In this innovative volume, the author addresses some important challenges related to the effective and equitable governance of marine protected areas (MPAs). These challenges are explored through a study of 20 MPA case studies from around the world. A novel governance analysis framework is employed to address some key questions: How can top-down and bottom-up approaches to MPA governance be combined? What does this mean, in reality, in different contexts? How can we develop and implement governance approaches that are both effective in achieving conservation objectives and equitable in fairly sharing associated costs and benefits?
The author explores the many issues that these questions raise, as well as exploring options for addressing them. A key theme is that MPA governance needs to combine people, state and market approaches, rather than being based on one approach and its related ideals. Building on a critique of the governance analysis framework developed for common-pool resources, the author puts forward a more holistic and less prescriptive framework for deconstructing and analyzing the governance of MPAs. This inter-disciplinary analysis is aimed at supporting the development of MPA governance approaches that build social-ecological resilience through both institutional and biological diversity. It will also make a significant contribution to wider debates on natural resource governance, as it poses some critical questions for contemporary approaches to related research and offers an alternative theoretical and empirical approach.
Table of Contents
1. Introduction to Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)
- Marine Protected Areas as a governance challenge
- Societal concerns extend out to sea
- MPAs as part of the solution
- International policy landscape
- MPAs in the context of sustainable development
- A brief history of MPAs
- Slow progress and lack of effectiveness
2. Objectives of MPAs
- The objectives of MPAs
- Different categories of MPAs
3. Differences and Divergences
- Different value priorities
- Divergent views and the quest for common ground
- Some key differences between marine and terrestrial ecosystems
4. Different Theoretical Perspectives on Governance
- Current environmental governance theories
- Alternative co-evolutionary concept of hierarchical governance
- Social-ecological resilience
5. Empirical Framework for Analysing MPA Governance
- The empirical framework
6. Overview of Case Studies
- General findings from and patterns amongst the case studies
- Driving forces
7. Incentives for Effectiveness
- Incentives used to withstand driving forces
8. Resilience through Diversity
- Incentives used and needed
- Cross-cutting issues
- Social-ecological resilience through incentive diversity
- The vital reinforcing role of the state
Peter Jones is a Senior Lecturer in the Department of Geography, University College London (UCL). He has spent more than 20 years undertaking interdisciplinary and applied research on the governance of human uses of marine resources, particularly in relation to marine protected areas (MPAs) and marine spatial planning (MSP). He has provided advice to many national and international organisations on MPA and MSP issues, including the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the Convention on Biological Diversity, the European Commission and the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). He is also a Ministerial Appointee to the Sussex Inshore Fisheries and Conservation Authority. He enjoys life by the sea near Brighton with his wife and two children.
"There are many books on how to design and create marine protected areas (MPAs), so vital for ocean conservation, but few on how to make them successful. This book plugs that crucial gap, distilling experience from across the world into sound and creative advice." – Callum Roberts, Professor of Marine Conservation, University of York, UK.
"The issue of governance is addressed in this book in a novel and important way. Through the lens of his review of a large number of MPA case studies, Jones makes the case for diversity and complexity in the governance of MPAs, which are themselves ecologically diverse and complex. This is a signal achievement which should greatly advance both policy and practice." – Bonnie J. McCay, Distinguished Professor, School of Environmental and Biological Sciences, Rutgers the State University of New Jersey, USA.
"There is a lot of scattered information about the value of MPAs, but we need a book that makes sense of all this information, informs us on how to make the best of the MPAs we have, and reviews why we need more. Dr. Jones’ is that book." – Daniel Pauly, Professor of Fisheries, University of British Columbia, Canada.
"MPAs are mystifyingly prone to failure. Using a robust case study analysis approach, Jones clearly demonstrates a broad variety of ways to achieve management-to-scale via different governance arrangements, in order to harness the significant potential of MPAs in achieving conservation and sustainable use objectives." – Tundi Agardy, Executive Director, Sound Seas, Author of Ocean Zoning: Making Marine Management More Effective (Earthscan, 2010).
"This book addresses the challenges of implementing and effectively managing MPAs for narrower habitat protection. It also places MPAs in the broader context in terms of both governance and ecological theories. These issues are addressed in a novel, thorough and trans-disciplinary way. This is an important contribution to the field of marine conservation and natural resource management." – Richard Kenchington, Professor, Ecosystem and Resource Management, Australian National Centre for Ocean Resources and Security, University of Wollongong, Australia.
"Peter Jones examines a very timely topic: governing marine MPAs within nations’ waters. He sees the big picture and the diversity of details that governments and stakeholders need to shape if MPAs are to benefit biodiversity and people. Read this book!" – Elliott Norse, Founder and Chief Scientist, Marine Conservation Institute, Seattle, USA.
"Here is a book that deals with governance of a natural system for purposes of resilience. It is really worth reading!" – C.S. Holling, Arthur R. Marshall Jr. Chair in Ecological Sciences, Department of Zoology, University of Florida, USA.
"Marine Protected Areas, or MPAs — ocean zones limiting human activity — cover little more than 2% of the world’s oceans, despite an internationally agreed target of 10% by 2020. And thousands of those that do exist are little more than ‘paper parks’, many scientists have found. Entering these choppy waters is geographer Peter Jones, who shows, through some 20 case studies, how and how not to govern MPAs effectively. Jones compellingly concludes that a diversity of incentives, from economic to social, is as essential as the diversity of the ecosystems MPAs are designed to protect." - Nature, 20 March 2014
"The book draws upon an interesting range of examples from around the globe and it could attract a wide readership from amongst those interested in the management of marine protected areas from the perspective of national law." – The International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law, James Harrison, University of Edinburgh
"I think that this book will be a great reference for those interested in the theoretical aspects of governance in general and in relation to MPAs." - Joanna L. Smith, The Nature Conservancy Canada, Smithers, BC