Global energy problems will remain a challenge in the coming decades. The impact of climate change and the melting of polar sea ice opening up access to offshore hydrocarbon resources in the Arctic Ocean, raises questions for both civil society and the scientific community over drilling opportunities in Arctic marine areas.
Disparities in approach to the governance of oil and gas extraction in the Arctic arise from fundamental differences in histories, cultures, domestic constraints and substantive values and attitudes in the Arctic coastal states and sub-states. Differing political systems, legal traditions and societal beliefs with regard to energy security and economic development, environmental protection, legitimacy of decision making, and the ownership and respect of the rights of indigenous people, all affect how governance systems of oil and gas extraction are designed.
Using a multidisciplinary approach and case studies from the USA, Norway, Russia, Canada, Greenland/Denmark and the EU, this book both examines the current governance of extraction and its effects and considers ways to enhance the efficiency of environmental management and public participation in this system.
Table of Contents
- Introduction: Between Diversity and Coexistence in The Arctic
- Framing the Problem in Arctic Offshore Oil and Gas Exploitation
- Sustainable Development in Arctic International Environmental Cooperation and the Governance of Hydrocarbon-Related Activities
- The European Union’s Role As a Facilitator in the Development of Maritime Environmental Law in the Arctic – With Focus on Offshore Hydrocarbon Activities
- Indigenous Rights in the Marine Arctic
- Alaska and Offshore Hydrocarbon Extraction: A Legal and Socio-Economic Review
- Governance of Offshore Hydrocarbon Activities in The Arctic and Energy Policies: A Comparative Approach between Norway, Canada and Greenland/Denmark
- The Russian Offshore Oil and Gas Regime: When Tight Control Means Less Order
- The Arctic Offshore Hydrocarbon Hiatus of 2015, Climate Change, and Integrated Management: An opportunity to revisit regulation around the Pole
- Offshore Development and Inuit Rights in Inuit Nunangat
- Securing the Coastal Sámi Culture and Livelihood
- Indigenous Modes of Ownership: Reopening the Case for Communal Rights in Greenland
- Impact Benefit Agreements and Economic and Environmental Risk Management in the Arctic
- Impact Benefit Agreements in Greenland
- The Interplay Between Environmental Research, and Environmental Regulation of Offshore Oil and Gas Activities in Greenland
- Conclusion: Towards an Integrated and Participatory Governance of the Arctic Marine Areas
Cécile Pelaudeix and Ellen Margrethe Basse
PART I: Globalization and Supra-nationalism in the Arctic
Ellen Margrethe Basse
PART II: National Perspectives on Offshore Regulations
Edward T. Canuel
PART III: State-Based Approach, Sub-States Entities and Indigenous peoples
Øyvind Ravna And Kristoffer Svendsen
PART IV: Regulatory Instruments and Enforcement
Vladimir Pacheco Cueva
Bent Ole Mortensen
Anders Mosbech, David Boertmann, Susse Wegeberg and Kim Gustavson
Ellen Margrethe Basse is Professor of environmental law at the Department of Law, Aarhus University. She is a doctor habitation of environmental law and was awarded the jur.dr. (H.C.) at Uppsala University for her research education activities in this area. She is a former professor of procedural law and associate professor of administrative law. She was the Director of the Interdisciplinary Social Science Research Centre (1992-2001), and the Chairman and Secretary of Aarhus University’s Climate Panel (2008-2010). She has been a member of several research bodies, evaluation panels and think tanks in Denmark and other Nordic countries. She is the author of many books and articles on international, EU and national environmental, energy and climate law, public law, and legal theory.
Cécile Pelaudeix is Associate Professor at the School of Culture and Society of Aarhus University and research associate at PACTE, Sciences Po Grenoble. She has been a member of the Scientific Committee of the "Chantier Arctique", CNRS (National Center for Scientific Research), Paris. Her research focuses on Arctic governance, the EU Arctic policy, Greenland politics and China’s foreign policy in the Arctic. She is the work package leader in a research project on the Arctic for the European Defence Agency.
"A timely, multi-faceted study of governance challenges – as well as governance possibilities in the Arctic that widens the understanding of what governance means and compares different approaches. Explains the relationship between national jurisdiction and multi-level governance and provides theoretical insights as well as practical proposals." - Arild Moe, Fridtjof Nansen Institute, Norway.
"A profound irony of our times is that climate change, proceeding more rapidly in the Arctic than anywhere else on the planet, is making Arctic oil and gas more accessible and more attractive to developers. But will these hydrocarbons ever be developed, given the high costs of Arctic operations, the decline of world market prices for oil and gas, the rise of alternative sources of energy, and the global effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions? This timely, authoritative, and accessible collection provides the tools needed to think rigorously about this question." - Oran R. Young, Professor Emeritus, Bren School of Environmental Science and Management, University of California.