Global criminology is an emerging field covering international and transnational crimes that have not traditionally been the focus of mainstream criminology or criminal justice. Global Criminology: Crime and Victimization in a Globalized Era is a collection of rigorously peer-reviewed papers presented at the First International Conference of the South Asian Society of Criminology and Victimology (SASCV) that took place in Jaipur, India in 2011. Using a global yardstick as the basis for measurement, the fundamental goal of the conference was to determine criminological similarities and differences in different regions.
Four dominant themes emerged at the conference:
Terrorism.In a topic that operates at the intersection of international law, international politics, crime, and victimization, some questions remain unanswered. Is terrorism a crime issue or a national defense issue? Should terrorists be treated as war criminals, soldiers, or civil criminals? How can international efforts and local efforts work together to defeat terrorism?
Cyber Crimes and Victimization.Cyber space provides anonymity, immediate availability, and global access. Cyber offenders easily abuse these open routes. As cyber space develops, cyber-crime develops and grows. To achieve better cyber security, global criminologists must explore cyber-crimes from a variety of perspectives, including law, the motivation of offenders, and the impact on victims.
Marginality and Social Exclusion. Globalization is manifest in the fast transition of people between places, societies, social classes, and cultures. Known social constructions are destroyed for new ones, and marginalized people are excluded from important material, social, and human resources. This section examines how we can provide inclusion for marginalized individuals in the global era and protect them from victimization.
Theoretical and Practical Models of Criminal Victimization.
The process of globalization, as mentioned above, creates new elements of victimization. But globalization can also become an opportunity for confronting and defeating victimization through improved sharing of knowledge and increased understanding of the humanity of the weak.
The emerging global criminology comprises diversity of attitudes, explanations, and perspectives. The editors of this volume recognize that in the global village, there is room for solid contributions to the field of criminology and criminal justice. This collection is a move in this direction. It is hoped that these articles will help to expand the boundaries of criminology, criminal justice, and victimology with a view towards reducing crime worldwide.
Table of Contents
How Nonstate Are Terrorist Groups in Pakistan? Analysis of State Responsibilities and Accountability; Ashutosh Misra
Sea (Maritime) Piracy in the Southern African Development Community Region; Moses Montesh
The Responsibility to Protect from Terror: Putting an End to Unilateral Misuse of the Precautionary Principle; Harjass Singh
Terrorist Financing in Southern Africa: African Commitment to Combating Terrorism; Vinesh Basdeo
Cyber Crimes and Victimization
Use of Electronic Evidence in South African Law: Embracing Technical Change; Fawzia Cassim
Hacking and Fraud: Qualitative Analysis of Online Offending and Victimization; Alice Hutchings
Cyber Victimization in India: Preliminary Study; Debarati Halder, K. Jaishankar, E. Enanalap Periyar, and R. Sivakumar
Arabic Muslim Hackers: Who Are They and What Is Their Relationship with Islamic Jihadists and Terrorists? Alaeldin Mansour Maghaireh
Sexual Harassment over Cell Phones: A Survey of Women in Dhaka City; Ummey Qulsum Nipun
Marginality and Social Exclusion
Community Reentry from Jail for Mentally Ill Offenders: Challenges of Program Implementation; Dale K. Sechrest, Gisela M. Bichler, Don A. Josi, and David Shichor
Locked In and Locked Out: Global Feminist Perspectives on Women and Imprisonment; Helen Codd
Criminalization of Beggary: A Critical Look at the Indian Legal Approach; A. Nagarathna
It Is Crime, Not Racism: Victimization of Indian Students in Australia; Gail Mason
Forced Displacement and Its Implications for Youths’ Distress and Posttraumatic Growth; Avital Laufer and Mally Shechory-Bitton
Theoretical and Practical Models of Criminal Victimization
Forced Marriages, Bride Price, Levirate, and Domestic Violence: Victimization of Women and Struggles for Justice and Equity in Selected African Countries; Victoria M. Time
Beguiling Eve and Her Innocent Counterpart: Victim-Offender Identities in the Criminal Justice Process; Colleen Moore
Extending the Logic of Functional Explanations: A Theoretical Model to Explain the Victimization Process during an Indian Witch Hunt; Soma Chaudhuri
From Criminal Spin to Positive Criminology; Natti Ronel
Intimate Partner Violence Victimization: Perspectives from Spouses of Alcohol Dependents; K. Jeevitha and L. N. Suman
K. Jaishankar, Ph.D., is a senior assistant professor in the Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu, India and President of the South Asian Society of Criminology and Victimology (SASCV). He was a Commonwealth Fellow (2009–2010) at the Centre for Criminal Justice Studies, School of Law, University of Leeds, UK.
Natti Ronel, Ph.D.,is an associate professor in the Department of Criminology, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel. He is also a licensed clinical criminologist who has a private practice with the criminal population, youth, and adults who exhibit addiction, violence, and/or victimization. He leads training courses for criminal justice and victim assistance professionals.