1st Edition

Geothermal Water Management

Edited By Jochen Bundschuh, Barbara Tomaszewska Copyright 2018
    462 Pages
    by CRC Press

    462 Pages
    by CRC Press

    Availability of and adequate accessibility to freshwater and energy are two key technological and scientific problems of global significance. At the end of the 20th century, the deficit of water for human consumption and economic application forced us to focus on rational use of resources. Increasing the use of renewable energy sources and improving energy efficiency is a challenge for the 21st century. Geothermal energy is heat energy generated and stored in the Earth, accumulated in hydrothermal systems or in dry rocks within the Earth’s crust, in amounts which constitute the energy resources. The sustainable management of geothermal energy resources should be geared towards optimization of energy recovery, but also towards rational management of water resources since geothermal water serves both as energy carrier and also as valuable raw material. Geothermal waters, depending on their hydrogeothermal characteristics, the lithology of the rocks involved, the depth at which the resources occur and the sources of water supply, may be characterized by very diverse physicochemical parameters. This factor largely determines the technology to be used in their exploitation and the way the geothermal water can be used. This book is focused on the effective use of geothermal water and renewable energy for future needs in order to promote modern, sustainable and effective management of water resources.

    The research field includes crucial new areas of study:

    • an improvement in the management of freshwater resources through the use of residual geothermal water;

    • a review of the technologies available in the field of geothermal water treatment for its (re)use for energetic purposes and freshwater production, and

    • the development of balneotherapy.

    The book is aimed at professionals, academics and decision makers worldwide, water sector representatives and administrators, business enterprises specializing in renewable energy management and water treatment, working in the areas of geothermal energy usage, water resources, water supply and energy planning. This book has the potential to become a standard text used by educational institutions and research & development establishments involved in the geothermal water management.

    Section I   Resources, geochemical properties and environmental implications of geothermal water

    1. A global assessment of geothermal resources
    Marek Hajto &Anna Sowizdzał
    1.1 Introduction
    1.2 Definitions and classification of geothermal resources
    1.3 Methods of regional assessment of geothermal resources
    1.4 New concepts of geothermal resources classification
    1.5 Results of geothermal resources assessment

    2. Reinjection of cooled water back into a reservoir
    Leszek Pajak & Barbara Tomaszewska
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Mathematical model for assessing the conditions for injecting water into a rock formation
    2.3 Injection of saline water into rock formation
    2.4 Summary

    3. Geothermal and hydrogeological conditions, geochemical properties and uses of geothermal waters of the Slovakia
    Dušan Bodiš, Anton Remšík, Radovan Cernák, Daniel Marcin, Zlatica Ženišová & Renáta Flaková
    3.1 Introduction
    3.2 Geological structure
    3.3 Characteristics of geothermal bodies
    3.4 Geothermal waters’ chemical composition
    3.5 Abstraction and thermal energy potential of geothermal waters

    4. Resources, geochemical features and environmental implications of the geothermal waters in the continental rift zone of the Büyük Menderes,Western Anatolia, Turkey
    N. Özgür
    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 Geologic setting
    4.3 Hydrogeology and hydrogeochemistry
    4.4 Resources and geothermal potential
    4.5 Environmental implications
    4.6 Model of the geothermal waters in the rift zone of the Büyük Menderes

    Section II   Treatment of geothermal water for reuse

    5. Analytical procedures for ion quantification supporting water treatment processes
    Ewa Kmiecik
    5.1 Introduction
    5.2 Groundwater sampling
    5.3 Quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) program
    5.4 QA/QC program in geothermal water monitoring – the case of Banska PGP-1 well (Banska Nizna, Poland)
    5.5 Summary

    6. Treatment of geothermal waters for industrial and agricultural purposes
    Nalan Kabay, Pınar Yanar Sözal, Emre Yavuz, Mithat Yüksel & Ümran Yüksel
    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 Geothermal potential of Turkey
    6.3 Main utilization areas of geothermal energy
    6.4 Environmental issues
    6.5 Chemistry of geothermal fluids
    6.6 Treatment of geothermal water

    7. Removal of boron and arsenic from geothermal water by ion-exchange
    Nalan Kabay, Idil Y. Ipek, Pelin K. Yilmaz, Saba Samatya, Marek Bryjak, Kazuharu Yoshizuka, S. Ali Tuncel, Ümran Yüksel & Mithat Yüksel
    7.1 Introduction
    7.2 Removal of boron from geothermal water by ion-exchange
    7.3 Removal of arsenic from geothermal water by ion-exchange

    8. Membrane techniques in the treatment of geothermal water for fresh and potable water production
    Michał Bodzek & Krystyna Konieczny
    8.1 Introduction
    8.2 Desalination methods
    8.3 Concentrate utilization
    8.4 Integrated desalination systems
    8.5 The consideration of energy issues in water desalination
    8.6 Economic analyses of desalination processes
    8.7 Final remarks

    9. Review of direct discharge and recovery of reverse osmosis concentrates
    Raquel Ibáñez, Antia Pérez-González, Javier Pinedo, Pedro Gomez, Ana Maria Urtiaga & Inmaculada Ortiz
    9.1 Introduction
    9.2 Global desalination overview
    9.3 RO desalination: characteristics and drawbacks
    9.4 RO concentrates: influence of production site
    9.5 Adverse effects of current ro concentrate management options
    9.6 Treatment technologies of ro concentrates: review

    10. Geothermal water treatment in Poland
    Barbara Tomaszewska
    10.1 Introduction
    10.2 Characteristics of geothermal waters
    10.3 Research methodology
    10.4 Results and discussion
    10.5 Conclusions

    Section III   The uses of geothermal water in agriculture

    11. Coupling geothermal direct heat with agriculture
    Jochen Bundschuh, Barbara Tomaszewska, Noreddine Ghaffour, Ihsan Hamawand, Hacene Mahmoudi & Mattheus Goosen
    11.1 Introduction
    11.2 Sustainability by integrating geothermal options into agriculture
    11.3 Geothermal direct heat applications
    11.4 Agriculture within the cascade system of geothermal direct heat utilization
    11.5 Geothermal energy for thermal water desalination
    11.6 Geothermal greenhouses development heating/cooling, ventilation, humidification, desalination
    11.7 Geothermal aquifers as freshwater source
    11.8 Conclusions

    Section IV   The uses of geothermal water in balneotherapy

    12. Short history of thermal healing bathing
    Barbara Kiełczawa
    12.1 Introduction
    12.2 The Americas
    12.3 Asia and the Middle East
    12.4 European countries

    13. Balneological use of geothermal springs in selected regions of the world
    Barbara Kiełczawa
    13.1 Introduction
    13.2 Africa
    13.3 The Americas
    13.4 Asia and Middle East
    13.5 European countries
    13.6 SPA, wellness and health resort organizations
    13.7 Summary

    14. The importance of an integrated analytic approach to the study of physico chemical characteristics of natural thermal waters used for pelotherapy aims: Perspectives for reusing cooled thermal waters for treatments related to thermalism applications
    Davide Rossi, Dariusz Dobrzynski, Isabella Moro, Mirella Zancato & Nicola Realdon
    14.1 Introduction
    14.2 Application of the integrated analytical approach and tensiometry on thermalism
    14.3 Perspectives for using cooled thermal waters for thermal water treatments: Jelenia Góra hsw and borowina muds


    Jochen Bundschuh