1st Edition

Green Communications Theoretical Fundamentals, Algorithms, and Applications

Edited By Jinsong Wu, Sundeep Rangan, Honggang Zhang Copyright 2013
    840 Pages 302 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    838 Pages 302 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Nowadays energy crisis and global warming problems are hanging over everyone’s head, urging much research work on energy saving. In the ICT industry, which is becoming a major consumer of global energy triggered by the telecommunication network operators experiencing energy cost as a significant factor in profit calculations, researchers have started to investigate various approaches for power consumption reduction.

    Standards bodies are already developing standards for energy-efficient protocols. However, research in green communications is still at an early stage, and the space of potential solutions is far from being fully explored. This book provides a comprehensive discussion of academic research and relevant applications in green communications. It aims to increase understanding of relevant issues and further the development of strategies and techniques.

    Gathering efforts from world-leading experts on green topics with different focuses, such as mobile communications, wireless networks, ad hoc and sensor networks, cloud computing, optical networking, smart grids, network devices, even FPGA and terminal devices, combined with the best practices from the largest telecommunication operator, China Mobile Corporation, this book covers key features such as:

    • Not only focuses on energy saving of ICT industry, but also figures out its role to help other industries reduce energy consumption
    • Comprehensively covers almost all main aspects in green communications
    • Includes recent advances in theoretical analysis, algorithms, and practical applications for green wired and wireless communications
    • Readers do not have to be professionals in communications to understand the basic ideas in the book

    This book brings green wired and wireless communications, as well as other general green topics, in one book, which will give readers a panoramic view in the relevant green fields.

    Runtime-Controlled Energy Reduction Techniques for FPGAs; Assem A. M. Bsoul, Stuart Dueck, and Steven J. E. Wilton
    Island-Style Field-Programmable Gate Arrays
         CAD Flow for FPGAs
    Power Dissipation in VLSI 
         Dynamic Power 
    Energy Reduction Techniques for FPGAs
         Clock Gating 
         Controlled Body Biasing 
         Dynamic Reconfiguration
         Multiple Supply Voltages
         CAD Techniques 
         Other Techniques
    Runtime-Controlled Power-Gated FPGAs 
         Architecture Description
              Architecture Evaluation
              Example Application

    Smart Grid and ICT's Role in Its Evolution; Hassan Farhangi
    Climate Change
    Conventional Electricity Grid
    Overview of Smart Grid
    Smart Grid Applications
    Command and Control Strategies
    Smart Grid Building Blocks
    Smart Grid Network Topologies
    Smart Grid Communication Systems
    Smart Grid ICT Future Developments 
    Suggested Readings

    Energy Saving Solutions and Practices of China Mobile
    ; Sen Bian, Huabin Tang, Xidong Wang, Jinsong Wu, and Zhihong Zhang, Chih-Lin I, and Bill Huang
         Energy Consumption Status and Objective of CMCC
         Views on Energy Saving of Wireless Communication Devices and Systems from CMCC
    Energy Saving Solutions for Wireless Networks 
         The High-Energy-Efficient Hardware Platform 
              RRUs in Distributed Base Stations 
              Distributed RRU Networking 
              Multi-Carrier Distributed Base Station 
              Energy Saving Advantages 
         Software Power-Saving Features 
              Intelligent Power-Saving Technology
         GSM Intelligent Power-Saving System Based on Base Station Sector Switching 
              System Overview 
              Typical Power-Saving Proposals 
         Highly Energy-Efficient RAN Network Architecture
    Energy Saving Proposals for Core Networks and Data Centers
         Energy Saving of Data Center Facilities 
              Data Center Energy Efficiency Assessment and Optimization 
              The Analysis of the Main Factors Affecting Energy Efficiency 
              Technologies and Measures for Optimizing Energy Efficiency 
              The Construction of the New Generation of Green Data Center 
         Energy Saving of IT Equipment 
              Improve Equipment Efficiency Requirements 
              Applications of Server Virtualization 
              Power Management for Cloud Computing
    Energy-Saving Solutions for Accessory Equipments 
         Energy-Saving Solutions for the Refrigeration System 
              Smart Ventilation System 
              Heat-Pipe Heat-Exchanger Unit 
         The Energy Saving Solutions for Backup Power Systems
              Lithium Iron-Phosphate Battery 
              The Thermostat for Rechargeable Battery 
         Energy Saving Solutions Using Renewable Energy 
              Solar Energy Utilization for Base Stations
              Base Stations Powered by Wind Energy Technologies

    Standard Methodologies for Energy Efficiency Assessment; Raffaele Bolla, Roberto Bruschi, and Chiara Lombardo
    An Overview on Novel Green Network Technologies 
         Internet Evolution and Concern over Energy Wastes 
         Current Approaches and Concepts for Low-Energy Networking
    Benchmarking Methodologies 
         ECR 3.0.1 
         ATIS 060015.03.2009 
         RFC 2544 
         Other Upcoming Propositions
    Comparison among the Standards
    Performance Evaluation 
         Extending Current Evaluation Methodologies 
         Test Results

    Reciprocal Learning for Energy-Efficient Opportunistic Spectrum Access in Cognitive Radio Networks; Xianfu Chen, Zhifeng Zhao, Honggang Zhang, Jinsong Wu, and Tao Chen
    Network Model and Problem Formulation
    Distributed Learning Algorithms with Dynamic Conjectures 
         A Best Response Learning Method for OSA
              The Best Response Strategies 
              Global Convergence of the Dynamic Network 
         OSA by Gradient Ascent Algorithms
    Numerical Results

    Green Communications for Carbon Emission Reductions: Architectures and Standards; Charles Despins, Fabrice Labeau, Richard Labelle, Mohamed Cheriet, Alberto Leon-Garcia,
    and Omar Cherkaoui
    Network Architectures and Technologies to Reduce Carbon Emissions
         Networks and Protocols 
         Integrated Optical-Wireless Access
         Data Centers
    Carbon Standards for Communications Technologies
         Power and Performance Measurement Challenges 
         Network and System Operation Challenges 
         The Need for Carbon Standards Adapted to Communications Technologies
         Standards Development in the International Telecommunications Union (ITU)

    The Role of ICT in the Evolution Towards Smart Grids; Raffaele Bolla, Flavio Cucchietti, and Matteo Repetto
    Legacy Energy Grids
    The Concept of Smart Grid
    Hot Topics for Smart Grids
         Load Management 
         Wide Area Situation Awareness 
         Distributed Generation 
         Energy Storage 
         AMI Systems 
         Electric Vehicles 
         Energy Gateways 
         Man-Machine Interfaces 
         Network Management 
         Grid Management
         Market Operations
    Political and Standardization Initiatives 
         Policies and Directives 
              North America 
         Research Projects in Europe 
         Standardization Efforts
    Architectures for Smart Grids
         Conceptual Models of Smart Grids 
              Layout of the Communication System 
                   Distributed Services and Applications 
                   Data Models and Information Exchange 
                   Communication Media and Technologies 
         Network Architectures 
              Local Area Networks 
              Home Area Networks 
              Access Networks 
              Neighborhood Area Networks
              Wide Area Networks
    Research Issues and Challenges for ICT

    Moving a Processing Element from Hot to Cool Spots: Is This an Efficient Method to Decrease Leakage Power Consumption in FPGAs?; Amor Nafkha, Pierre Leray, Yves Louet, and Jacques Palicot
    Power Consumption Sources 
         Static Power 
         Short-Circuit Power 
         Dynamic Power 
         Dynamic Versus Static Power
    Digital Thermal Sensor 
         Ring Oscillator vs. System Monitor 
         Ring Oscillator vs. FPGA VCCINT Voltage Supply
    Experimental Setup 
         Processing Element Number 1: Random Number Generator
         Processing Element Number 2: MicroBlaze
    Experiments and Results 
         Temperature vs. Leakage Current Consumption 
         FPGA Temperature Analysis

    Cloud Computing - A Greener Future for IT; Jinzy Zhu and Xing Fang
    Why IT Needs to be Green
    Cloud Computing, the Future of IT 
         What is Cloud Computing? 
         Cloud Computing Classification 
         Cloud Computing Characteristics 
         Why does Cloud Computing Make IT Green?
    Cloud Foundation: Green Data Center 
         Green Measurement, PUE 
         Data Center Site Selection 
         Datacenter Construction 
         Power Conversion and UPS 
    Cloud Building Block: Green Hardware 
         Energy Saving Chip 
         Energy Saving Hardware
    Cloud Core: Intelligent Management Software 
         Autonomic Management
    Outlook to a Green Cloud Future

