Geothermal Systems and Energy Resources: Turkey and Greece, 1st Edition (Paperback) book cover

Geothermal Systems and Energy Resources

Turkey and Greece, 1st Edition

Edited by Alper Baba, Jochen Bundschuh, D. Chandrasekharam

CRC Press

336 pages

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In the region comprising Turkey and Greece, people have been using water from geothermal sources for bathing and washing of clothes since ancient times. This region falls within the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt and hence is a locus of active volcanism and tectonism and experiences frequent seismic events. This volcanic and tectonic activity has given rise to over 1500 geothermal springs. Its importance was recognized decades ago and the geothermal water is now being utilized for district heating, industrial processing, domestic water supply, balneology and electric power generation. The geothermal potential in this region is large. In Turkey alone it is estimated to be more than 31500 MWt while the proven potential is 4078 MWt. At present 2084 MWt is being utilized for direct applications in Turkey and 135 MWt in Greece. In Turkey electricity is produced for 166 MW installed capacity, whereas in Greece geothermal energy is presently not used for electricity production despite its potential.

This book discusses the geochemical evolution of the thermal waters and thermal gases in terms of the current volcano-tectonic setting and associated geological framework that makes the region very important to the geothermal scientific community. The book explains, in a didactic way, the possible applications, depending on local conditions and scales, and it presents new and stimulating ideas for future developments of this renewable energy source. Additionally, the book discusses the role(s) of possible physicochemical processes in deep hydrothermal systems, the volatile provenance and relative contributions of mantle and crustal components to total volatile inventories. It provides the reader with a thorough understanding of the geothermal systems of this region and identifi es the most suitable solutions for specifi c tasks and needs elsewhere in the world. It is the fi rst time that abundant information and data from this region, obtained from intensive research during the last few decades, is unveiled to the international geothermal community. Thus, an international readership, in the professional and academic sectors, as well as in key institutions that deal with geothermal energy, will benefit from the knowledge from geothermal research and experiences obtained from the Aegean Region.

Table of Contents

About the book series

Editorial board


Preface by Ladislaus Rybach

Editors’ foreword

About the editors


1. Chemical and isotopic constraints on the origin of thermal waters in Anatolia, Turkey: fluid–mineral equilibria approach

Halim Mutlu, Nilgün Güleç & David R. Hilton

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Geological setting

1.3 Water chemistry

1.4 Geothermometry applications

1.4.1 Chemical geothermometers

1.4.2 Na–K–Mg diagram

1.5 Stable isotopes

1.5.1 δ18O–δD compositions

1.5.2 δ34S−δ13C compositions

1.6 Mineral equilibrium calculations

2. Gas geochemistry of Turkish geothermal fluids: He–CO2 systematics in relation to active tectonics and volcanism

Nilgün Güleç, Halim Mutlu & David R. Hilton

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Framework of tectonic, volcanic, and geothermal activities

2.3 He–CO2 systematics

2.4 Discussion

2.4.1 Physicochemical processes in hydrothermal systems

2.4.2 Volatile provenance: relative contributions of mantle and crustal components

2.4.3 Spatial distribution of mantle volatiles: relation to tectonic and volcanic activities

2.5 Conclusions

3. Geothermal fields and thermal waters of Greece: an overview

Nicolaos Lambrakis, Konstantina Katsanou & George Siavalas

3.1 Prologue–historical background

3.2 Introduction

3.3 The paleogeographical setting of Greece

3.4 Volcanism of Greece

3.5 The distribution of heat flow and cause of geothermal anomalies in Greece

3.5.1 Back-arc regions

3.5.2 Volcanic arc of the South Aegean Sea

3.5.3 Western Greece

3.6 Geological setting of the major geothermal fields

3.6.1 Back-arc geothermal fields of Greece

3.6.2 Volcanic arc of South Aegean Sea

3.6.3 Low-enthalpy geothermal fields of western Greece

3.7 Chemical composition of thermal and mineral waters

3.7.1 Materials and methods

3.7.2 Hydrochemistry of geothermal fields Hydrochemistry of back-arc geothermal fields Hydrochemistry of Aegean volcanic arc geothermal fields Hydrochemistry of geothermal fields from western Greece Minor and trace elements of Greek thermal waters

3.8 Conclusions

4. Geological setting, geothermal conditions and hydrochemistry of south and southeastern Aegean geothermal systems

Maria Papachristou, Konstantinos Voudouris, Stylianos Karakatsanis, Walter D’Alessandro & Konstantinos Kyriakopoulos

4.1 Introduction

4.2 General geological setting

4.2.1 South Aegean Active Volcanic Arc

4.3 Regional geological and geothermal setting

4.3.1 Milos

4.3.2 Kimolos

4.3.3 Santorini

4.3.4 Nisyros

4.3.5 Kos

4.3.6 Ikaria Island

4.3.7 Chios Island

4.4 Sampling and data analysis

4.5 Results

4.5.1 Major elements composition

4.5.2 Hydrochemistry and water types Milos Island Kimolos Island Santorini Island Nisyros Island Kos Island Ikaria Island Chios Island

4.5.3 Trace elements composition

4.6 Statistical analysis

4.6.1 Cluster analysis

4.6.2 Factor analysis

4.7 Discussion and conclusion

5. Application of hydrogeochemical techniques in geothermal systems; examples from the eastern Mediterranean region

Aysen Davraz

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Hydrogeochemical evaluation of geothermal fluids

5.2.1 Collection of samples

5.2.2 In situ measurements

5.2.3 Chemical analyses

5.2.4 Data interpretation Case studies in the eastern Mediterranean region

5.3 Processes affecting geothermal fluid composition

5.3.1 The saturation indices of geothermal waters in the eastern Mediterranean region

5.4 Geothermometry

5.4.1 Chemical geothermometers Silica geothermometry Cation geothermometry

5.4.2 Isotope geothermometers Oxygen isotope geothermometry

5.4.3 Gas geothermometers

5.4.4 Geothermometer applications in the eastern Mediterranean region

5.5 Stable isotope applications

5.5.1 Results from the stable isotope analysis in the eastern Mediterranean region

5.6 Conclusions

6. Hydrochemical investigations of thermal and mineral waters in the Turgutlu-Salihli-Ala¸sehir plain (Gediz graben), western Turkey

Tugbanur Özen & Gültekin Tarcan

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Geological and hydrogeological settings

6.3 General information of the geothermal areas

6.4 Hydrochemical settings

6.4.1 Geothermometry applications Chemical geothermometers The ternary (Na–K–Mg) diagram

6.4.2 Mineral saturation

6.5 Conclusions

7. Electrically conductive structures and geothermal model in Sakarya-Göynük area in eastern Marmara region inferred from magnetotelluric data

Ilyas Çaglar

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Near-surface and deep electrical structure

7.3 Geoelectric structure and geothermal model

7.4 Conclusion

8. Use of sulfur isotopes on low-enthalpy geothermal systems in Aya¸s-Beypazarı (Ankara), central Anatolia, Turkey

Mehmet Çelik

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Geology and hydrogeology

8.3 Hydrochemical and isotopic studies

8.3.1 Hydrochemical and isotopic evaluation

8.3.2 Sulfur isotope evaluation

8.4 Results

9. Geochemistry of thermal waters in eastern Anatolia: a case study from Diyadin (Agrı) and Ercis-Zilan (Van)

Suzan Pasvanoglu

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Site description

9.2.1 Diyadin (Agrı) area

9.2.2 Zilan (Van-Ercis) area

9.3 Field survey–methodology–analysis

9.4 Geological setting

9.4.1 Geology of Diyadin geothermal field

9.4.2 Geology of Zilan geothermal field

9.5 Hydrgeology

9.5.1 Diyadin (Agri) geothermal field

9.5.2 Zilan (Erçis) geothermal field

9.6 Results and discussion

9.6.1 Water chemistry 159

9.6.2 Trace element contents of Diyadin waters

9.6.3 Geothermometers

9.6.4 Isotopic composition of waters

9.7 Conclusion

10. Balçova geothermal field district heating system: lessons learned from 16 years of application

Mahmut Parlaktuna

10.1 Geographical setting, geology, and geochemistry of the field

10.2 Development of the field

10.3 Utilization of the field

10.4 Lessons learned

10.4.1 Pipeline network

10.4.2 Decline in reservoir pressure

10.4.3 Pricing policy

10.5 Current status of the field

11. Rapid development of geothermal power generation in Turkey

Murat Karadas & Gülden Gökçen Akkurt

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Present status of geothermal power plants in Turkey (2013)

11.3 Characteristics of geothermal resources in Aegean region 1

11.4 Types of geothermal power plants for reservoir characteristics of Aegean region

11.4.1 Single and double flash geothermal power plants

11.4.2 Binary cycle geothermal power plants

11.5 Geothermal power plants in Turkey

11.5.1 Kizildere geothermal power plant Brief historical development of Denizli-Kizildere geothermal field Power generation Scaling problems in Kizildere geothermal power plant Future of Denizli-Kizildere geothermal field

11.5.2 Dora geothermal power plants Brief historical development of Salavatlı geothermal field Dora-1 geothermal power plant Power generation Performance assessment of the plant

11.5.3 Germencik double flash geothermal power plant Brief historical development of Germencik-Ömerbeyli geothermal field Power generation of the plant

11.5.4 Tuzla geothermal power plant Brief historical development of tuzla geothermal field Power generation and performance assessment of the plant Scaling problems of the plant

11.5.5 Other geothermal power plants Bereket geothermal power plant Dora-2 geothermal power plant Irem geothermal power plant

11.6 Conclusion

12. Scaling problem of the geothermal system in Turkey

Irmak Dogan, Mustafa M. Demir & Alper Baba

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Geothermal energy in Turkey

12.3 Scaling in geothermal system of Turkey

12.4 Conclusion

13. Exergetic and exergoeconomic aspects of ground-source (geothermal) heat pumps in Turkey

Arif Hepbasli & Ebru Hancioglu Kuzgunkaya

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Energetic, exergetic, and exergoeconomic relations

13.2.1 Mass, energy, entropy, and exergy balances

13.2.2 Energy and exergy efficiencies

13.2.3 Exergetic improvement potential

13.2.4 Some thermodynamic parameters

13.2.5 Exergoeconomic analysis relations

13.3 Exergetically and exegoeconomically analyzed GSHPS

13.3.1 Exergetically analyzed GSHP systems

13.3.2 Greenhouses

13.3.3 Drying

13.3.4 Exergoeconomically analyzed GSHP systems

13.4 Concluding remarks

14. Application of geophysical methods in Gulbahce geothermal site, Urla-Izmir, western Anatolia

Oya Pamukçu, Tolga Gönenç, Petek Sındırgı & Alper Baba

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Geology and tectonic properties of study area

14.3 Geophysical studies

14.3.1 Gravity and magnetic

14.3.2 Self-potential

14.3.3 Vertical electrical sounding method

14.4 Result and conclusion

15. Palaeoenvironmental and palynological study of the geothermal area in the Gülbahçe Bay (Aegean Sea, western Turkey)

Mine Sezgül Kayseri-Özer, Bade Pekçetinöz & Erdeniz Özel

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Geological setting and high-resolution shallow seismic study (3.5 khz)

