1st Edition

Geothermal Systems and Energy Resources Turkey and Greece

Edited By Alper Baba, Jochen Bundschuh, D. Chandrasekharam Copyright 2014
    332 Pages
    by CRC Press

    330 Pages
    by CRC Press

    In the region comprising Turkey and Greece, people have been using water from geothermal sources for bathing and washing of clothes since ancient times. This region falls within the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt and hence is a locus of active volcanism and tectonism and experiences frequent seismic events. This volcanic and tectonic activity has given rise to over 1500 geothermal springs. Its importance was recognized decades ago and the geothermal water is now being utilized for district heating, industrial processing, domestic water supply, balneology and electric power generation. The geothermal potential in this region is large. In Turkey alone it is estimated to be more than 31500 MWt while the proven potential is 4078 MWt. At present 2084 MWt is being utilized for direct applications in Turkey and 135 MWt in Greece. In Turkey electricity is produced for 166 MW installed capacity, whereas in Greece geothermal energy is presently not used for electricity production despite its potential.

    This book discusses the geochemical evolution of the thermal waters and thermal gases in terms of the current volcano-tectonic setting and associated geological framework that makes the region very important to the geothermal scientific community. The book explains, in a didactic way, the possible applications, depending on local conditions and scales, and it presents new and stimulating ideas for future developments of this renewable energy source. Additionally, the book discusses the role(s) of possible physicochemical processes in deep hydrothermal systems, the volatile provenance and relative contributions of mantle and crustal components to total volatile inventories. It provides the reader with a thorough understanding of the geothermal systems of this region and identifi es the most suitable solutions for specifi c tasks and needs elsewhere in the world. It is the fi rst time that abundant information and data from this region, obtained from intensive research during the last few decades, is unveiled to the international geothermal community. Thus, an international readership, in the professional and academic sectors, as well as in key institutions that deal with geothermal energy, will benefit from the knowledge from geothermal research and experiences obtained from the Aegean Region.

    About the book series
    Editorial board
    Preface by Ladislaus Rybach
    Editors’ foreword
    About the editors

    1. Chemical and isotopic constraints on the origin of thermal waters in Anatolia, Turkey: fluid–mineral equilibria approach
    Halim Mutlu, Nilgün Güleç & David R. Hilton
    1.1 Introduction
    1.2 Geological setting
    1.3 Water chemistry
    1.4 Geothermometry applications
    1.4.1 Chemical geothermometers
    1.4.2 Na–K–Mg diagram
    1.5 Stable isotopes
    1.5.1 δ18O–δD compositions
    1.5.2 δ34S−δ13C compositions
    1.6 Mineral equilibrium calculations

    2. Gas geochemistry of Turkish geothermal fluids: He–CO2 systematics in relation to active tectonics and volcanism
    Nilgün Güleç, Halim Mutlu & David R. Hilton
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Framework of tectonic, volcanic, and geothermal activities
    2.3 He–CO2 systematics
    2.4 Discussion
    2.4.1 Physicochemical processes in hydrothermal systems
    2.4.2 Volatile provenance: relative contributions of mantle and crustal components
    2.4.3 Spatial distribution of mantle volatiles: relation to tectonic and volcanic activities
    2.5 Conclusions

    3. Geothermal fields and thermal waters of Greece: an overview
    Nicolaos Lambrakis, Konstantina Katsanou & George Siavalas
    3.1 Prologue–historical background
    3.2 Introduction
    3.3 The paleogeographical setting of Greece
    3.4 Volcanism of Greece
    3.5 The distribution of heat flow and cause of geothermal anomalies in Greece
    3.5.1 Back-arc regions
    3.5.2 Volcanic arc of the South Aegean Sea
    3.5.3 Western Greece
    3.6 Geological setting of the major geothermal fields
    3.6.1 Back-arc geothermal fields of Greece
    3.6.2 Volcanic arc of South Aegean Sea
    3.6.3 Low-enthalpy geothermal fields of western Greece
    3.7 Chemical composition of thermal and mineral waters
    3.7.1 Materials and methods
    3.7.2 Hydrochemistry of geothermal fields Hydrochemistry of back-arc geothermal fields Hydrochemistry of Aegean volcanic arc geothermal fields Hydrochemistry of geothermal fields from western Greece Minor and trace elements of Greek thermal waters
    3.8 Conclusions

