Green Electronics Manufacturing: Creating Environmental Sensible Products, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Green Electronics Manufacturing

Creating Environmental Sensible Products, 1st Edition

By John X. Wang

CRC Press

360 pages | 97 B/W Illus.

Purchasing Options:$ = USD
Paperback: 9781138074514
pub: 2017-03-30
SAVE ~$12.99
Hardback: 9781439826645
pub: 2012-07-25
SAVE ~$33.00
eBook (VitalSource) : 9780429104299
pub: 2012-07-25
from $31.48

FREE Standard Shipping!


Going "green" is becoming a major component of the mission for electronics manufacturers worldwide. While this goal seems simplistic, it poses daunting dilemmas. Yet, to compete effectively in the global economy, manufacturers must take the initiative to drive this crucial movement. Green Electronics Manufacturing: Creating Environmental Sensible Products provides you with a complete reference to design, develop, build, and install an electronic product with special consideration for the product’s environmental impacts during its whole life cycle.

The author discusses how to integrate the state-of-the-art technologies of finite element method (FEM) modeling, simulation, and testing to create environmental sensible products of satisfying global environmental regulations, such as Restriction of Hazardous Substances (ROHS) compliance. He covers enabling techniques such as advanced fatigue life modeling, crack propagation analysis, and probabilistic robust design of lead-free electronics. The book also explores how risk engineering methodology empowers practitioners with effective tools such as buckling analysis of tin whiskers.

With its emphasis on reducing parts, rationing materials, and reusing components to make products more efficient to build, green electronics intertwines today’s electronics with manufacturing strategies of global sourcing, concurrent engineering, and total quality. Implemented through product and process design, it can help you achieve sustainability to support future generations and at the same time preserve our natural resources. Green Electronics Manufacturing: Creating Environmental Sensible Products gives you the tools to create environmental sensible products while maintaining electronics quality and reliability.


"The book by Dr. Wang, Green Electronics Manufacturing, is a very useful addition to currently available literature. It is written in language that is very clear to the practitioner who is not a specialist in material science. The topics covered in the book cover a broad range of aspects that are critical to producing high-quality products – not the old paradigm of working out the defects after placing a product on the market. The market today requires very efficient manufacturing with attention given to environmental impact in addition to meeting the functional need satisfied by the given product. While broad in scope, this book goes into detail about soldering as a process as well as the quality of the bond and function of the solder joint. This book is both practical as well as thorough in its approach."

—Marvin Roush, Professor Emeritus, Reliability Engineering, University of Maryland

"… clearly the result of high quality work done by a very competent person. Dr. Wang manages to make available very complex subject both for the experienced reader as well as for the inexperienced reader. … The book gives a very comprehensive description of the multidisciplinary approach to reduce the energy- and material-intensiveness of manufacturing electronical components."

—Dr. Rune Reinertsen, Eni Norge AS, Norway

"I have known Dr. Wang for over 10 years. He is very thorough and knowledgeable. I have copies of his previous books and use them as reference material often. I have no doubt that this book will be as valuable as his others. I look forward to receiving a copy when it is completed."

—Vincent S. Lyons,Leggett & Platt, Incorporated

Table of Contents

Green Electronic Assembly: Strategic Industry Interconnection Direction

Starting from Your Personal Electronic Lab: Review the Soldering Process

Lead-Free Solder Tip

Lead-Free Solder Bumps

Flip-Chip Technology

Flip-Chip Assembly Process

Mechanical Stress and Electromigration

Residual Mechanical Stress

Mitigate Deterioration of Lead-Free Tin Solder at Low Temperatures

Able to "Take the Heat?": Capability to Withstand High Temperature

Solder Joint Fatigue

Finite Element Analysis


Tin Whiskers: New Challenge for Long-Term RoHS Reliability

Tin Whisker Growth in Lead-Free Electronics

Variability with Tin Whisker Mechanisms

Tin Whisker Risk: Lesson from the Nuclear Industry

What Are Tin Whiskers?

What Factors Influence Whisker Growth?