    Energy-Effcient Management of Campus PCs; Luca Chiaraviglio and Marco Mellia
         Reducing PCs Power Consumption: Why Now? 
         Impact of PCs Power in Campus Environments
    Monitoring PC Usage 
              Active Devices vs. Energy Consumption 
              Device Classification
              Energy Consumption of Networked Devices
         Characterization of Users' Habit
    Reducing PC Energy Consumption 
         PoliSave Architecture 
              Client Architecture 
              Server Architecture 
              Communication Protocols 
              Discussion and Implementation Issues
         Testbed Description 
         Minimizing the Number of PCs On 
         Automatic vs. Manual Operations 
         Different Users' Profiles 
         Users' Characterization 
    Related Work


    C-RAN: A Green RAN Framework; Kuilin (Clark) Chen, Chunfeng Cui, Yuhong Huang, and Bill Huang
    Challenges of Today's RAN 
         Explosive Network Data Traffic 
         Large Number of BS and High Power Consumption 
         Rapid Increasing CAPEX and OPEX 
         Dynamic Mobile Network Load 
         Growing Internet Service Pressure on the Core Network
    Architecture of C-RAN 
         Overall Concept
              Different Technical Approaches
    Advantages of C-RAN 
         Energy Efficient Perspective 
         RAN Cost Structure Optimization Perspective
         Enhanced Network Performance Perspective 
         Service on the Edge
    Challenges of C-RAN 
         Efficient Transmission of Radio over Optical Transport Networks 
         Cooperative Transmission and Reception on C-RAN 
         Real-time Cloud and BS Virtualization 
         Performance and Power Challenge of SDR on General Purpose Processor
    China Mobile's View on RAN Evolution Path 
         Trials on GSM/TD-SCDMA Network 
              Overall Situation 
              Field Trial Area 
              Overall Solution 
         Progress in C-RAN PoC system 
         Potential Evolution Path 
              C-RAN Centralized Base Station Deployment
              Multi-Standard SDR and Joint Signal Processing
              Virtual BS on Real-time Cloud Infrastructure

    Green Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks; Ting Zhu, Abedelaziz Mohaisen, Ping Yi, and Jianqing Ma
    Energy Harvesting Techniques 
    Energy Conservation Techniques
    Energy Synchronization Techniques 
         A Feedback-Based Energy Synchronization Control 
         An Energy Synchronized Communication Protocol

    Green Wireless Communications under Quality of Service Constraints
    ; Deli Qiao, Mustafa Cenk Gursoy, and Senem Velipasalar
    Preliminaries - Effective Capacity and Energy Per Information Bit 
         Effective Capacity 
         Spectral Efficiency vs. Bit Energy
    Variable-Rate/Variable-Power and Variable-Rate/Fixed-Power Transmissions 
         Channel Model 
         Energy Efficiency in the Low-Power Regime 
              CSI at the Receiver Only 
              CSI at Both the Transmitter and Receiver 
         Energy Efficiency in the Wideband Regime 
              CSI at the Receiver Only 
              CSI at Both the Transmitter and Receiver
    Fixed-Rate/Fixed-Power Transmissions 
         Channel Model 
         Energy Efficiency in the Wideband Regime
         Energy Efficiency In The Low-Power Regime
    Transmissions over Imperfectly-Known Wireless Channels 
         Training and Data Transmission Phases 
              Training Phase
              Data Transmission Phase and Capacity Lower Bound 
              Fixed-Rate Transmission and ON-OFF Model
              Optimal Training Power 
         Energy Efficiency in the Low-Power Regime 
         Energy Efficiency in the Wideband Regime 
              Decomposing the Wideband Channel into Narrowband Subchannels 
              Rich and Sparse Multipath Fading Scenarios

    On the Energy Efficiency-Spectral Efficiency Trade-off in Cellular Systems;
    Fabien Heliot, Efstathios Katranaras, Oluwakayode Onireti, and Muhammad Ali Imran
    Background Literature 
         Spectral Efficiency 
         Energy Efficiency 
         Energy Efficiency-Spectral Efficiency Trade-Off 
         Explicit Formulation vs. Approximation 
              Low-Power Approximation Approach 
              EE-SE Closed-Form Approximation 
         Idealistic vs. Realistic Power Consumption Model 
                   Limitations on the Idealistic Power Model 
                   Realistic Power Model Perspective
                   Power Model Mathematical Framework
    EE-SE Trade-Off on a Link 
         AWGN Channel 
         Deterministic Channel with Colored Gaussian Noise 
         Ergodic Rayleigh Fading Channel 
              Channel Capacity: CFE vs. CFA 
              CFA of the MIMO EE-SE Trade-Off 
              CFA of the SISO EE-SE Trade-Off 
              Accuracy of the CFAs: Numerical Results 
         MIMO vs. SISO: An Energy Efficiency Analysis 
              MIMO vs. SISO EE Gain: Idealistic PCM 
              MIMO vs. SISO EE Gain: Realistic PCM
    EE-SE Trade-Off in a Cell 
         SISO Orthogonal Multi-User Channel 
         SISO Multi-User Channel with Residual Interference 
         EE-Based Resource Allocation 
              Single User Optimal EE 
              EE vs. SE Resource Allocation
    EE-SE Trade-Off in Cellular Systems
         The Key Role of CoMP in Cellular Systems 
              Relevant Background on CoMP 
         Power Model Implications 
              Signal Processing 
              Global Cooperation: CFA of EE-SE Trade-Off 
                   EE-SE Analysis of the Symmetrical Cellular Model 
         Clustered CoMP: The Transmit EE-SE Relationship
    Conclusion and Outlook

    Energy Savings for Mobile Communication Networks through Dynamic Spectrum and Traffic Load Management; Adnan Aijaz, Oliver Holland, Paul Pangalos, Hamid Aghvami, and Hanna Bogucka
    Dynamic Spectrum and Traffic Load Management 
         Power Saving by Dynamically Powering Down Radio Network Equipment 
              Cellular - Cellular Offloading 
              Cellular - Wi-Fi Offloading 
              Cellular - White-Fi Offloading 
         Power Saving by Propagation Improvement 
         Power Saving by Channel Bandwidth Increase or Better Balancing
    Performance Assessment 
         Power Saving by Dynamically Powering Down Radio Network Equipment 
              Cellular - Cellular Offloading 
              Cellular - Wi-Fi Offloading 
              Cellular - White-Fi Offloading 
         Power Saving by Propagation Improvement 
         Power Saving by Channel Bandwidth Increase or Better Balancing

    Toward Energy-Efficient Operation of Base Stations in Cellular Wireless Networks; Kyuho Son, Hongseok Kim, Yung Yi, and Bhaskar Krishnamachari
    Overview of Green Cellular Network Design
    Energy-Aware Heterogeneous Deployment
         Micro Base Station Deployment Strategy 
              System Model
              Problem Formulation 
              Key Observations and Algorithm 
              Numerical Results 
         Deployment Structure: Homogeneous vs. Heterogeneous
              System Model 
              Problem Formulation 
              Optimal Area Power Consumption vs. Target 10-Percentile Area Throughput 
    Base Station On/Off and User Association 
         A Quantitative Case Study 
              System Model and Formulation 
              Energy-Efficient User Association 
         Traffic-Driven Base Station On/Off 
              Greedy Turning on Algorithm 
              Design Rationale 
              Greedy Turning off Algorithm 
         Discussion: GON and GOFF 
              Other Heuristic Algorithms 
         Numerical Results 
              Energy-Delay Tradeoff for Energy-Proportional BSs 
              Energy-Delay Tradeoff for Non-Energy-Proportional BSs 
              Effect of BS Density on Energy Savings 
    Other Issues and Discussions 
         Open Problems and Other Directions Towards Green Cellular Networks 
         Ongoing Projects and Consortiums

    Green Wireless Access Networks; Istvan Godor & Pal Frenger, Oliver Blume, Hauke Holtkamp, Muhammad Imran, Attila Vidacs & Peter Fazekas, Dario Sabella, Emilio Calvanese Strinati & Rohit Gupta, Pekka Pirinen, and Albrecht Fehske
         Energy Efficiency and Network Technologies 
         Energy Efficiency Evaluation Framework
    Cell Deployment Strategies 
         Macro Cell Deployment 
         Heterogeneous Cell Deployment
    Relaying Techniques 
         Relaying Schemes 
         Two Hop vs. Multicast Cooperative Relaying 
         Hybrid Schemes for Two Hop Relaying
    Multi-RAT Deployment 
         Aspects of LTE Roll-Out over Legacy Networks 
         Topology Planning In Multi-RAT Environment 
         Comparison of LTE and Legacy Networks
    Base Station Coordination and Cooperation 
         Fractional Frequency Reuse 
         Cooperating Base Stations
    Adaptive Network Reconfiguration 
         Bandwidth Adaptation 
         Multi-RAT Management
    Radio Resource Management 
         Theoretical Considerations 
         High Load Scheduling 
         Low Load Scheduling 
         Hardware Optimal Scheduling
    Complementary Research Activities for Access Networks 
         Operator Cooperation 
         Management of WLANs 
         Hardware Techniques
    Future Architectures 
         De-coupling of System Information and User Data 
         Coverage Extension by Multihop Relaying 
         Network Coding
    Summary and Outlook

    Energy Efficient Communications in MIMO Wireless Channels; Vineeth S. Varma, E. Veronica Belmega, Samson Lasaulce and Merouane Debbah
    On the Design of Energy-Efficient MIMO Single-User Communications 
         General De nition of the Energy-Efficiency Performance Criterion
         Optimizing the Total Transmit Power and Power Allocation in MIMO Channels with Perfect CSI 
              Static Links 
              Fast Fading Links 
              Slow Fading Links 
         Energy Efficient Communication in MIMO Channels with Imperfect CSI 
              Power Control 
              Optimizing Training Sequence Length 
              Optimizing the Number of Transmit Antennas
         Cross Layer Design in Energy-Efficient Communications
    On the Design of Energy-Efficient MIMO Multi-User Communications 
         A Discussion on the Performance Criterion 
         Power Control in Multi-Carrier CDMA Systems 
         The Case of Specific Transmitter and Receiver Structures, Multiplexing and Diversity Gain 
         Non-Cooperative Resource Allocation in Multi-User MIMO Systems 
              Optimizing Transmit Power with a Matched Filter 
              Optimizing the Choice of Linear Receiver 
              Optimizing the Beamforming Vector
    Concluding Remarks and Open Issues

    Minimising Power Consumption to Achieve More Efficient Green Cellular Radio Base Station Designs; John S. Thompson, Peter M. Grant, Simon Fletcher, and Tim O'Farrell
         Explosive Traffic Growth 
         Cellular Scenarios 
         Energy Metrics
    Energy Reduction Techniques for High Traffic Load Scenarios
    Energy Reduction Techniques for Low Traffic Load Scenarios
    Other Energy Reduction Techniques

    Energy Conservation of Mobile Terminals in Multi-cell TDMA Networks; Liqun Fu, Hongseok Kim, Jianwei Huang, Soung Chang Liew, and Mung Chiang
         Challenges and Our Solution 
         Related Work
    System Model 
         Power Consumption Model 
         Inter-Cell Interference 
         Dynamic User Sessions
    Problem Formulation and Decoupling Property 
         Power Minimization in Multi-Cell Networks 
         Intra-Cell Average Power Minimization 
         Decoupling Property
    The DSP Algorithm 
         DSP Algorithm When δ ≤ 0 
         DSP Algorithm When δ > 0
    Simulation results 
         Power Consumption Improvement 
         Reduction of the Inter-Cell Interference Power Level
         Convergence Performance
    Potential Research Directions 

    Energy Efficiency for Wireless Relay Systems
    ; Jinho Choi, Duc To, Weixi Xing, Ye Wu, and Shugong Xu
         HARQ and Energy-Delay Tradeoff 
         Wireless Relay Systems
    One-Way Relay Systems
         EDT with Amplify-and-Forward Protocol 
         EDT with Decode-and-Forward Protocol 
         Analysis and Numerical Results
    Two-Way Relay systems 
         EDT with Analog Network Coding 
         EDT with Physical-Layer Network Coding 
         Analysis and Numerical Results

    Holistic Approach to Green Wireless Communications Based on Multicarrier Technologies; Hanna Bogucka, Adrian Kliks, Pawe l Kryszkiewicz, and Oliver Holland
    Efficient Use of Natural Resources in Wireless Multicarrier
         Energy-and-Spectrum Efficient OFDM Adaptive Transmission 
         OFDM Energy-Wastage Minimization
    Reducing the Electromagnetic Pollution
         OFDM Out-of-Band Radiation Reduction 
         Holistic View On Reduction of Non-Linear Distortions In OFDM
    Spectrum Recycling in Future Multicarrier
         NC-OFDM Spectrum Access with Taxation
    Concluding Remarks

    Green Video Streaming over Cellular Networks; Yingsong Huang, Shiwen Mao, and Yihan Li
    Green Video Communications 
         Video Communication System Overview 
         Energy Efficiency in Video Coding
         Energy Efficiency in Video Transmission 
         Joint Video Coding and Transmission Design 
         Video over Emerging Wireless Networks
    Energy Efficient Downlink VBR Video Streaming 
         System Model 
              Network and Video Source Model 
              Power-Aware Transmission Scheduling 
         Inequality and Theory of Majorization 
              Majorization Preliminaries
              Schur-convexity of Problem (23.10) 
         Power Allocation Algorithms 
              Optimal Algorithm for Problem (23.10) 
              Power Minimization Algorithm 
              Optimality Proof 
              Multiuser Video Transmissions 
         Performance Evaluation
    Conclusion and Future Directions


    Trading off Energy and Forwarding Performance in Next-Generation Network Devices; Raffaele Bolla, Roberto Bruschi, Franco Davoli, and Paolo Lago
    The Devices' Internal Sources of Energy Consumption
    Power Scaling Techniques
    A Theoretical Model of the Trade-Off Between Energy Consumption and Quality of Service 
         Introducing Energy-Aware Parameters 
         The Traffic Arrival Process Model 
         The Queuing System Model 
         Model Validation

    Energy Efficient VI Planning over Converged Optical Network and IT Resources
    ; Anna Tzanakaki, Markos Anastasopoulos, Konstantinos Georgakilas, Shuping Peng, Reja Nejabati, Eduard Escalona, and Dimitra Simeonidou
    Energy Consumption Models for the Physical Infrastructure
         Optical Network Elements 
         Energy Consumption Models for Computing Resources 
         Energy Aware VI Planning 
              VI Problem Formulation 
              VI Planning With Resilience Considerations 
    Numerical Results and Comparisons

    Energy Aware Techniques In IP-Over-WDM Backbone Networks; Antonio Cianfrani, Angelo Coiro, Vincenzo Eramo, and Marco Listanti
    Power Aware Network Topology Design 
         Power Aware Virtual Topology Design (PA-VTD) 
         Power Aware Routing and Wavelength Assignment (PA-RWA)
    Energy Aware Traffic Engineering 
         EA-TE Overlay Strategies 
         EA-TE Integrated Strategies

    Energy-Aware Network Management and Content Distribution; Luca Chiaraviglio and Ibrahim Matta
    Problem Formulation 
         Classical Design 
         Centralized Green Model
    Distributed Algorithms 
         Dual Green Algorithm 
         Benders Green Algorithm
    Performance Evaluation 
         Centralized Model 
              Impact of Cooperation 
              Impact of QoS Constraints 
              Impact of CP Location 
         Distributed Algorithms 
              Sensitivity Analysis
    Related Work

    Energy Saving Strategies in Fixed Access Networks
    ; Bjorn Skubic, Alexander Lindstrom, Einar In de Betou, Ioanna Pappa
         Equipment Models 
         System Specific Contributions 
         Per-Line Comparison
    Dynamic Power Management
         Sleep Mode


    Dr. Jinsong Wu is the Founding Chair of the Technical Subcommittee on Green Communications and Computing (TSCGCC), IEEE Communications Society, which was officially approved and established in December 2011. He is the Vice-Chair, Track on Green Communication Systems and Networks, the Selected Areas in Communications Symposium, IEEE GLOBECOM 2012. He is one of Technical Program Committee Chairs, the 2012 IEEE Online Conference on Green Communications. He is the proposer and the Moderator/Chair of the Technical Panels on Green Communications and Computing in the IEEE INFOCOM 2012, IEEE ICC 2012, and IEEE GLOBECOM 2012. He obtained Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from Queen's University, Kingston, Canada. Since 2010, he has worked as Research Scientist in Bell Laboratories, Shanghai, China. He has experienced research and development positions relevant to communications engineering in Nortel Networks Canada, Philips Research USA, and Sprint-Nextel USA. His recent research interests lie in green communications and computing, communications theory and signal processing, cognitive networks, space-time-frequency processing and coding, cooperative communications, quality of service, iterative processing, and communication optimization. He has served as technical program committee members in more than 26 leading international telecommunications relevant conferences or workshops, such as IEEE GLOBECOM, IEEE ICC (main symposia and workshops), IEEE VTC (main tracks and workshops), IEEE ISCIT, iCOST, WAC, FutureTech, and so on. He currently is an IEEE Senior Member.Dr. Sundeep Rangan received the B.A.Sc. at the University of Waterloo, Canada and the M.Sc. and Ph.D. at the University of California, Berkeley, all in Electrical Engineering. He has held postdoctoral appointments at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor and Bell Labs. In 2000, he co-founded (with four others) Flarion Technologies, a spinoff of Bell Labs, t