    4. Geological setting, geothermal conditions and hydrochemistry of south and southeastern Aegean geothermal systems
    Maria Papachristou, Konstantinos Voudouris, Stylianos Karakatsanis, Walter D’Alessandro & Konstantinos Kyriakopoulos
    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 General geological setting
    4.2.1 South Aegean Active Volcanic Arc
    4.3 Regional geological and geothermal setting
    4.3.1 Milos
    4.3.2 Kimolos
    4.3.3 Santorini
    4.3.4 Nisyros
    4.3.5 Kos
    4.3.6 Ikaria Island
    4.3.7 Chios Island
    4.4 Sampling and data analysis
    4.5 Results
    4.5.1 Major elements composition
    4.5.2 Hydrochemistry and water types Milos Island Kimolos Island Santorini Island Nisyros Island Kos Island Ikaria Island Chios Island
    4.5.3 Trace elements composition
    4.6 Statistical analysis
    4.6.1 Cluster analysis
    4.6.2 Factor analysis
    4.7 Discussion and conclusion

    5. Application of hydrogeochemical techniques in geothermal systems; examples from the eastern Mediterranean region
    Aysen Davraz
    5.1 Introduction
    5.2 Hydrogeochemical evaluation of geothermal fluids
    5.2.1 Collection of samples
    5.2.2 In situ measurements
    5.2.3 Chemical analyses
    5.2.4 Data interpretation Case studies in the eastern Mediterranean region
    5.3 Processes affecting geothermal fluid composition
    5.3.1 The saturation indices of geothermal waters in the eastern Mediterranean region
    5.4 Geothermometry
    5.4.1 Chemical geothermometers Silica geothermometry Cation geothermometry
    5.4.2 Isotope geothermometers Oxygen isotope geothermometry
    5.4.3 Gas geothermometers
    5.4.4 Geothermometer applications in the eastern Mediterranean region
    5.5 Stable isotope applications
    5.5.1 Results from the stable isotope analysis in the eastern Mediterranean region
    5.6 Conclusions

    6. Hydrochemical investigations of thermal and mineral waters in the Turgutlu-Salihli-Ala¸sehir plain (Gediz graben), western Turkey
    Tugbanur Özen & Gültekin Tarcan
    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 Geological and hydrogeological settings
    6.3 General information of the geothermal areas
    6.4 Hydrochemical settings
    6.4.1 Geothermometry applications Chemical geothermometers The ternary (Na–K–Mg) diagram
    6.4.2 Mineral saturation
    6.5 Conclusions

    7. Electrically conductive structures and geothermal model in Sakarya-Göynük area in eastern Marmara region inferred from magnetotelluric data
    Ilyas Çaglar
    7.1 Introduction
    7.2 Near-surface and deep electrical structure
    7.3 Geoelectric structure and geothermal model
    7.4 Conclusion

    8. Use of sulfur isotopes on low-enthalpy geothermal systems in Aya¸s-Beypazarı (Ankara), central Anatolia, Turkey
    Mehmet Çelik
    8.1 Introduction
    8.2 Geology and hydrogeology
    8.3 Hydrochemical and isotopic studies
    8.3.1 Hydrochemical and isotopic evaluation
    8.3.2 Sulfur isotope evaluation
    8.4 Results

    9. Geochemistry of thermal waters in eastern Anatolia: a case study from Diyadin (Agrı) and Ercis-Zilan (Van)
    Suzan Pasvanoglu
    9.1 Introduction
    9.2 Site description
    9.2.1 Diyadin (Agrı) area
    9.2.2 Zilan (Van-Ercis) area
    9.3 Field survey–methodology–analysis
    9.4 Geological setting
    9.4.1 Geology of Diyadin geothermal field
    9.4.2 Geology of Zilan geothermal field
    9.5 Hydrgeology
    9.5.1 Diyadin (Agri) geothermal field
    9.5.2 Zilan (Erçis) geothermal field
    9.6 Results and discussion
    9.6.1 Water chemistry 159
    9.6.2 Trace element contents of Diyadin waters
    9.6.3 Geothermometers
    9.6.4 Isotopic composition of waters
    9.7 Conclusion

    10. Balçova geothermal field district heating system: lessons learned from 16 years of application
    Mahmut Parlaktuna
    10.1 Geographical setting, geology, and geochemistry of the field
    10.2 Development of the field
    10.3 Utilization of the field
    10.4 Lessons learned
    10.4.1 Pipeline network
    10.4.2 Decline in reservoir pressure
    10.4.3 Pricing policy
    10.5 Current status of the field

    11. Rapid development of geothermal power generation in Turkey
    Murat Karadas & Gülden Gökçen Akkurt
    11.1 Introduction
    11.2 Present status of geothermal power plants in Turkey (2013)
    11.3 Characteristics of geothermal resources in Aegean region 1
    11.4 Types of geothermal power plants for reservoir characteristics of Aegean region
    11.4.1 Single and double flash geothermal power plants
    11.4.2 Binary cycle geothermal power plants
    11.5 Geothermal power plants in Turkey
    11.5.1 Kizildere geothermal power plant Brief historical development of Denizli-Kizildere geothermal field Power generation Scaling problems in Kizildere geothermal power plant Future of Denizli-Kizildere geothermal field
    11.5.2 Dora geothermal power plants Brief historical development of Salavatlı geothermal field Dora-1 geothermal power plant Power generation Performance assessment of the plant
    11.5.3 Germencik double flash geothermal power plant Brief historical development of Germencik-Ömerbeyli geothermal field Power generation of the plant
    11.5.4 Tuzla geothermal power plant Brief historical development of tuzla geothermal field Power generation and performance assessment of the plant Scaling problems of the plant
    11.5.5 Other geothermal power plants Bereket geothermal power plant Dora-2 geothermal power plant Irem geothermal power plant
    11.6 Conclusion

    12. Scaling problem of the geothermal system in Turkey
    Irmak Dogan, Mustafa M. Demir & Alper Baba
    12.1 Introduction
    12.2 Geothermal energy in Turkey
    12.3 Scaling in geothermal system of Turkey
    12.4 Conclusion

    13. Exergetic and exergoeconomic aspects of ground-source (geothermal) heat pumps in Turkey
    Arif Hepbasli & Ebru Hancioglu Kuzgunkaya
    13.1 Introduction
    13.2 Energetic, exergetic, and exergoeconomic relations
    13.2.1 Mass, energy, entropy, and exergy balances
    13.2.2 Energy and exergy efficiencies
    13.2.3 Exergetic improvement potential
    13.2.4 Some thermodynamic parameters
    13.2.5 Exergoeconomic analysis relations
    13.3 Exergetically and exegoeconomically analyzed GSHPS
    13.3.1 Exergetically analyzed GSHP systems
    13.3.2 Greenhouses
    13.3.3 Drying
    13.3.4 Exergoeconomically analyzed GSHP systems
    13.4 Concluding remarks

    14. Application of geophysical methods in Gulbahce geothermal site, Urla-Izmir, western Anatolia
    Oya Pamukçu, Tolga Gönenç, Petek Sındırgı & Alper Baba
    14.1 Introduction
    14.2 Geology and tectonic properties of study area
    14.3 Geophysical studies
    14.3.1 Gravity and magnetic
    14.3.2 Self-potential
    14.3.3 Vertical electrical sounding method
    14.4 Result and conclusion

    15. Palaeoenvironmental and palynological study of the geothermal area in the Gülbahçe Bay (Aegean Sea, western Turkey)
    Mine Sezgül Kayseri-Özer, Bade Pekçetinöz & Erdeniz Özel
    15.1 Introduction
    15.2 Geological setting and high-resolution shallow seismic study (3.5 khz)
    15.3 Important plants and nonpollen palynomorphs of quaternary in Gülbahçe Bay
    15.3.1 Pollen
    15.3.2 Nonpollens
    15.4 Corals in Gülbahçe Bay
    15.5 Palynology
    15.5.1 Reference zone
    15.5.2 Defining palynomorphs of thermal spring locations from Gülbahçe Bay
    15.6 Palaeo environment
    15.6.1 Terrestrial condition in the Gülbahçe Bay
    15.6.2 Marine condition in the Gülbahçe Bay

    Subject index
    Book series page


    Jochen Bundschuh, Alper Baba, D. Chandrasekharam