15.3 Important plants and nonpollen palynomorphs of quaternary in Gülbahçe Bay

15.3.1 Pollen

15.3.2 Nonpollens

15.4 Corals in Gülbahçe Bay

15.5 Palynology

15.5.1 Reference zone

15.5.2 Defining palynomorphs of thermal spring locations from Gülbahçe Bay

15.6 Palaeo environment

15.6.1 Terrestrial condition in the Gülbahçe Bay

15.6.2 Marine condition in the Gülbahçe Bay

Subject index

Book series page

About the Editors

Professor Alper Baba, born 1970 in Turkey, holds a degree in geology and a doctorate in the field of hydrogeology from the Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir. He has about 20 years of work experience in hydrogeological and environmental geology problems in different part of the world. Since 2010, he has been a professor at Izmir Institute of Technology as a director of Geothermal Energy Research and Application Center. He teaches and conducts research in the field of groundwater contamination, geothermal energy, and hydrogeology. He has coordinated a variety of national and international R&D projects in cooperation with research institutes and companies, among them NATO funded projects. Dr. Baba has been the recipient of the Turkish Academy of Science SuccessfulYoung Scientists Award and the Turkish Geological Engineering Association Gold Medal Award. Dr. Baba is the author of several peer-reviewed scientific publications and contributions to international conferences. Dr. Baba is also the editor of the book Groundwater and Ecosystems and Climate Change and Its Effects onWater Resources, Issues of National and Global Security (both NATO Science Series, Springer).

Jochen Bundschuh (1960, Germany) finished his PhD on numerical modeling of heat transport in aquifers in Tübingen in 1990. He works in geothermics, subsurface and surface hydrology and integrated water resources management, and connected disciplines. From 1993 to 1999, he served as an expert for the German Agency of Technical Cooperation (GTZ) and as a longterm professor for the DAAD (German Academic Exchange Service) in Argentina. From 2001 to 2008, he worked within the framework of the German governmental cooperation (Integrated Expert Program of CIM; GTZ/BA) as adviser–in-mission to Costa Rica at the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE). Here, he assisted the country in evaluation and development of its huge low-enthalpy geothermal resources for power generation. Since 2005, he is an affiliate professor of the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. In 2006, he was elected Vice-President of the International Society of Groundwater for Sustainable Development ISGSD. From 2009 to 2011, he was visiting professor at the Department of Earth Sciences at the National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan. By the end of 2011, he was appointed as professor in hydrogeology at the University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Australia, where he leads a working group of 26 researchers working on the wide field of water resources and low/middle enthalpy geothermal resources, water and wastewater treatment, and sustainable and renewable energy resources ( In November 2012, Prof. Bundschuh was appointed president of the newly established Australian chapter of the International Medical Geology Association (IMGA).

Dr. Bundschuh is author of the books Low-Enthalpy Geothermal Resources for Power Generation (2008) (Balkema/Taylor & Francis/CRC Press) and Introduction to the Numerical Modeling of Groundwater and Geothermal Systems: Fundamentals of Mass, Energy and Solute Transport in Poroelastic Rocks. He is editor of the books Geothermal Energy Resources for Developing Countries (2002), Natural Arsenic in Groundwater (2005), and the two-volume monograph Central America: Geology, Resources and Hazards (2007), Groundwater for Sustainable Development (2008), Natural Arsenic in Groundwater of Latin America (2008). Dr. Bundschuh is editor of the book series Multiphysics Modeling, Arsenic in the Environment, and Sustainable Energy Developments (all Balkema/CRC Press/Taylor & Francis).

Dornadula Chandrasekharam (Chandra: b1948, India), chair professor in the Department of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (IITB) obtained his MSc in Applied Geology (1972) and PhD (1980) from IITB. He has been working in the fields of geothermal energy resources, volcanology, and groundwater pollution, for the past 30 years. Before joining IITB, he worked as a senior scientist at the Centre forWater Resources Development and Management, and Centre for Earth Science Studies,Kerala, India, for 7 years. Hehas held several important positions during his academic and research career. He was a Third World Academy of Sciences (TWAS, Trieste, Italy); visiting professor to Sanaa University, Yemen Republic between 1996 and 2001; senior associate of Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy, from 2002 to 2007; adjunct professor, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan from 2011 to 2012. Recently he has been appointed as a visiting professor to King Saud University of Saudi Arabia. He received the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP, Trieste, Italy) Fellowship to conduct research at the Italian National Science Academy (CNR) in 1997. Prof. Chandra extensively conducted research in low-enthalpy geothermal resources in India and is currently the Chairman of M/s GeoSyndicate Power Private Ltd., the only geothermal company in India. He is an elected board member of the International Geothermal Association and has widely represented the country in several international geothermal conferences. He conducted short courses on lowenthalpy geothermal resources in Argentina, Costa Rica, Poland, and China. He has supervised 18 PhD students and published 95 papers in international and 35 papers in national journals of repute and published 5 books in the field of groundwater pollution and geothermal energy resources. His two books on geothermal energy resources—(1) Geothermal Energy Resources for Developing Countries by Balkema Pub. (2002) and (2) Low Enthalpy Geothermal Resources for Power Generation by Taylor & Francis (2008)—are widely read. Prof. Chandra is currently on the Board of Director of (1) Oil and Natural Gas Corporation, (2) Western Coal Fields Ltd., (3) India Rare Earths Ltd., and (4) Mangalore Refineries and Petrochemicals. He has been appointed as the Chairperson of the Geothermal Energy Resources and Management committee constituted by the Department of Sciences and Technology, Government of India.

About the Series

Sustainable Energy Developments

ISSN 2164-0645

Renewable energy sources and sustainable policy options, including energy efficiency and energy conservation, can provide long-term solutions for key-problems of industrialized, developing and transition countries by providing clean and domestically available energy and, at the same time, decreasing dependence on fossil fuel imports and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The book series will serve as a multi-disciplinary resource linking renewable energy with human society. The book series fulfils the rapidly growing worldwide interest in sustainable energy solutions. It covers all fields of renewable energy and their possible applications will be addressed not only from a technical point of view, but also from economic, financial, social, political, legislative and regulatory viewpoints.
The book series is considered to become a state-of-the-art source for a large group of readers comprising different stakeholders and professionals, including government and non-governmental organizations and institutions, international funding agencies, universities, public energy institutions, public health and other relevant institutions as well as to civil society.

Editorial Board
Jochen Bundschuh (Series Editor)
University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Australia & Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden
Morgan Bazilian Senior Advisor on Energy and Climate Change to the Director-General, United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO), Vienna, Austria
Maria da Graça Carvalho Member of the European Parliament, Brussels & professor at Instituto Superior Técnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal
Robert K. Dixon Leader, Climate and Chemicals, The Global Environment Facility, The World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Rainer Hinrichs-Rahlwes President of the European Renewable Energies Federation (EREF); Board Member of the German Renewable Energy Federation (BEE), Berlin, Germany
Veena Joshi Senior Advisor-Energy, Section Climate Change and Development, Embassy of Switzerland, New Delhi, India
Eric Martinot Senior Research Director, Institute for Sustainable Energy Policies (ISEP), Nakano, Tokyo & Tsinghua University, Tsinghua-BP Clean Energy Research and Education Center, Beijing, China

FIELDS COVERED• Access to clean energy • Bioenergy • Biofuels • Bio-inspired solar fuel production • Capacity building and communication strategies • Climate policy • Electric, hybrid plug-in, and hybrid vehicles • Energizing development • Energy autonomy and cities • Energy behavior • Energy conservation • Energy efficiency • Energy for the poor: The renewable options for rural electrification • Energy meteorology • Energy scenarios • Energy security • Energy storage • Energy-efficient buildings • Energy-efficient lighting • Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) • Financing energy efficiency • Fuel cells • Gender and energy • Geothermal energy for direct use (district heating, industry, agriculture, etc.) • Geothermal power generation • Green and greening computing • Green construction materials • Heat pumps • Hydrogen technologies • Labeling energy performance • Low energy architecture • Nano-energy • Renewable energy scenarios • Renewable energy strategies and policies • Renewable vehicle energy • Renewables energy for drinking water solutions • Renewables for poverty reduction • Renewables for small islands • Solar cars • Solar PV • Solar heating and cooling • Sustainable energy policies • Sustainable hydropower • Sustainable public transportation • Tidal energy • Water desalination using renewables • Wave power • Wind energy

Suresh K. Aggarwal, Chicago, USA - Ishfaq Ahmad, Arlington, USA - Sergio M. Alcocer, Mexico - Said Al-Hallaj, Chicago, USA - Khaled A. Al-Sallal, Al-Ain, UAE - Hussain Al-Towaie, Aden, Yemen - Joel R. Anstrom, University Park, USA - Kalyan Annamalai, College Station, USA - Jaco Appelman, Delft, The Netherlands - Santiago Arnaltes, Madrid, Spain - François Avellan, Lausanne, Switzerland - AbuBakr S. Bahaj, Southampton, UK - Ronald Bailey, Chattanooga, USA - Ramesh C Bansal, Brisbane, Australia - Ruggero Bertani, Rome, Italy - Prosun Bhattacharya, Stockholm, Sweden - Peter Birkle, Cuernavaca, Mexico - John Boland, Adelaide, Australia - Frances Brazier, Delft, The Netherlands - Gary W. Brudvig, New Haven, USA - Jens Burgtorf, New Delhi, India - Kirk W. Cameron, Blacksburg, USA - Thameur Chaibi, Tunis, Tunisia - Shih Hung Chan, Taipei, Taiwan - D. Chandrashekharam, Mumbai, India - S.K. Jason Chang, Taipei, Taiwan - Shanta Chatterji, Mumbai, India - Falin Chen, Taipei, Taiwan - Siaw Kiang Chou, Singapore - Daniel Cohn, Cambridge, USA - Erik Dahlquist, Västerås, Sweden - Holger Dau, Berlin, Germany - Sudipta De, Kolkata, India - Gilberto De Martino Jannuzzi, Campinas, S.P., Brazil - Kristin Deason, Berlin, Germany & Washington, USA - Tom Denniss, Macquarie Park, Australia - Roland Dimai, Dornbirn, Austria - Gregory Dolan, Alexandria, USA - Claus Doll, Karlsruhe, Germany - Peter Droege, Newcastle, Australia - Gautam Dutt, Buenos Aires, Argentina - James Edmonds, College Park, USA - Adeola Ijeoma Eleri, Abuja, Nigeria - Ali Emadi, Chicago, USA - Hans-Josef Fell, Berlin, Germany - Bruno Francois, Paris, France - Andrew Frank, Davis, USA - Petra Fromme, Phoenix, USA - Chris Gearhart, Dearborn, USA - John Golbeck, University Park, USA - José Goldemberg, Sao Paulo, Brazil - Barbara Goodman, Golden, USA - James Gover, Flint, USA - Amelia Hadfield, Brussel, Belgium - Jan Hoinkis, Karlsruhe, Germany - Einar Hope, Bergen, Norway - Yoichi Hori, Tokyo, Japan - Ernst Huenges, Potsdam, Germany - Iqbal Husain, Akron, USA - Gerald W. Huttrer, Frisco, USA - Tetsunari Iida, Tokyo, Japan - Rainer Janssen, München, Germany - Ma Jiming, Beijing, P.R. China - Guðni Jóhannesson, Reykjavík, Island - Thomas B. Johansson, Lund, Sweden - Perry T. Jones, Knoxville, USA - Soteris Kalogirou, Limasol, Cyprus - Ghazi A. Karim, Calgary, Canada - Arun Kashyap, New York, USA - Pertti Kauranen, Tampere, Finland - Lawrence L. Kazmerski, Golden, USA - Claudia Kemfert, Berlin, Germany - Thomas Kempka, Potsdam, Germany - Madhu Khanna, Urbana, USA - Ånund Killingtveit, Trondheim, Norway - Rob Kool, Utrecht, The Netherlands - Israel Koren, Amherst, USA - Arun Kumar, Uttarakhand, India - Naveen Kumar, Delhi, India - Chung K. Law, Princeton, NJ, USA - Harry Lehmann, Dessau, Germany - Dennis Leung, Hong Kong - Xianguo Li, Waterloo,Canada - Søren Linderoth, Roskilde, Denmark - Hongtan Liu, Miami,  USA - Wolfgang Lubitz, Mülheim an der Ruhr, Germany - Thomas Ludwig, Hamburg,Germany - Wolfgang F. Lutz, Ter Aar, The Netherlands / Asunción, Paraguay - Thomas Lynge Jensen, Suva, Fiji Islands - Sébastien Martinet, Grenoble, France - Omar R. Masera, Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico - Chang Mei, Cambridge, MA, USA - Pietro Menga, Milan, Italy - Gerd Michelsen, Lüneburg, Germany - James Miller, Argonne, USA - Daniel Mosse, Pittsburgh, USA - Urs Muntwyler, Burgdorf, Switzerland - Jayant K. Nayak, Mumbai, India - Emily Nelson, Cleveland, USA - Kim Nielsen, Virum, Denmark - Galal Osman, Cairo, Egypt - Alessandro Palmieri, Jakarta, Indonesia - Jérôme Perrin, Guyancourt, France - Gianfranco Pistoia, Rome, Italy - Josep Puig, Barcelona, Spain - Kaushik Rajashekara, Indianapolis, USA - Wattanapong Rakwichian, Chiang Mai, Thailand - Sanjay Ranka, Gainesville, USA - Klaus Rave, Kiel, Germany / Brussels, Belgium - Athena Ronquillo-Ballesteros, Washington, USA - Jack Rosebro, Los Angeles, USA - Marc A. Rosen, Oshawa, ON, Canada - Harald N. Røstvik, Stavanger, Norway - Ladislaus Rybach, Zurich, Switzerland - Ambuj D. Sagar, New Delhi, India - Roberto Schaeffer, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - Frank Scholwin, Leipzig, Germany - Lisa Schipper, Bangkok, Thailand - Dietrich Schmidt, Kassel, Germany - Jamal Shrair, Budapest, Hungary - Semida Silveira, Stockholm, Sweden - Subhash C. Singhal, Richland, USA - Erik J. Spek, Newmarket, Canada - Gregory Stephanopoulos, Cambridge, MA, USA - Robert Stüssi, Lisboa, Portugal - Mario-César Suarez-Arriaga, Morelia, Mexico - Lawrence E. Susskind, Cambridge, MA, USA - Eoin Sweeney, Dublin, Ireland - Antoni Szumanowski, Warsaw, Poland - Geraldo Lúcio Tiago Filho, Minas Gerais, Brazil - Alberto Troccoli, Canberra, Australia - Eftihia Tzen, Pikermi, Greece - Hamdi Ucarol, Gebze/Kocaeli, Turkey - Veerle Vandeweerd, New York, USA - Peter F. Varadi, Chevy Chase, USA - Maria Wall, Lund, Sweden - Martin Wietschel, Karlsruhe, Germany - Sheldon S. Williamson, Montreal, Canada - Wolfgang Winkler, Hamburg, Germany - Ramon Wyss, Stockholm, Sweden - Jinyue Yan, Royal Stockholm, Sweden - Laurence T. Yang, Antigonish, Canada - Guillermo Zaragoza, Almería, Spain - Tim S. Zhao, Hong Kong

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Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Earth Sciences / Geology
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Power Resources / Alternative & Renewable