The global response to climate change will demand unprecedented international cooperation, deep economic transformation and resource transfers at a significant scale. Corruption threatens to jeopardise these efforts.
Transparency International's Global Corruption Report: Climate Change is the first publication to comprehensively explore such corruption risks. More than fifty leading experts and practitioners contribute, covering four key areas:
- governance: investigating major governance challenges towards tackling climate change
- mitigating climate change: reducing greenhouse gas emissions with transparency and accountability
- adapting to climate change: identifying corruption risks in climate-proofing development, financing and implementation of adaptation
- forestry governance: responding to the corruption challenges plaguing the forestry sector, and how these challenges need to be integrated into current international strategies to halt deforestation and promote reforestation.
The Global Corruption Report: Climate Change provides essential policy analysis to help policy-makers, practitioners and other stakeholders understand these risks and develop effective responses at a critical point in time when the main architecture for climate governance is being developed.
Table of Contents
Preface. Foreword. Acknowledgements. Executive Summary 1. Introduction 1.0. Defining the Challenge: Threats to Effective Climate Governance 1.1. Mapping the Climate Change and Governance Challenge: The Big Picture 2. The Climate Policy Framework: Examining the Effectiveness and Accountability of Current Processes 2.0. The Climate Policy Framework: Examining the Effectiveness and Accountability of Current Processes 2.1. From Global Power Politics to Responsible Collective Governance: The Transparency and Inclusiveness of International Climate Governance Institutions and Processes 2.2. Essential Building Blocs for Kyoto and Beyond: Agreeing on Climate Commitments at National and Regional Level 2.2.1. For Europe: Equal Access, Unequal Voice: Business and NGO Lobbying on EU Climate Policy 2.2.2. For US: US Climate Policies: A Snapshot of Lobbyist Influence 2.3. Urban Governance and Climate Change Policy 2.4. Vested or Public Interest? The Matrix of Interests and Influence in Key Emerging Climate Countries 2.4.1. India 2.4.2. Climate Policies in China: a Gradual Move Towards Ambition, More Transparency and Nascent Citizen Involvement 2.5. Climate Policies in Austria: Poor Accountability Breeds Slow Progress 3. Key Elements to Building Integrity in Decision-making 3.0. Key Elements to Building Integrity in Decision-making 3.1. Climate Science: The World is its Jury 3.2. Making Climate Governance Accountable: Reflections on what can be Learned from International Environmental Governance 3.3. The Aarhus Convention: A Blueprint for Inclusive and Accountable Climate Governance? 3.4. Civil Society and the Climate Change Process: How does Participation Compare as a Measure of Transparency? 3.5. Holding Commitment to Account: The Governance Dimension in Climate Change Measurement 3.6. Personal View: A Fresh Approach to Climate Politics? 4. Ensuring Integrity and Transparency in Climate Change Mitigation 4.0. Ensuring Integrity and Transparency in Climate Change Mitigation 4.1. Greenhouse Gas Accounting: a Foundation for Sound Climate Governance 4.2. Measuring, Reporting and Verification of NAMAs and their Support: Considering Capacity, Corruption and Commitments 4.3. The Trade-offs of Trade: Realities and Risks of Carbon Markets 4.3.1 Slovak Public See No Credit in Government's Carbon Trading 4.3.2. Permit Politics: Hungary's CO2 Allowances 4.3.3. Shortcomings and Shortcuts: Sri Lanka's Environmental Impact Assessments 4.3.4. Voluntary Carbon Markets: Successes and Shortfalls 4.3.5. Sectoral Crediting: Getting Governance Right from the Beginning 4.4. Climate Change: Corporate Change: Shifting Business Models to Towards the Climate Agenda 4.5. Policy Engagement: A Missing Link in Corporate Climate Reporting 4.5.1. Colombia: Measuring Transparency Policies and Mechanisms in Public Utilities 4.6. Enabling Green Choices: Ensuring Consumers Receive Accurate, Actionable Information on the Climate Impacts of their Consumption Choices 4.7. Could Corruption Pose a Barrier to Roll-out of Renewable Energy in North Africa? 4.7.1. Spain: Can Incentivising Solar Energy Invite Fraud? 4.8. Preventing a Resource Curse Fuelled by the Green Economy 4.8.1. Bolivia's Lithium: Opportunities and Challenges 4.9. Engineering the Earth: Considering Accountability and the Last Resort 5. Adaptation to Climate Change: Building Accountable, Sustainable Resilience 5.0. Adaptation to Climate Change: Building Accountable Sustainable Resilience 5.1. Show me the Money: Ensuring Equity, Transparency and Accountability in Adaptation Finance 5.1.1. Fast-start Funding: is There an Emerging Parallel Structure for Climate Finance? 5.1.2. Climate Change Funds and Development: How to Ensure Transparency and Access to Information on Funding Streams for Adaptation 5.2. Promoting an Effective and Transparent Use of Funds through the Adaptation Fund 5.3. Climate-proofing Development: Corruption Risks in Adaptation Infrastructure 5.3.1. Climate Change, Infrastructure and Corruption 5.3.2. Climate-proofing and Political Influence in the Philippines 5.4. Disrupting Lives: Climate Migration and Corruption 5.4.1 The Plunder of Kenya's Forests: Resettling the Settlers and Holding the Loggers Accountable 5.4.2. Climate Change Adaptation and Water Integrity: A Global Challenge to Address Local Realities 5.5. When Disaster Strikes: Corruption and Rapid Response in Climate-related Relief and Recovery 6. Forestry Governance: A Key Issue for Climate Change 6.1. Corruption: A Root Cause of Deforestation and Forest Degradation 6.1.1. Climate Change and Corruption Leave the World's Largest Mangrove Forest in Peril 6.2. Governance in the World's Tropical Forests: Where Will REDD+ Land? 6.2.1. Bosaw's: The 'Lung of Central America' Under Threat 6.3. Governance Risks for REDD+: How Weak Forest Carbon Accounting can Create Opportunities for Corruption and Fraud 6.3.1. Hypothetical Offsets – Real Corruption? Carbon Offsets in Papua New Guinea 6.3.2. Is Norway Rocking the REDD Boat?
Transparency International (TI) is the global civil society organisation leading the fight against corruption. Through more than 90 chapters worldwide and an international secretariat in Berlin, TI raises awareness of the damaging effects of corruption and works with partners in government, business and civil society to develop and implement effective measures to tackle it.
'Overcoming climate change is the most critical challenge of the 21st century. The flows of funding to assist developing countries in combating climate change have already begun and are likely to be ramped up to many billions of US dollars a year within a few years. The transparent utilisation of these funds will determine their effectiveness. At this critical juncture, the Global Corruption Report provides the most comprehensive assessment of the safeguards that need to be put in place to build trust and strengthen integrity in these processes. Framed by Transparency International's wide expertise in anti-corruption and accountability, this book will serve as an essential reference for anyone engaged in climate policy and decision-making' – Saleemul Huq, Director, International Centre for Climate Change and Development (ICCCAD), Independent University, Bangladesh (IUB)
'This book provides expert analysis of the dangers, demonstrates how extensive and complex the issues involved are, and proposes approaches and solutions. It is both a reference source and a call to action.' – David Nussbaum, Chief Executive, WWF-UK
'The book is an excellent - and at this time, exclusive - discussion of corruption within the context of climate governance ... The language, design, and ideas presented in Global Corruption Report: Climate Change make the book an accessible and appropriate read for the public at large, students, practitioners, researchers and policy makers.' – Alexandru N Roman, Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy