1st Edition

Geotechnical Aspects of Underground Construction in Soft Ground

Edited By Giulia Viggiani Copyright 2013
    1100 Pages
    by CRC Press

    Geotechnical Aspects of Underground Construction in Soft Ground comprises a collection of 118 papers, four reports on symposium themes, and four invited lectures presented at the seventh International Symposium on Geotechnical Aspects of Underground Construction in Soft Ground, held in Rome, Italy, 16-18 May 2011.

    The symposium was organized by the Technical Committee TC28 “Underground Construction in Soft Ground” of the International Society for Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering (ISSMGE). This is the latest in a series which began in New Delhi in 1994, and was followed by symposia in London (1996), Tokyo (1999), Toulouse (2002), Amsterdam (2005), and Shanghai (2008). The Rome symposium was organised by the Italian Geotechnical Society (AGI), under the auspices of the International Society for Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering (ISSMGE) and the Italian Ministry for Public Works, and sponsored by various national and international companies.

    Geotechnical Aspects of Underground Construction in Soft Ground includes contributions from 30 countries on research, design and construction of underground works in soft ground. The contributions cover:
    - Construction, design, and measured performance of bored tunnels
    - Physical and numerical modelling of deep excavations and bored tunnels
    - Construction, design, and measured performance of deep excavations
    - Design methods and predictive tools for deep excavations and bored tunnels
    - Ground movements, interaction with existing structures and mitigation measures
    - Activities of TC204 working groups
    The general reports give an overview of the papers listed in the symposium’s technical sessions. The proceedings include the written version of the four invited lectures covering topics ranging from the geotechnical aspects of construction of the new Mexico City deep sewerage system (as a special contribution of TC214 “Soft Soils”), to the long-term settlement mechanisms of tunnels in Shanghai, the lessons learned from the deep excavations for the North-South Line in Amsterdam, and the evaluation of the effects of tunnel excavation on historical buildings, drawing on experience gathered during construction of subway line C in Rome.

    Similar to previous editions, Geotechnical Aspects of Underground Construction in Soft Ground represents a valuable source of reference on the current practice of analysis, design, and construction of tunnels and deep excavations in soft ground. The book is particular aimed at academics and professionals interested in geotechnical and underground engineering.


    Special lectures

    Mexico City deep eastern drainage tunnel
    M.A. Aguilar-Téllez, R. Méndez-Marroquin, J.L. Rangel-Núñez, M. Comulada-Simpson, U. Maidl & G. Auvinet-Guichard

    Long-term tunnel settlement mechanisms of Metro Line 2 in Shanghai
    C.W.W. Ng, Q. Li & G.B. Liu

    Deep excavations for Amsterdam Metro North-South line: An update and lessons learned
    A.F. van Tol & M. Korff

    Evaluating the effects of tunnelling on historical buildings: The example of a new subway in Rome
    S. Rampello, L. Callisto, F.M. Soccodato & G.M.B. Viggiani

    Keiichi Fujita lecture

    TC204 proposal for ‘Keiichi Fujita Lecture’
    R. Kastner

    Tribute to Professor Keiichi Fujita by ISSMGE Technical Committee 204 (formerly TC28) on Underground Construction in Soft Ground
    R.J. Mair & H. Akagi

    Session reports

    Construction, design and measured performance of bored tunnels
    C.O. Menkiti

    Numerical and physical modelling of tunnels and deep excavations
    S.W. Jacobsz

    Construction, design and measured performance of deep excavations
    J.R. Standing

    Design methods and predictive tools for deep excavations and bored tunnels
    L. Callisto

    Construction, design, and measured performance of bored tunnels

    Application of the image and laser sensors based tunnel scanning system
    M. Sagong, T.H. Koh, B.S. Chun, B.H. Lee & Y.S. Byun

    Manipulations of the sticky clays regarding EPB tunnel driving
    G. Spagnoli, M. Feinendegen, R. Ernst & M. Weh

    The effects of anisotropy and of unhomogeneity of stress state on the lining of road tunnel in a Flysch formation
    V.M. Santoro

    Foam conditioning in EPB tunnelling
    M. Thewes, C. Budach & A. Bezuijen

    High-resolution multichannel seismic survey for the excavation of the new headrace tunnel for the Crevola Toce III hydropower scheme in the Ossola Valley, Italy
    M. Sapigni, A.M. Baldi, F. Bianchi & J. De Luca

    Geotechnical instrumentation data management
    J.L. Gilby, P. Eng & M. Socol

    Design and construction of a sewer tunnel in difficult site conditions
    P. Croce, S. Di Maio, G. Speciale & L. Cassibba

    Prediction and performance of a ground freezing application to the rehabilitation works of an existing tunnel
    A. Pigorini, A. Sciotti, G. Zoppo & G. Calabresi

    Flow around a TBM: A Comparison of analytical and numerical models
    A. Bezuijen, F. Nagel & G. Meschke

    Design of jet-grouting for tunnel waterproofing
    M. Arroyo, A. Gens, P. Croce & G. Modoni

    Modelling a deep tunnel excavation in a low-porosity tectonised clay
    D. Boldini & A. Graziani

    Micro-measurement and monitoring system for ageing underground infrastructure (Underground M3)
    K. Soga, A. Ledesma, A. Roncaglia & I. Vaníček

    Settlement monitoring and tunnelling process adaptation—case of South Toulon tunnel
    J.P. Janin, D. Daniel, R. Kastner, F. Emeriault, A. Guilloux & H. Lebissonnais

    Backcalculation of internal forces in the segmental lining of a tunnel: The experience of Line 1 in Naples
    E. Bilotta & G. Russo

    Backanalysis of measured movements in ageing tunnels
    C. de Santos, A. Ledesma & A. Gens

    Modelling and monitoring of a urban underground excavation
    A. Cantone, R. Fico, F. Cavuoto & A. Mandolini

    The Line 3 of the Metro of Cairo
    P. Patrizi

    Methods of monitoring of metro lining in Prague
    M. Vaníček, S. Chamra, D. Jirásko, J. Macháček, I. Vaníček, J. Záleský, A. Hada, K. Chaiyasarn & K. Soga

    Two adjacent railway tunnels underneath the historic city of Mainz
    H. Quick, J. Michael, S. Meissner & U. Arslan

    Aicha-Mauls on the Brenner Base Tunnel—status of the works and results
    H. Quick, J. Michael, K. Bergmeister & E. Facchin

    A new tunnel bored in alluvial soft soil under the Malaga Airport
    C.S. Oteo, J. García Pérez, H. Moreno, P. de La Fuente & J. Oteo Escobar

    Analysis of convergence data and 3D numerical modelling of tunnels excavated in fine-grained soils
    P. Perazzelli, T. Rotonda, D. Boldini, A.M. Ajmone-Cat & P.M. Gianvecchio

    Back-fill grout with two component mix in EPB tunneling to minimize surface settlements: Rome Metro—Line C case history
    S. Pelizza, D. Peila, R. Sorge & F. Cignitti

    Deep excavation of Malatesta Station in Rome: Design, construction and measures
    E. Romani, R. Sorge, G. Guiducci, A. Lucarelli & G. Furlani

    Line C in Rome: Remote monitoring system
    R. Sorge, S. Moretti & O. Tripoli

    Physical and numerical modelling of deep excavations and bored tunnels

    Review of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids behaviour in the context of grouts
    S. Kazemian, A. Prasad & B.B.K. Huat

    Stability of cohesive-frictional soils with square underground openings
    K. Yamamoto, A.V. Lyamin, D.W. Wilson, A.J. Abbo & S.W. Sloan

    Bearing capacity analysis of cohesive-frictional soils with dual circular tunnels
    K. Yamamoto, A.V. Lyamin, D.W. Wilson, A.J. Abbo & S.W. Sloan

    Centrifuge modelling of the response of buildings to tunnelling
    R.P. Farrell & R.J. Mair

    Tunnelling-induced deformation on a masonry structure: A numerical approach
    A. Amorosi, D. Boldini, G. de Felice & M. Malena

    The dynamic behavior of shield circular tunnels and surrounding granular soils during earthquakes
    M. Hatambeigi, Y. Pashang Pisheh & M. Pashang Pisheh

    An investigation into Inclined Struts method as a type of shoring
    A. Fakher & S. Sadeghian

    Understanding ground deformation mechanisms during multi-propped excavation in soft clay
    S.Y. Lam, S.K. Haigh & M.D. Bolton

    Face stability control for EPB tunnels in a non homogeneous till formation with highly permeable layers
    A. Graziani, A. Lembo-Fazio, M. Moccichino & P. Romualdi

    Numerical simulation of long-term twin-tunnel behaviour at St James’s park
    R.G. Laver & K. Soga

    The efficiency of compensation grouting in sands
    K. Soga, A. Bezuijen & K. Eisa

    Tunneling in stratified soft ground: Experimental study on 1g EPBS reduced scale model
    N. Berthoz, D. Branque, H. Wong, G. Généreux, D. Subrin & E. Humbert

    Effects of the excavation procedure on the stability of diaphragm wall panels
    D. L’Amante & A. Flora

    Water table lowering effects on excavations
    N.P. Raposo & A.T. Gomes

    Influence of leakage on tunnel behavior in soft soils
    D.M. Zhang, H.W. Huang & Z.Y. Fan

    Effect of soil stratification on pipe behaviour due to tunnelling-induced ground movements based on the displacement controlled method
    Z.G. Zhang, M.S. Huang, M.X. Zhang & W.D. Wang

    Influence of overcut length on jack force and acting earth pressure during pipe jacking
    A. Asanprakit, M. Sugimoto & J. Chen

    Assessment of building damage induced by excavation using plate analogy
    E. Namazi & H. Mohamad

    Comparing the limit equilibrium method and the numerical stress analysis method of tunnel face stability assessment
    P. Perazzelli & G. Anagnostou

    An analytical method to control tunnel lining settlements
    A.D. Garini

    Interaction between tunnelling and bridge foundation—3D numerical investigation
    C. Yoo & S.J. Wu

    Numerical analysis of precast tunnel segmental lining supported by full-scale experimental tests
    F. Cignitti, R. Sorge, A. Meda, F. Nerilli & Z. Rinaldi

    The ground movement simulator: An interesting facility for the study of the behavior of buildings submitted to ground subsidence
    M. Caudron, M. Al Heib, B. Hor & F. Emeriault

    Experimental and numerical study of grout injections in silty soils
    L. Masini, S. Rampello, G.M.B. Viggiani & K. Soga

    3D finite element analysis of deep excavations with cross-walls
    S. Rampello & S. Salvatori

    A 3D numerical study of deep excavations in clayey soils
    E. Erbì & F.M. Soccodato

    Construction, design, and measured performance of deep excavations

    Interaction of retaining structure with adjacent building: Multi-stage numerical analysis
    E.M. Comodromos & M.C. Papadopoulou

    Effect of pressurized grouting on anchor behavior in residual soils
    T.-S. Kim, B.-K. Sim, J.-S. Kim, S.-W. Lee & I.-M. Lee

    Design and construction of anchored diaphragm walls and dewatering system for the excavation of a two-level basement car park at the Al Ghazala Hotel Intercontinental in Tripoli—Libya
    C. Asioli, M. Agostini & T. Minotti

    Underground car parks in Italian urban areas: Not an easy task!
    G. Pagotto, P. Silvi & F. Casadei

    Recent uses of directional drilling technology in the construction field
    D. Vanni, M. Siepi, M. Croce, F. Melli & V. Specchio

    Leak detection in complex underground structures using an innovative geophysical method
    D. Vanni & E. Geutebrück

    Construction of a large underground parking in Bari downtown
    R. Granata, F. Gioia & V. Cotecchia

    Seepage experiences for deep urban excavation at the TBM Malatesta shaft, Rome
    A. Capata & V. Capata

    Spatial effects on excavations in deep soft lacustrine clay
    P. Becker, G. Berhane & H.-G. Kempfert

    Detection of imperfections in diaphragm walls with geophysical measurements
    R. Spruit, V. Hopman & A.F. van Tol

    An integrated monitoring and risk management system for civil construction works
    E.P.T. Smits

    The study of displacements of diaphragm walls built in Warsaw Quaternary soils
    A. Siemińska-Lewandowska, M. Mitew-Czajewska & U. Tomczak

    Design control and monitoring of a jet grouted excavation bottom plug
    N. Eramo, G. Modoni & M.A.A. de Toledo

    Dewatering tests results for underground C Line stations construction
    M. Grisolia, G. Iorio & A. Zechini

    Evaluation of negative skin friction on sheet pile walls at the Rio Grande dry dock, Brazil
    C.M. Santana, F.A.B. Danziger, F.R. Lopes, L.B. Becker & R.J.L. Pereira

    Challenging demands on the geotechnical design and first monitoring results of the T185 in Frankfurt
    S. Meissner, H. Quick, J. Michael & U. Arslan

    Geotechnical design of a railway tunnel and an underground station supporting the new city hall, Delft, The Netherlands
    M.J.C. Everaars, E. Kwast, C.M. Meulblok, S. Delfgaauw & H. Mortier

    CSM-cutter soil mixing—worldwide experiences of a young soil mixing method in soft soils
    F.-W. Gerressen & T. Vohs

    The construction of deep excavation ditch in weak soil in St. Petersburg
    R. Mangushev, E. Lashkova, V. Smolenkov & A. Osokin

    Effect of staged dewatering and excavation on the heave of soil beneath deep excavation
    G. Zheng & Z. Li

    Design and construction of deep excavations in Shanghai
    W.D. Wang & Z.H. Xu

    3-D finite element modeling and construction aspects for vertical shafts in Metro C Rome
    G. Furlani, G. Guiducci, A. Lucarelli, A. Carrettucci & R. Sorge

    Effect of cement on tropical peat stabilized by deep mixing method
    S. Kazemian, A. Prasad & B.B.K. Huat

    Design methods and predictive tools for deep excavations and bored tunnels

    Effects of tunnelling on a single pile: Three-dimensional design tool
    J.Q. Surjadinata, T.S. Hull & J.P. Carter

    Prediction method of the displacement of surrounding ground during excavation
    Y. Motoi

    Numerical modeling of diaphragm wall behavior in Bangkok soil using hardening soil model
    N. Phien-wej, M. Humza & Z.Z. Aye

    A nonlinear soil spring model considering ground stress and strain change during excavation
    T. Sakamoto & Y. Katsura

    How to analyse walls for deep excavations
    A. Hettler & T. Schanz

    Prediction of tunnel-induced settlements in soft ground
    J. Fillibeck & N. Vogt

    Strains and failure characteristics of pyroclastic materials in deep excavation
    A. Lombardi & A. Capata

    Simplified numerical method for tunnel design under seismic condition: Some examples about Istanbul Metro design, Kadikoy-Kartal Line
    G.M. Gaspari, G. Quaglio, V. Floria

    FEM analyses of deep excavations and earth retaining structures in soft clay
    T. Kono & Y. Shigeno

    The influence of jet-grout constitutive modelling in excavation analyses
    M. Ciantia, M. Arroyo, R. Castellanza & A. Gens

    Pile-group response due to tunnelling
    F. Basile

    Prediction of surface settlements induced by TBM using Artificial Neural Networks method
    R. Boubou, F. Emeriault & R. Kastner

    Durability of calcarenitic hypogea in the underground cultural heritage of Palermo (Sicily)
    M. Zimbardo, L. Ercoli & N. Nocilla

    Deep excavation in Bulgaria—comparison of measured and computed performance
    A.E. Totsev

    Tunnel-boring process in urban environment: Modeling for reliability—a kinematic study
    D. Festa, W. Broere, S.v.d. Woude & J.W. Bosch

    Mechanical analysis of jet grouted supporting structures
    A. Flora, S. Lirer, G.P. Lignola & G. Modoni

    3D simulations of a NATM tunnel in stiff clays with soil parameters optimised using monitoring data from exploratory adit
    T. Svoboda & D. Mašín

    Numerical analysis of 20.5 m deep excavation with anchored diaphragm wall
    J. Josifovski, S. Gjorgjevski & M. Jovanovski

    Performance of deep excavations in the Taipei Basin
    R.N. Hwang & Z.C. Moh

    Geotechnical issues related to dry maintenance of open cut excavations below groundwater
    table in soft soils: Reliability of a simplified calculation model
    F. Carnevale, R. Gallotti, F. Caneparo & P. Pampanin

    Ground movements, interaction with existing structures and mitigation measures

    Compensation grouting: Mechanisms determining the shape of the grout body
    A. Bezuijen & A.F. van Tol

    Analysis of ground movements induced by tunnels in sand based on contract CR3 in Kaohsiung metro
    B.C.B. Hsiung

    The response of buildings to tunnelling: A case study
    R.P. Farrell, R.J. Mair, A. Sciotti, A. Pigorini & M. Ricci

    The response of piled buildings to deep excavations
    M. Korff, R.J. Mair, A.F. van Tol & F.J. Kaalberg

    The horizontal response of framed buildings on individual footings to excavation-induced movements
    K.H. Goh & R.J. Mair

    The response of buildings to movements induced by deep excavations
    K.H. Goh & R.J. Mair

    3D numerical modelling and settlement monitoring during excavation of the Metro-Torino South extension
    G. Barla, M. Barla & G. Leuzzi

    3D Numerical modelling of tunnelling intersecting piles
    S.W. Lee, C.K.M. Choy, S.C. Tse, F.R. van Gool, W.W.L. Cheang & R.B.J. Brinkgreve

    Geotechnical cut-off diaphragms for built-up area protection in urban underground development
    N.S. Nikiforova & D.A. Vnukov

    Greater Metro Line 3, Cairo: Installation of underground construction pits using cut-off-wall and soft-gel-grouting
    L. Liersch & M. Baltruschat

    An interpretation of jet grouting effects on the retaining structures of a deep excavation and on adjacent buildings
    E. Fontanella, L. Callisto, A. Desideri, A. Sciotti & C. Ottaviani

    Compensation grouting of piled foundations to mitigate tunneling settlements
    F.J. Kaalberg, R.D. Essler & R. Kleinlugtenbelt

    Settlement behaviour after compensation and corrective grouting
    A. Bezuijen, F.J. Kaalberg, R. Kleinlugtenbelt & R.D. Essler

    South Toulon tunnel: Analysis of an instrumented section
    J.P. Janin, D. Dias, R. Kastner, F. Emeriault, A. Guilloux & H. Lebissonnais

    Prediction of the effects induced by the Metro C construction on an old masonry building
    F. Buselli, A. Logarzo, S. Miliziano, F. Formato, G. Simonacci & A. Zechini

    Ground movements induced by tunnel boring in Naples
    E. Bilotta & G. Russo

    EPB tunnelling in deltaic deposits: Observations of ground movements
    A. Gens, A. Di Mariano & M.T. Yubero

    Mitigation of the effects induced by shallow tunneling in urban environment: The use of ‘compensation grouting’ in the underground Line B1 works in Rome
    A. Sciotti, A. Desideri, G. Saggio & C. Kummerer

    Jacked piles as mitigation measure of surface settlements due to tunneling in clay
    M. Marchi, G. Gottardi, G. Marchi, P.M. Masoli, L. Zambianchi & G. Zattoni

    Observed and predicted settlements induced by the construction of hydraulic tunnels in Buenos Aires
    A. Logarzo, S. Miliziano, V. Floria & M. Pescara

    On the effects of Line 6 tunnel excavation in Naples
    B. Bitetti, A. Mandolini, A.F.V. Tol, W. Broere & R.B.J. Brinkgreve

    Long term environmental effect of tunnel construction in weak soils
    M. Mets, R. Raudsepp & T. Ruben

    Soft ground tunneling in urban areas—proximity effects
    J.F. Chang, H.C. Chao & Z.C. Moh

    Activities of TC204 working groups

    Urban tunnels in soft ground: Review of current design practice
    V. da Mota Wedekin, R. Kastner, A. Guilloux, A. Bezuijen, J. Standing & A. Negro Jr.

    Guidelines for comparing field or physical model observations with numerical simulations
    G.M.B. Viggiani

    A predictive exercise on the behaviour of tunnels under seismic actions
    E. Bilotta & F. Silvestri

    Author index


    Viggiani, Giulia