Why Whiskers Are a Serious Reliability Risk to Electronic Assemblies

How to Mitigate Tin Whisker Risk

Use Finite Element Modeling to Assess Tin Whisker Risk

How to Evaluate Tin Whisker Impact on High-Reliability Applications


Fatigue Characterization of Lead-Free Solders

Surface-Mount Technology

Fatigue and Thermal Fatigue of Solder Joints

Fatigue, Microstructure, and Microstructural Aging


Lead-Free Electronic Reliability: Finite Element Modeling

Finite Element Modeling and Inelastic Strain Energy Density

FEM Model Description

Inelastic Strain Energy Density

Material Characterizaton of Underfill Materials

Solder Joint Integrity in Accelerated Thermal Cycling

Life Prediction and Field Life Correlation with ATC Life


Lead-Free Electronic Reliability: Fatigue Life Model

Time-Independent Plasticity Model

Fatigue Life Prediction Models

Life Prediction Calculation Using Darveaux’s Energy-Based Model

Solder Joint Integrity in Accelerated Thermal Cycling

Effect of Tg of the Underfill Material


Lead-Free Electronic Reliability: Higher Temperature

Computer Coupling of Phase Diagrams and Thermochemistry and Differential Thermal Analysis

Solder Joint Integrity in Accelerated Thermal Cycling 0°C to 90°C

Field Profiles

Relative Damage Index


Fatigue Design of Lead-Free Electronics and Weibull Distribution

Fatigue Design of Lead-Free Electronics

Weibull Distribution for Life Testing Data Analysis

Fatigue Life Prediction Based on Field Profile

Copper Trace Integrity

Fatigue Validation of Lead-Free Circuit Card Assembly


Enhancing Reliability of Ball Grid Array

Thermally Enhanced BGA

Typical TEBGA Package and Finite Element Modeling

Finite-Volume-Weighted Averaging Technique

8.4 Parametric Design of TEBGA Reliability


Finite Element Modeling under High-Vibration and High-Temperature Environments

Lead versus Lead-Free Solder

Analytical Model: PCB Normal Modes and Displacement

Finite Element Model: Random Vibration

FEM Model Optimization under High-Vibration Environment

FEM Model Validation under High-Temperature Environment


Probabilistic Modeling of the Elastic-Plastic Behavior of 63Sn-37Pb Solder Alloys

Continuum Damage Mechanics

Probabilistic Continuum Damage Mechanics Model


Flip-Chip Assembly for Lead-Free Electronics

Flip-Chip Assembly Process

Placement Stage

Underfill Stage

Finite Element Modeling of Die Stress

Gold Stud Bump Bonding

Impacts on the Process

Materials and Process Variations

Integrating Flip Chip into a Standard SMT Process Flow


Flip-Chip Bonding Technique for Lead-Free Electronics

Lead-Free Reflow Soldering Techniques and Analytical Methods

Electromigration Analysis for Mean-Time-to-Failure Calculations

Electromigration Analysis


Flip-Chip Bonding of Opto-Electronic Integrated Circuits

Gold–Tin Solder

Integrating Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers onto Integrated Circuits

Flip-Chip Bonding and Opto-Electronic Integration

Case Study: A VCSEL Bonded to a Driver Chip

Solders for Flip-Chip Bonding

Design of Flip-Chip Bonding Structure

Processing of Flip-Chip Bonding Structures

Solders for Flip-Chip Bonding


Let’s Package a Lead-Free Electronic Design

Select the Package Type: Flip-Chip Packaging

Select Substrate or Die Attachment: FR4

Select Electrical Connections from Die to FR4

Assess Impact of CTE Mismatch on Stress and Fatigue Life

Design Solder Balls for External Connection to PCB

Thermal Analysis of Flip-Chip Packaging

RLC for Flip-Chip Packages

Drop Test of Flip-Chip Packaging

Weibull Analysis of Life Test Data



About the Originator


John X. Wang

Farmington Hills, Michigan, USA

Learn more about John X. Wang >>

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electronics / General
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Industrial Engineering
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / General