Germfree and Gnotobiotic Animal Models: Background and Applications, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Germfree and Gnotobiotic Animal Models

Background and Applications, 1st Edition

By Bernard S. Wostmann

CRC Press

208 pages

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Hardback: 9780849340086
pub: 1996-06-19
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Description

The germfree animal is reared in the laboratory to be bacteria free; its counterpart, the gnotobiotic animal, is exposed to select microorganisms. The need for such an animal model for use in biomedical studies was first expressed by Pasteur in the late 1800s. Subsequent development of germfree and gnotobiotic animals led to an explosion of studies on the effects of microflora and its components on the physiology and metabolism of the host. Germfree and Gnotobiotic Animal Models brings together the most notable points of early and recent studies and gives reference to the most pertinent literature.

Table of Contents

Introduction

Early Growth, Body Weight, Reproduction, and Life Span

General Aspects

Growth

Body Weight of the Mature Animal

Reproduction

Life Span

Conclusions

Anatomy, Morphology, and Function of the Gastrointestinal System

General Aspects

Stomach

Small Intestine

Cecum

Large Intestine

Conclusions

Morphology and Physiology, Endocrinology and Biochemistry

General Aspects

Energy Metabolism

Liver Function

Cholesterol and Bile Acid Metabolism

Rats and Mice

Gerbils

Dogs and Pigs

Other Indicators of Function

Water Balance and Kidney Function

Mineral Metabolism

Endocrine System

Conclusions

Nutrition

General Aspects

Early Rat and Mouse Diets

Hand-Feeding of the Cesarean-Derived Newborn

Solid Diets

Further Development of Rat and Mouse Diets

Sterilization of Solid Diets

Metabolic Requirements of Germfree Rats and Germfree Mice-Contributions of the Microflora

Dietary Energy Requirements

Proteins and Amino Acids

Vitamin B Complex-Microflora Production

Fat-Soluble Vitamins

Minerals

Inositol, Ubiquinone, and Queuine

The Chemically Defined Diet

General Aspects

Development of the Chemically Defined Diet

Procedures

Present Status

Dietary Antigenicity and Immune Potential

Immunology, Including Radiobiology and Transplantation

General Aspects

Early Studies: Immune Potential of Germfree Rats and Mice Maintained on Solid Diets

Antibody-Forming Potential

Phagocytosis

B Cells, T Cells, and NK Cells

Immune Globulins

Natural Antibody

Cytokinins

Radiation Biology and Bone Marrow Transplantation

Immunological Evaluation of GF Mice Maintained on a Chemically Defined, Low Molecular Weight Antigen-Free Diet

Conclusions

Parasitology

General Aspects

Effects of the Microflora Via Nutrient Availability and the Immune System

Protozoa

Nematodes

Helminths

Schistosomiasis and Chagas' Disease

Cestodes

Pathology Over the Life Span of the Germfree Rat and the Germfree Mouse

General Aspects

Tumors and Tumor-Related Viruses

Conclusions

Applications: Past, Present, and Future. Part I

Introduction

Microbial Action and Interaction in Gnotobiotic Systems: Colonization Resistance and Translocation Studies

Controlled Microbial Association

Colonization Resistance

Materials with Antimicrobial Action

Translocation Studies

Applications: Past, Present, and Future. Part II.

Use of the Gnotobiote in the Study of Disease

The Aging Syndrome

"Endpoint Studies"

Lobund Aging Study

Cancer Research

Role of the Microflora in Steroid Metabolism and Cardiovascular Disease

Dental Caries and Periodontal Disease Studies

Dental Caries

Periodontal Disease

Radiation Biology: Role of the Microflora and Effect of Bacterial Lipopolysaccharides (LPS)

The Shock Syndrome: Potential Influence of LPS

Hemorrhagic Shock

Thermal Shock

Intestinal Strangulation

Tourniquet Shock

Ulcerative Colitis

Studies of Swine Disease

Applications: Past, Present, and Future. Part III. The Production of Monoclonal Antibodies and Conclusions

Monoclonal Antibodies

Conclusions and Future Considerations

Index

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
MED106000
MEDICAL / Research
NAT001000
NATURE / Animals / General
SCI045000
SCIENCE / Life Sciences / Biology / Microbiology