Sport is a global phenomenon engaging billions of people and generating annual revenues of more than US$ 145 billion. Problems in the governance of sports organisations, fixing of matches and staging of major sporting events have spurred action on many fronts. Yet attempts to stop corruption in sport are still at an early stage.
The Global Corruption Report (GCR) on sport is the most comprehensive analysis of sports corruption to date. It consists of more than 60 contributions from leading experts in the fields of corruption and sport, from sports organisations, governments, multilateral institutions, sponsors, athletes, supporters, academia and the wider anti-corruption movement.
This GCR provides essential analysis for understanding the corruption risks in sport, focusing on sports governance, the business of sport, planning of major events, and match-fixing. It highlights the significant work that has already been done and presents new approaches to strengthening integrity in sport. In addition to measuring transparency and accountability, the GCR gives priority to participation, from sponsors to athletes to supporters an essential to restoring trust in sport.
Table of Contents
Part 1 Governance of sport: the global view 1.1 Introduction: Sport as a force for good Bob Munro 1.2 Fair play: ideals and realities Richard McLaren 1.3 Autonomy and governance: necessary bedfellows in the fight against corruption in sport Jean-Loup Chappelet 1.4 Obstacles to accountability in international sports governance Roger Pielke 1.5 Political interference, power struggles, corruption and greed: the undermining of football governance in Asia James Dorsey 1.6 Corruption in African sport: a summary Chris Tsuma 1.7 Impunity and corruption in South American football governance Juca Kfouri 1.8 Indicators and benchmarking tools for sports governance Arnout Geeraert 1.9 Examples of evolving good governance practices in sport Michael Pedersen1.10 For the good of the game? Governance on the outskirts of international football Steve Menary 1.11 Public undue influence and image-laundering in sport Naomi Westland 1.12 Opening the door to corruption in Hungary’s sport financing Miklós Ligeti and Gyula Mucsi 1.13 Challenges and approaches to ensuring good governance in grassroots sport Mogens Kirkeby 1.14 The Code of Ethics for sport in the Municipality of Milan: a grassroots approach against organised crime and corruption in sports Paolo Bertaccini Bonoli and Caterina Gozzoli Part 2 Money, markets and private interests in football 2.1 Offside: FIFA, marketing companies and undue influence in football Jamil Chade 2.2 Measuring the United Kingdom’s ‘offshore game’ George Turner 2.3 Unfit, improper ownership in UK football clubs Arjun Mehdi 2.4 Agents and beyond: corruption risks in the football transfer market and the need for reform Raffaele Poli 2.5 Third-party ownership of football players: human beings or traded assets? Jonas Baer-Hoffmann 2.6 Origins, practice and regulation of third-party ownership in South America Gonzalo Bossart, Alessandri Bossart and Alexandra Gomez Part 3 Events in the spotlight 3.1 The multiple roles of mega-events: mega-promises, mini-outcomes? Martin Müller 3.2 Who bids for events and why? Scarlett Cornelissen 3.3 The problem with sporting mega-event impact assessment Eleni Theodoraki 3.4 Corruption and the bidding process for the Olympics and World Cup Andrew Zimbalist 3.5 Compromise or compromised? The bidding process for the award of the Olympic Games and the FIFA World Cup Stefan Szymanski 3.6 The planning and hosting of sports mega-events: sources, forms and the prevention of corruption John Horne 3.7 Preventing corruption in the planning of major sporting events: open issues Wolfgang Maennig 3.8 Malpractice in the 2010 Delhi Commonwealth Games and the renovation of Shivaji Stadium Ashutosh Kumar Mishra 3.9 Preventing corruption ahead of major sports events: learning from the 2012 London Games Kevin Carpenter 3.10 The 2014 Sochi Winter Olympics: who stands to gain? Oleg Golubchikov 3.11 The need for transparency and monitoring ahead of the 2018 World Cup in Russia Andrew Jvirblis and Anna Koval 3.12 Sporting mega-events, corruption and rights: the case of the 2022 Qatar World Cup Sharan Burrow 3.13 The Brazilian experience as ‘role model’ Chris Gaffney 3.14 Rio 2016 and the birth of Brazilian transparency Andy Spalding, Pat Barr, Albert Flores, Kat Gavin, Shaun Freiman, Tyler Klink, Carter Nichols, Ann Reid and Rina Van Orden 3.15 Sports mega-event legacies: from the beneficial to the destructive Helen Lenskyj 3.16 Urban speculation by Spanish football clubs Nefer Ruiz Crespo Part 4 Match-fixing 4.1 Why sport is losing the war to match-fixers Declan Hill 4.2 The role of the betting industry Ben van Rompuy 4.3 Cricket in Bangladesh: challenges of governance and match-fixing Iftekhar Zaman, Rumana Sharmin and Mohammad Nure Alam 4.4 The gap between sports institutions and the public will: responses to match-fixing in Lithuania Rugile Trumpyte 4.5 Australia’s ‘National Policy on Match-Fixing in Sport’ Jane Ellis 4.6 Match-fixing: the role of prevention Ulrike Spitz 4.7 New media approaches to tackling match-fixing in Finnish football Annukka Timonen 4.8 Prevention and education in match-fixing: the European experience Deborah Unger 4.9 The Austrian approach: how to combat match-fixing and promote integrity in sport Severin Moritzer Part 5 The US model: collegiate sports and corruption 5.1 The roots of corruption in US collegiate sport Donna Lopiano 5.2 Academic fraud and commercialised collegiate athletics: lessons from the North Carolina case Jay Smith 5.3 The evolution of professional college sport in the United States Allen Sack 5.4 Inequality, discrimination and sexual violence in US collegiate sports Erin Buzuvis and Kristine Newhall Part 6 The role of participants: within and beyond the sports family 6.1 The perspective of sports organisations: the International Olympic Committee Pâquerette Girard Zappelli 6.2 Combating the risk of corruption in sport: an intergovernmental perspective Stanislas Frossard 6.3 UNESCO: building on global consensus to fight corruption in sport Nada Al-Nashif 6.4 The role of Switzerland as host: moves to hold sports organisations more accountable, and wider implications Lucien W. Valloni and Eric P. Neuenschwander 6.5 The role of TV and sponsors as change agents Jaimie Fuller 6.6 A player’s perspective on the need for reform to enhance transparency and integrity in sports Louis Saha 6.7 Athletes: a critical voice in sports governance Brendan Schwab 6.8 The role of supporters in effective governance Ben Shave and Antonia Hagemann 6.9 Learning from others: the Kick It Out campaign Richard Bates 6.10 Big business blurs sports journalism’s critical eye Peter English 6.11 New ball game: covering US sports, with teams as competitors John Affleck and John Curley 6.12 What the anti-corruption movement can bring to sport: the experience of Transparency International Germany Sylvia Schenk
Transparency International (TI) is the global civil society organisation leading the fight against corruption. Through more than 100 chapters worldwide and an international secretariat in Berlin, TI raises awareness of the damaging effects of corruption and works with partners in government, business and civil society to develop and implement effective measures to tackle it.
"Transparency International have for years undertaken valuable, authoritative work on governance issues of vital importance in sport, and the concerns they have raised have been repeatedly vindicated. The research and insights in this book provide another major contribution to the recognition that sports must be true to the love people have for them."–David Conn, The Guardian
"At last a truly comprehensive, critical and impassioned look at the whole range of governance and corruption issues that have engulfed global sport. For those that want to know what has been going on, why, and how to do something about it, this book will be their first point of call."–David Goldblatt, author of The Game Of Our Lives: The Meaning and Making of English Football, 2015 William Hill Sports Book Of The Year