, L.W. Kong & X.W. Zhang

Mesoscale simulation of clay aggregate formation and mechanical properties

D. Ebrahimi, R.J.-M. Pellenq & A.J. Whittle

*Applications*

Probing DEM specimen heterogeneity by simulated CPT

J. Butlanska, M. Arroyo & A. Gens

Three dimensional modelling of the behaviour of stone columns using the discrete element method

F. Siahaan, B. Indraratna & C. Rujikiatkamjorn

A study of the behaviour of fresh and coal fouled ballast reinforced by geogrid using the discrete element method

N.T. Ngo, B. Indraratna & C. Rujikiatkamjorn

Analysis of micro characteristics and influence factors of foundation pit failure

Y.Q. Li, Z.L. Hu, X. Fang & J. Fonseca

Distinct element analysis on uplift resistance of belled and multi-belled piles in layered ground

T. Honda

A 2D DEM mono-pile model under combined loading condition

N. Duan & Y.P. Cheng

DEM analysis of green rubberised backfills towards future smart Integral Abutment Bridges (IABs)

L. Cui & S. Mitoulis

The effect of relative density on tunnelling-induced settlements – DEM simulations versus centrifuge test results

B. Zhou, I. Elkayam &A.M. Marshall

DEM analyses of pipe-soil interaction for offshore pipelines on sand

G. Macaro, S. Utili & C.M. Martin

Granular ratcheting phenomena behind a model retaining wall

F. Gabrieli, G. Zorzi & R.Wan

DEM modelling of boulders for rubble mound embankment construction

X. Zhao, J. Xu, B. Li & B. Mu

Author index

**Volume II**

**Part II: Continuum-based modelling**

*Constitutive modelling*

Constitutive modelling of fabric anisotropy in sand

Z.W. Gao, J.D. Zhao, X.S. Li & Y.F. Dafalias

Sand model within anisotropic critical state theory with evolving fabric

A.G. Papadimitriou, Y.F. Dafalias & X.S. Li

Granular material behaviour along proportional strain loading paths

P.-Y. Hicher

A quasi-static and hysteretic constitutive model for sand based on granular solid hydrodynamics: A triaxial compression example

H.Wang, Z. Chen & X. Cheng

A thermo-mechanical coupled constitutive model for clay based on extended granular solid hydrodynamics

Z.C. Zhang & X.H. Cheng

SCLAY1S-BS: an anisotropic model for simulation of cyclic behaviour of clays

M. Rezania, H. Dejaloud & M.M. Nezhad

Computations of plastic flow in granular assemblies under rotation of principal stresses

N. Hadda, R.Wan & M. Pouragha

A microstructural plastic potential for granular materials

M. Pouragha, R.Wan & N. Hadda

Pre- and post-failure analysis using a two-scale constitutive model

M.T. Manzari & K. Yonten

Modelling the shear strength and dilatancy of dry sand in triaxial compression tests

J. Fern, T. Sakanoue & K. Soga

Incorporation of initial static shear stress in the dilatancy flow rule of granular materials under quasi-static loading

H. Shaverdi, F. Kalantary & M.R. Taha

Why do constitutive models using (p and q) have problems?

T. Nakai, H.M. Shahin, M. Hinokio & H. Kyokawa

Method for shear strength of coarse granular materials based on fractal grain crushing

Y.F. Xu, Y. Xi & F.F. Chu

A theory predicting breakage dependence of critical state in sand

A. Tengattini, A. Das & I. Einav

A new method for establishing elastic-viscoplastic constitutive model of clay

Z.Wang, M. Jiang, Z. Shen, S. Chen & J. Cai

Modelling tertiary creep in geomaterials using a continuum damage mechanics approach

A.S. Osmanm & T.J. Birchall

The constitutive model for unsaturated sands based on thermodynamics

W. Zhang & C. Zhao

Comparison of strength criteria of rock under complex stress state

H.Z. Li, H.J. Liao, J.N. Ren, G.D. Xiong, G.P. Zhao & C.M. Ning

Constitutive modelling of granular soils and interfaces considering their internal state

J. Duriez & É. Vincens

Microscopic image of meta-stability of clays

T. Takeyama, A. Ikeda, E. Nakayama, M. Taya, I. Kobayashi, T. Pipatpongsa & H. Ohta

Thermodynamically consistent fabric tensor definition from DEM to continuum

X.S. Li &Y.F. Dafalias

Multiscale failure modeling in granular soils

F. Nicot, G. Veylon, H. Zhu & F. Darve

*Multi-scale modelling*

Bridging the micro and macro for granular media: A computational multi-scale paradigm

J.D. Zhao & N. Guo

Deformation analysis of granular materials at micro and macro scales

N.P. Kruyt, O. Millet & F. Nicot

Numerical simulation of the macro-micro mechanical behavior of granular materials based on a two-scale method

X. Chu, C. Yu & Y. Xu

FE modelling of sand with micro-characterization

D. Takano & Y. Miyata

Scale effect in composites with matrix-inclusion morphology

D. Lydzba, M. Rajczakowska, A. Rozanski, A. Serwicki, M. Sobotka & D. Stefaniuk

Fabric anisotropy & DEM informed two-surface hyperplasticity: Constitutive formulation, asymptotic states & experimental validation

W.M. Coombs & R.S. Crouch

The role of micro-mechanical parameters in the runout length of high-speed granular masses. Modeling and numerical simulations

F. Federico & C. Cesali

Mesoscale simulation of quartzite and porous sandstone at high loading rates

N. Durr & M. Sauer

Scale effects in relation to swelling pressure in anhydritic claystones

K. Serafeimidis, G. Anagnostou & A. Vrakas

Numerical simulation of transformation of an obliquely incident shear wave at rock joint

R. Sebastian & T.G. Sitharam

*Multiphase modelling*

Study on H-M-C coupling mechanism of bentonite engineering barrier based on fractal theory

H. Jiang, Y.F. Xu, G.S. Xiang & T. Chen

Equating pore and particle surface areas with application to soil-water characteristic curve derivations

A.R. Russell

Hydro-mechanical modelling and numerical simulation of the water retention properties of the Callovo-Oxfordian argillites

X.P. Nguyen, B. Bary, C. Imbert & P. Sémété

Evolution of the soil water characteristic curve with void ratio using a fractal approach

A. Khoshghalb, A.Y. Pasha & N. Khalili

Analysis of dynamical effects in the formation of compaction bands

F. Cecinato & A. Gajo

On micro-macro transitions and linear wave propagation in saturated and partially saturated porous media

B. Albers

Physicochemical conceptual model on reversible and non-reversible volumetric variations in non-swelling clays

M. Pedrotti & A. Tarantino

Comparing double porosity and single porosity models for the simulation of coupled chemo-hydro-mechanical behavior of compacted active clays

G. Musso & G.D. Vecchia

Doublescale modelling of hydromechanical coupling and anisotropy in localization problems

B. van den Eijnden, P. Bésuelle, F. Collin & R. Chambon

Effective stress and the role of liquid fabric in unsaturated granular soils

K.N. Manahiloh, B. Muhunthan & W.J. Likos

*Fluid flow modelling*

Micro and macro modeling of internal erosion

K. Maeda, A. Kondo & D. MuirWood

Simulation of two-phase flow in soils using microscopic pore network model

J.N. Meegoda, S. Gao, L. Hu & P. Zhang

Shale gas migration modeling considering pore scale and fracture density

L. Hu, P. Zhang & J.N. Meegoda

Two methods for simulating the relationship between the tortuosity and porosity

X.W. Tangm, Z.F. Sun & G.C. Cheng

A study on the causes of debris flow focusing on groundwater infiltration

Y. Kochi & M. Suzuki

Three-dimensional network modelling of the influence of microstructure on mass transport in unsaturated soils

I. Athanasiadis, S. Wheeler & P. Grassl

3D neurofuzzy modeling of Lugeon values at the abutments of a dam site

S.R. García, V. Castellanos, J. López, J. Landa & J. Alemán

Effects of granulometric stability of cohesionless materials on safety of geotechnical structures

F. Federico & M. Iannucci

*Numerical modelling – continuum based methods*

Support mechanism of anchor type retaining wall and influence of existing structure in braced excavation

H.M. Shahin, T. Nakai, K. Okuda & M. Kato

Research of rigid-pile composite foundation with crushed stone cushion based on FDM-PFC coupling method

Y. Li, X. Han, J. Ji & H.Wang

Sensitivity analyses on the influence of constitutive parameters on the numerical simulation of the behavior of a cavern in rock salt

E. Mahmoudi, K. Khaledi, D. König & T. Schanz

A multiscale approach for evaluating the failure condition of calcarenite structures subject to environmental loads

M.O. Ciantia, R. Castellanza, J.A.F. Merodo &T. Hueckel

Finite Element modeling of the behavior of salt caverns under cyclic loading

K. Khaledi, E. Mahmoudi, M. Datcheva & T. Schanz

Winkler springs (p-y curves) for liquefied soil from element tests

M. Rouholamin, S. Bhattacharya & D. Lombardi

*Numerical modelling – particle based methods*

Numerical simulations of triaxial compression tests using the Material Point Method

T. Kiriyama

Two-phase Material Point Method applied to cone penetration for different drainage conditions

F. Ceccato, L. Beuth, P.A. Vermeer & P. Simonini

Numerical simulation of a series of flume tests with dry and wet sands by using depth averaged material point method

K. Abe & K. Konagai

Run-out of landslides in brittle soils: An MPM analysis

A. Yerro, E.E. Alonso & N.M. Pinyol

Development of the cellular automaton model for simulating the propagation extent of debris flow at the alluvial fan: A case study ofYohutagawa, Japan

Z. Han, G. Chen, Y. Li, H. Zhang, F. Fan, P. Jing,W.Wang, S. Zhou, L. Xu & S. Chen

Modelling crushing of granular materials using Markovian processes

B. Caicedo, M. Ocampo & L.E. Vallejo

Development of moving particle simulation method using a rigid plastic constitutive model

K. Isobe, S. Ohtsuka & T. Hoshina

SPH model of water jet erosion in granular soils with a boundary layer of liquefied soil

B. Stefanova & J. Grabe

**Part III: Experiment-based investigation**

*Micro-scale experiments*

3D fracture behavior of sand at the particle level: Experimental versus numerical modeling

K.A. Alshibli, M.B. Cil &A.M. Druckrey

An experimental investigation of the micromechanical behaviour of cemented sand particles

V. Nardelli & M.R. Coop

Experimental investigation into the primary fabric of stress transmitting particles

J. Fonseca, C.C. Reyes-Aldasoro, C. O’Sullivan & M.R. Coop

Photo-elastic and DIC techniques to study development of shear and compaction bands within granular materials

D. Lesniewska, M. Pietrzak & J. Tejchman

Application of digital image technology for investigation of shear band of soil specimen in triaxial test

L.T. Shao, G. Liu & X.X. Guo,

Three-Dimensional Translucent Segregation Table (3D-TST) test for soil particle size and shape distribution

J. Zheng, R.D. Hryciw & H.-S. Ohm

New insights into the micromechanics of soft clay shearing on rough and smooth interfaces

M.Y.-H. Kuo

Imaging of crushable grains when shearing against rough interfaces

M.Y.-H. Kuo & M.D. Bolton

From nano to macroscale: A new experimental approach to mechanical characterization of rock materials

A. Bandini & P. Berry

*Particle effects*

The effect of the coordination number on particle crushing

M.C. Todisco, M.R. Coop, Q. Guo & K. Senetakis

Compressibility and creep behaviour of a crushed carbonate sand

D.W. Airey & G. Miao

Compressiblity and grain breakage of a gap graded material

M. Tapias, E.E. Alonso & J. Gili

Effect of particle crushing on the dynamic properties of pumice sand

R.P. Orense, M.J. Pender & L. Liu

The effect of particle characteristics on shear behavior with methane hydrate bearing sand

S. Kajiyama, M. Hyodo, Y. Nakata, N. Yoshimoto & A. Kato

Effect of particle shape on the mechanical response of a granular ensemble

R.K. Kandasami & T.G. Murthy

Effect of particle characteristics on the shear strength of clinker ash

M.J.Winter, T. Sueshima, N. Yoshimoto, M. Hyodo, Y. Nakata, A. Nakashita & Y. Nakamura

Index test for liquefaction potential considering the granulometric properties

E. Schwiteilo & I. Herle

Japanese and New Zealand pumice sands: Comparison of particle shapes and surface void structures

M.J. Pender, R.P. Orense & N. Kikkawa

A methodology for accurate roughness measurements of soils using optical interferometry

M. Otsubo, C. O’Sullivan & W. Sim

*Non-destructive imaging*

Investigation of the fracture behaviour of individual LBS particle using Nanofocus X-ray CT

B.D. Zhao, J.Wang & M.R. Coop

Visualisation of grain crushing using micro-focused X-ray CT scanning

W.M. Yan, Y. Shi, T. Mukunoki, T. Sato & J. Otani

XRCT scanning of unsaturated soil: Microstructure at different scales?

J.C. Smith & C.E. Augarde

Micro-focus X-ray CT scanning of chemically improved sand

Y. Nakata, K. Ogawa, H. Akagi, J. Kawamura & Y.Watanabe

Challenges in analyzing micro-CT images of dam filter materials

H.F. Taylor, C. O’Sullivan & W.W. Sim

Using CAT to obtain density maps in Sherbrooke specimens of silty soils

N. Sau, M. Arroyo, N. Pérez & J.A. Pineda

Chemo-mechanical couplings characterisation by nuclear magnetic resonance in lime-treated soils

O. Cuisinier & G. Kervern

The use of P-wave velocity tomography – a particular application on exploring the mechanism of friction fatigue

Z. Zhang &Y.-H.Wang

A μCT investigation of the collapse of a loose unsaturated sand specimen: Comparison between macroscopic and mesoscopic scale

J.-F. Bruchon, M. Vandamme, J.-M. Pereira, N. Lenoir, M. Bornert & P. Delage

*Characterisation – Coarse grained materials*

Displacement fluctuations in granular materials: A direct manifestation of grain rearrangement

G. Combe, V. Richefeu & G. Viggiani

The multi-fractal nature of soil particle size distribution

X. Zhang & B.A. Baudet

Prediction of the effects of compaction on granular materials

G. Chiaro, G. Modoni & E. Salvatore

Shear zone of sand and its rate effect in ring shearing

M. Suzuki, N. Otani & N. Van Hai

Contact fatigue: A key mechanism of time effects in silica sand

R.L. Michalowski & S.S. Nadukuru

A view of small strain shear modulus from very large strain levels

S. Teachavorasinskun

Experimental studies on the cutting of granular materials

S. Yadav, S. Singh, R.K. Kandasami, T.G. Murthy & C. Saldana

Compaction and shear localization in porous sandstone and sand

A. Torabi, E. Andò, R. Alikarami & G. Viggiani

Microstructural pore changes in Gosford sandstone during compressive loading

A. Sufian & A.R. Russell

The liquefaction resistance of weakly cemented sands

A.D. Vranna & Th. Tika

Micro-meso-structure model of fissured lateritic soil based on physical and mechanical characteristics

W. Bai, L.W. Kong, K. Mu & S. Yin

Collapsibility study of Najran soils

A. Rouaiguia & M.A. Dahim

Time effects in granular materials: From micro to macro behavior

P.V. Lade & H. Karimpour

*Characterisation – fine grained materials*

The oedometer compression curve is a pore size distribution curve in loose structured clays

P. Delage

Microstructure behavior of intact soft clay after principal stress rotation

J. Zhou, X. Ning, Y. Deng & C. Xu

Geochemistry and geotechnical characteristics of London Clay from Heathrow Airport

A.J. Lutenegger

Shear strength test of expansive soils with different cracks development characteristics

L. Chen, X.L. Zhao, L. Lu, Y. Zhang,W.Z. Gao & B.B. Xia

The composition of freshwater and saltwater lacustrine soft soil deposits in Mexico City

J.L. Rangel-Núñez, F. Almanza-Hernández & E. Garfias-García

Microstructural identification in a clayey mix material at the ultimate state

T. Hammad, M. Hattab & J.-M. Fleureau

A method of measuring the specific surface area of bentonite for evaluation of the hydraulic performance of bentonite engineered barriers

I. Kobayashi, H. Owada, T. Ishii & A. Iizuk

A method to determine fractal dimension of microfabric surface in marine clay

X.W. Zhang, J. Li, C.M.Wang & D.H. Ma

Plastic strain-induced small strain stiffness anisotropy: A multi-scale experimental evidence

A. Amorosi, G. Mitaritonna & F. Cotecchia

Micro-structure and collapsibility of loess in China

X.H. Bai, F.L. Ma, M.Wang & J.G. Jia

*Mixtures*

Transition fines contents of sand-clay mixtures under one dimensional compression

A.F. Cabalar, N. Akbulut & H. Isik

Effect of fines content on monotonic and cyclic shear characteristics of sand-clay mixtures

S.Watanabe & M. Hyodo

Micro and macro mechanical response of granular packing containing fine materials

M. Goudarzy, H. Viefhaus, D. König &T. Schanz

Undrained monotonic simple shear response of clayey sands and silts

Y. Suzuki & B.M. Lehane

The influence of fines on the deformation properties of sands imposed to dynamic loading

P.A. Kallioglou & Th. Tika

Unconfined compression strength of unsaturated completely decomposed granite soil with different clay mixing ratios

W.H. Zhou & X. Xu

An investigation of the particle breakage behaviour of rubber reinforced sand

R. Fu, M.R. Coop, K. Senetakis & X.Q. Li

Size effect study on fibre-reinforced cement-treated clay

H.W. Xiao, N.C.H. Yannick, F.H. Lee, M.H. Zhang & B.S. Ahmad

In-situ shearing response and shear strength of various solid waste ground focused on fibrous materials composition

S. Miyamoto, N. Yasufuku, K. Omine, R. Ishikura, S. Kawai &A. Yamawaki

Effects of random fibre reinforcement on the density of granular materials

O. Ajayi, L. Le Pen, A. Zervos & W. Powrie

Mechanical properties of glass foam, sand and cement mixtures

B. Teymur & E.Y. Tuncel

Determination of geotechnical properties of sand-EPS foam and cement mixtures

B. Teymur & R. Ahmadov

Building a nanostructure in the pore fluid of granular soils

M. Santagata, A. Bobet, A. El-Howayek, C.T. Johnston, F. Ochoa-Cornejo & J.V. Sinfield

Monotonic and cyclic shear behaviour of tire chips

M. Fuchiyama, M. Hyodo, Y. Nakata, N. Yoshimoto, K. Imada & A. Konja

*Partial saturation*

Shear strength and dilatancy of partially saturated sand in direct shear tests

J. Fern, D.J. Robert & K. Soga

Strain-rate effects in dry and partially-saturated sand under one-dimensional compression at high pressures

A.D. Barr, S.D. Clarke, M. Petkovski, A. Tyas, J.Warren & S. Kerr

One-dimensional compression of a crushable sand in dry and wet conditions

L.Wils, P.O. Van Impe & W. Haegeman

Micro-structure characteristics of undisturbed expansive soil under the wetting–drying effect

Y.Wang, L.W. Kong, Y.L.Wang & T. Liu

Particle breakage of volcanic coarse-grained soils due to wet-dry cycles and freeze-thaw actions

T. Ishikawa, T. Tokoro & S. Miura

Relationships between desiccation cracking behavior and microstructure of the Tournemire clay-rock by coupling DIC and SEM methods

A.-L. Fauchille, S. Hedan, D. Prêt, V. Valle, J. Cabrera & P. Cosenza

Water retention curve of soils with distinct pore space characteristics

T. Mine, L. Handoko & N. Yasufuku

Soil water retention curves of the unsaturated residual soil from the Brazilian coast

P.D.G. Orlando, R.M. Mendes & F.A.M. Marinho

Experimental study on the development of the law of fissures of expansive soil under different climatic conditions

L. Chen, X. Ding, H. Hu, B. Xia & W. Gao

Crack developing law of compacted expansive soil subject to laboratory wet-dry cycles

G.S. Liu,W. Li & T. Yao

*Fluid-grain coupling*

Influences of grain shape and size distribution on permeability

N. Akbulut, M.Wiszniewski & A.F. Cabalar

Effects of flow velocity and particle size distribution on the filtration of polydispersive particles in saturated porous medium

A. Hammadi, N.-D. Ahfir, A. Alem & H.-Q.Wang

Soil erosion characteristics of a residual soil under wetting-drying cycles

K. Vilayvong, N. Yasufuku & K. Iwami

Self-potential method applied to the characterization of a clogged porous medium

S. Taoudiat, N.-D. Ahfir, A. Jardani, H.-Q.Wang & J.-P. Dupont

Clay-bearing rocks slaking characterization using artificial vision

O. Rincón, L. Florez & M.S. Ocampo

Permeability changes due to volumetric dilation and shear band formation in sands under triaxial loading

S. Feia, J. Sulem, J. Canou, S. Ghabezloo & X. Clain

*Biological and chemical effects*

Soil particle composition effect on the strengthening behavior of biopolymer treatment

I. Chang, J. Im & G.C. Cho

The compression strength and micro structure analysis of silty sands stabilized with colloidal silica

G. Moradi & Sh. Seyedi

The occurrence of free iron oxides in soil microstructure

X.W. Zhang, L.W. Kong, X.L. Cui & M. Zang

Fibres and roots for soil improvement

D. MuirWood, A. Diambra & E. Ibraim

Multi-scale analysis of lime treated sand-bentonite mixtures

M.A. Hashemi, B. François, T.J. Massart, S. Salager & G. Herrier

Immediate soil-lime reaction studied on the basis of the lime consumption rate

F. Gueridi & Z. Derriche

Coral sand solidification test using ureolytic bacteria

T. Danjo, S. Kawasaki, S. Shimazaki & K. Koizuka

Microstructural approach for heavy metal propagation in saturated clays

N. Saiyouri & X. Liu

A chemo-mechanical coupling for lime treated soils

V. Robin, O. Cuisinier, A.A. Javadi & F. Masrouri

*Thermal effects*

Effect of microstructure on heat transfer through compacted cement-stabilised soils

C. Beckett & D. Ciancio

Microwave absorption and its thermo-mechanical consequences in heterogeneous rocks

M. Toifl, R. Meisels, P. Hartlieb, F. Kuchar & T. Antretter

*Observations from physical model tests and field tests*

Towards measurement of “granular temperature” inside a flowing unsteady saturated granular medium

N. Sanvitale & E.T. Bowman

Segregation effects in granular collapses

J.S. Caplan, S. Tunyasuvunakool, S.B. Dalziel & N.M. Vriend

Simulation of granular soil behaviour using the Bullet physics library

E. Izadi & A. Bezuijen

Interaction between two localized fluidization cavities in granular media: Experiments and numerical simulation

J. Ngoma, P. Philippe, S. Bonelli, J.-Y. Delenne & F. Radjai

Crush characteristics of abrasive particles during abrasive waterjet rock cutting

T.M. Oh, G.W. Joo, K.J. Yun & G.C. Cho

Micromechanics on scour of sandy soil due to tsunami flow with multi-phase interaction

T. Matsuda & K. Maeda

Susceptibility assessment of shallow landslides on Umyeon mountain, Korea, under extreme-rainfall events

S.S. Jeong, J.H. Kim, Y.M. Kim, J.K. Lee & K.W. Lee

Microstructural study of the deformation zones around a penetrating cone tip in silty soil

P. Paniagua, J. Fonseca, A.S. Gylland & S. Nordal

Sand displacement field analysis during pile installation using x-ray tomography and digital image correlation

M. Silva & G. Combe

Aging mechanism of driven and jacked pipe piles in clays

A.J. Lutenegger

Centrifuge modeling of wrapped-reinforced sand slope

J. Zhou, Y.-H. Zhou & F. Li

Theoretical and experimental modeling of settlement of rigid footing over collapsible soil

B. Kafle, H. Hailemariam & F.Wuttke

How local perturbation in regularity changes force chains in model granular soil under the shallow foundation

Y.-H. Jung, J.-W. Jung & T.-G. Kim

On the fine particles migration within French conventional railway sub-structure

T.V. Duong, Y.J. Cui, A.M. Tang, J.C. Dupla, J. Canou, N. Calon & A. Robinet

Suitability of the Superpave Gyratory Compactor for the assessment of compaction characteristics of unbound materials

C.E. Cary, C. Kumpel, A. Bagriacik, R. Cohen, M. Lecorvaisier, J. Clark, B. Sukumaran & A. Daouadji

Dilatancy based similitude of small-scale 1g models and prototypes for cohesionless soils

O. Cinicioglu, A. Altunbas, B. Soltanbeigi & A.T. Gezgin

Author index

### Biography

Kenichi Soga, Krishna Kumar, Giovanna Biscontin, Matthew Kuo