Globalizing Human Rights explores the complexities of the role human rights played in U.S.-Soviet relations during the 1970s and 1980s. It will show how private citizens exploited the larger effects of contemporary globalization and the language of the Final Act to enlist the U.S. government in a global campaign against Soviet/Eastern European human rights violations. A careful examination of this development shows the limitations of existing literature on the Reagan and Carter administrations’ efforts to promote internal reform in USSR. It also reveals how the Carter administration and private citizens, not Western European governments, played the most important role in making the issue of human rights a fundamental aspect of Cold War competition. Even more important, it illustrates how each administration made the support of non-governmental human rights activities an integral element of its overall approach to weakening the international appeal of the USSR.
In addition to looking at the behavior of the U.S. government, this work also highlights the limitations of arguments that focus on the inherent weakness of Soviet dissent during the early to mid 1980s. In the case of the USSR, it devotes considerable attention to why Soviet leaders failed to revive the international reputation of their multinational empire in face of consistent human rights critiques. It also documents the crucial role that private citizens played in shaping Mikhail Gorbachev’s efforts to reform Soviet-style socialism.
1. Introduction 2. The Human Rights Weapon Emerges: Private Citizens and the U.S. Congress, 1975-1977 3. Setting the Stage for a Superpower Confrontation: Jimmy Carter, the Soviet Union, and Human Rights, 1975-1976 4. The Carter Administration Wields the Human Rights Weapon, January 1977-August 1978 5. The Soviet Government, Private Citizens, and Human Rights, January 1977-August 1978 6. A Delicate Balancing Act Topples: The Carter Administration, Human Rights, and Private Citizens, September 1978-January 1981 7. The Soviet Government, Private Citizens, and Human Rights, September 1978-January 1981 8. The Reagan Administration’s "Conservative" and "Private" Human Rights Campaign, January 1981-November 1985 9. The Soviet Government and Dissenters: Human Rights, Peace, and Détente, January 1981-September 1986 10. Holding Mikhail Gorbachev and Soviet Bureaucrats Accountable: U.S.-Soviet Relations, Human Rights, and the Final Act, December 1985-January 1989 11. Revolutions from Above and Below: Mikhail Gorbachev, Soviet Bureaucrats, and Human Rights 12. Conclusion
History has given us globalization, both as a scholarly and public issue, and this transnational process has grabbed the interest of commentators and experts over the past decade or so. In the public realm, the phenomenon remains a buzzword for international exchanges. As defined by scholars, globalization accounts for economic expansion – including mobility of labor, goods, money, information, and natural resources. It touches scientific and technological developments, music and the arts, and the political and institutional change. As it intersects with the history of American foreign relations, globalization reflects traditional national security concerns as well as national ideals, humanitarianism, markets, business, technology, and culture.
Books in this series thus focus on transnational themes in exciting ways that speak to the contemporary interests of historians and scholars, as well as the general public.