Geomechanics in Soil, Rock, and Environmental Engineering  book cover
1st Edition

Geomechanics in Soil, Rock, and Environmental Engineering

ISBN 9781498739290
Published March 9, 2016 by CRC Press
563 Pages 450 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Utilizes both Computer- and Hand-Based Calculations…

Modern practice in geomechanics is becoming increasingly reliant on computer-based software, much of which can be obtained through the Internet. In Geomechanics in Soil, Rock, and Environmental Engineering the application of these numerical techniques is examined not only for soil mechanics, but also for rock mechanics and environmental applications.

… For Use in Complex Analysis

It deals with the modern analysis of shallow foundations, deep foundations, retaining structures, and excavation and tunneling. In recent years, the environment has become more and more important, and so it also deals with municipal and mining waste and solutions for the disposal and containment of the waste. Many fresh solutions to problems are presented to enable more accurate and advanced designs to be carried out.

A Practical Reference for Industry Professionals, This Illuminating Book:

  • Offers a broad range of coverage in soil mechanics, rock mechanics, and environmental engineering
  • Incorporates the author‘s more than 40 years of academic and practical design experience
  • Describes the latest applications that have emerged in the last ten years
  • Supplies references readily available online for futher research

Geomechanics in Soil, Rock, and Environmental Engineering should appeal to students in their final undergraduate course in geomechanics or master’s students, and should also serve as a useful reference to practitioners in the field of geomechanics, reflecting the author’s background in both industry and academia.

Table of Contents

Basic Concepts

Basic Definitions
Soil Tests
Direct Shear Tests
Consolidation Tests

Finite Layer Methods

Approximation of Fourier Coefficients
Solution Procedure
Three-Dimensional Problems
Consolidation Problems
Fourier Transforms

Finite Element Methods

Types of Elements
Steady State Seepage
Stress Analysis
Consolidation Analysis
Numerical Integration
Elastic–Perfectly Plastic Models
Work Hardening Models
Effective Stress Analysis Using Cam Clay Type Models
Cam Clay Type Models
Undrained Analysis
Finite Element Analysis

Site Investigation and In Situ Testing

Exploration Methods
Site Investigation
Object of Site Investigation
Category of Investigation
Planning an Investigation
Preparing Cost Estimates for the Work
Detailed Exploration
Presentation of Information (Logs)
Excavation or Drilling Methods
Sampling Methods
Rock Coring
Field Tests
Vane Shear Test
Standard Penetration Test
Cone Penetrometers
Interpretation of Cone Data
Liquefaction Potential
Geophysical Methods
Magnetic Surveying
Ground Probing Radar
Seismic Borehole Techniques
Cross-Hole Techniques
Other Seismic Devices

Shallow Foundations

Types of Shallow Foundations
Bearing Capacity
Numerical Analysis
Numerical Approaches
Raft Foundations
Reactive Soils
Cold Climates

Deep Foundations

Types of Piles
Pile Driving Equipment
Problems with Driven Piles
Problems from Soil Displacement
Non-Displacement Piles
Design Considerations
Selection of Pile Type
Designs of Piles
Single Piles
Methods Based on Field Tests
Pile Groups
Piles in Rock
Settlement of Single Piles
Interaction of Piles
Assessment of Parameters
Lateral Resistance of Piles
Laterally Loaded Pile Groups
Displacement of Laterally Loaded Piles
Deflection of Pile Groups
Estimation of Soil Properties
Load Testing of Piles
Pile Load Tests
Dynamic Pile Testing
Pile Integrity Tests
Capabilities of Pile Test Procedures
Number of Piles Tested
Test Interpretation
Monitoring of Piled Foundations
Measurement Techniques
Comparison with Predicted Performance
Interpretation and Portrayal of Measurements
Piled Rafts
Uses of Piled Rafts
Design Considerations
Bearing Capacity of Piled Rafts
Analysis of Piled Raft Foundations
Example of the Finite Layer Method
Structural Stiffness

Slope Stability

Slip Circle Analysis
Non-Circular Failure Surfaces
Wedge Analysis
Plasticity Theory
Upper- and Lower-Bound Solutions
Finite Element and Finite Difference Solutions
Seismic Effects
Factors of Safety
Slope Stabilisation Techniques
Stability Charts

Types of Excavation Support
Stability of Excavations
Base Heave for Cuts in Clay
Ground Settlement Caused By Excavation
Effect of Shape of Excavation
Forces on Braced Excavations
Stability of Slurry-Filled Trenches
Numerical Analysis
Excavation Including Groundwater
Soil Models

Retaining Structures

Earth Pressure Calculation
Effect of Water
Surface Loads
Sheet Pile Walls
Anchored Walls
Reinforced Earth
Computer Methods

Soil Improvement

Soft Soils
Surcharging and Wick Drains
Column-Supported Embankments
Controlled Modulus Columns
Dynamic Compaction
Deep Soil Mixing
Jet Grouting
Other Methods
Numerical Analysis

Environmental Geomechanics

Compacted Clay Liners
Flexible Membrane Liners
Geosynthetic Clay Liners
Stability of Liners
Processes Controlling Pollutant Transfer
Finite Layer Solutions
Mining Waste

Basic Rock Mechanics

Engineering Properties of Rocks
Failure Criterion for Rock
Classification of Rocks and Rock Masses
Planes of Weakness
Underground Excavation
Rock Slopes
Foundations on Rock
Vibration through Rock
Numerical Methods


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John Small is Emeritus Professor of geotechnical engineering at the University of Sydney. He has worked as a university researcher and teacher and has also spent time working as a senior geotechnical engineer for a large multi-discipline engineering consultant, thus gaining both practical and academic experience. He has carried out the design of many large engineering projects notably foundations for tall buildings.


"… covers some topics which are not to be found in other texts, for example, the design of working platforms, foundations on fissured soils, and the material on excavation analysis including groundwater… suitable for more advanced undergraduate courses and post-graduate courses in geotechnical engineering."
—Harry Poulos, Senior Consultant, Coffey International

"Small’s text covers a broad range of information available to help assess the properties and strength of soil, rock, and environmental controls encountered in certain types of construction applications. In 12 chapters (some with associated appendixes), Small (emer., geotechnical engineering, Univ. of Sydney, Australia) covers the basic concepts and tests
used in soil mechanics, describes finite layer and finite element method mathematical techniques, presents site investigation requirements, and examines sample collection and lab and field testing methods. Information on analyses and considerations associated with shallow and deep foundations, slope stability, excavations, retaining structures, soil improvement, and geotechnical aspects related to disposal of municipal, industrial, and mining wastes are also provided. The last chapter presents methods needed for testing rock, along with the analyses and considerations recommended for construction in rock. Ample equations, figures, photographs, graphs, and tables fully support the text, as do generous references and a substantial index. The text assumes a fundamental knowledge of geomechanics and would benefit from a glossary. The strength of the text is in the broad coverage of the presented information; however, a few chapters lack meaningful introductions that would help provide a framework for their content."
CHOICE, December 2016