Green Electronics Manufacturing : Creating Environmental Sensible Products book cover
1st Edition

Green Electronics Manufacturing
Creating Environmental Sensible Products

ISBN 9781439826645
Published July 25, 2012 by CRC Press
360 Pages 97 B/W Illustrations

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USD $170.00

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Book Description

Going "green" is becoming a major component of the mission for electronics manufacturers worldwide. While this goal seems simplistic, it poses daunting dilemmas. Yet, to compete effectively in the global economy, manufacturers must take the initiative to drive this crucial movement. Green Electronics Manufacturing: Creating Environmental Sensible Products provides you with a complete reference to design, develop, build, and install an electronic product with special consideration for the product’s environmental impacts during its whole life cycle.

The author discusses how to integrate the state-of-the-art technologies of finite element method (FEM) modeling, simulation, and testing to create environmental sensible products of satisfying global environmental regulations, such as Restriction of Hazardous Substances (ROHS) compliance. He covers enabling techniques such as advanced fatigue life modeling, crack propagation analysis, and probabilistic robust design of lead-free electronics. The book also explores how risk engineering methodology empowers practitioners with effective tools such as buckling analysis of tin whiskers.

With its emphasis on reducing parts, rationing materials, and reusing components to make products more efficient to build, green electronics intertwines today’s electronics with manufacturing strategies of global sourcing, concurrent engineering, and total quality. Implemented through product and process design, it can help you achieve sustainability to support future generations and at the same time preserve our natural resources. Green Electronics Manufacturing: Creating Environmental Sensible Products gives you the tools to create environmental sensible products while maintaining electronics quality and reliability.

Table of Contents

Green Electronic Assembly: Strategic Industry Interconnection Direction
Starting from Your Personal Electronic Lab: Review the Soldering Process
Lead-Free Solder Tip
Lead-Free Solder Bumps
Flip-Chip Technology
Flip-Chip Assembly Process
Mechanical Stress and Electromigration
Residual Mechanical Stress
Mitigate Deterioration of Lead-Free Tin Solder at Low Temperatures
Able to "Take the Heat?": Capability to Withstand High Temperature
Solder Joint Fatigue
Finite Element Analysis

Tin Whiskers: New Challenge for Long-Term RoHS Reliability
Tin Whisker Growth in Lead-Free Electronics
Variability with Tin Whisker Mechanisms
Tin Whisker Risk: Lesson from the Nuclear Industry
What Are Tin Whiskers?
What Factors Influence Whisker Growth?
Why Whiskers Are a Serious Reliability Risk to Electronic Assemblies
How to Mitigate Tin Whisker Risk
Use Finite Element Modeling to Assess Tin Whisker Risk
How to Evaluate Tin Whisker Impact on High-Reliability Applications

Fatigue Characterization of Lead-Free Solders
Surface-Mount Technology
Fatigue and Thermal Fatigue of Solder Joints
Fatigue, Microstructure, and Microstructural Aging

Lead-Free Electronic Reliability: Finite Element Modeling
Finite Element Modeling and Inelastic Strain Energy Density
FEM Model Description
Inelastic Strain Energy Density
Material Characterizaton of Underfill Materials
Solder Joint Integrity in Accelerated Thermal Cycling
Life Prediction and Field Life Correlation with ATC Life

Lead-Free Electronic Reliability: Fatigue Life Model
Time-Independent Plasticity Model
Fatigue Life Prediction Models
Life Prediction Calculation Using Darveaux’s Energy-Based Model
Solder Joint Integrity in Accelerated Thermal Cycling
Effect of Tg of the Underfill Material

Lead-Free Electronic Reliability: Higher Temperature
Computer Coupling of Phase Diagrams and Thermochemistry and Differential Thermal Analysis
Solder Joint Integrity in Accelerated Thermal Cycling 0°C to 90°C
Field Profiles
Relative Damage Index

Fatigue Design of Lead-Free Electronics and Weibull Distribution
Fatigue Design of Lead-Free Electronics
Weibull Distribution for Life Testing Data Analysis
Fatigue Life Prediction Based on Field Profile
Copper Trace Integrity
Fatigue Validation of Lead-Free Circuit Card Assembly

Enhancing Reliability of Ball Grid Array
Thermally Enhanced BGA
Typical TEBGA Package and Finite Element Modeling
Finite-Volume-Weighted Averaging Technique
8.4 Parametric Design of TEBGA Reliability

Finite Element Modeling under High-Vibration and High-Temperature Environments
Lead versus Lead-Free Solder
Analytical Model: PCB Normal Modes and Displacement
Finite Element Model: Random Vibration
FEM Model Optimization under High-Vibration Environment
FEM Model Validation under High-Temperature Environment

Probabilistic Modeling of the Elastic-Plastic Behavior of 63Sn-37Pb Solder Alloys
Continuum Damage Mechanics
Probabilistic Continuum Damage Mechanics Model

Flip-Chip Assembly for Lead-Free Electronics
Flip-Chip Assembly Process
Placement Stage
Underfill Stage
Finite Element Modeling of Die Stress
Gold Stud Bump Bonding
Impacts on the Process
Materials and Process Variations
Integrating Flip Chip into a Standard SMT Process Flow

Flip-Chip Bonding Technique for Lead-Free Electronics
Lead-Free Reflow Soldering Techniques and Analytical Methods
Electromigration Analysis for Mean-Time-to-Failure Calculations
Electromigration Analysis

Flip-Chip Bonding of Opto-Electronic Integrated Circuits
Gold–Tin Solder
Integrating Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers onto Integrated Circuits
Flip-Chip Bonding and Opto-Electronic Integration
Case Study: A VCSEL Bonded to a Driver Chip
Solders for Flip-Chip Bonding
Design of Flip-Chip Bonding Structure
Processing of Flip-Chip Bonding Structures
Solders for Flip-Chip Bonding

Let’s Package a Lead-Free Electronic Design
Select the Package Type: Flip-Chip Packaging
Select Substrate or Die Attachment: FR4
Select Electrical Connections from Die to FR4
Assess Impact of CTE Mismatch on Stress and Fatigue Life
Design Solder Balls for External Connection to PCB
Thermal Analysis of Flip-Chip Packaging
RLC for Flip-Chip Packages
Drop Test of Flip-Chip Packaging
Weibull Analysis of Life Test Data

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"The book by Dr. Wang, Green Electronics Manufacturing, is a very useful addition to currently available literature. It is written in language that is very clear to the practitioner who is not a specialist in material science. The topics covered in the book cover a broad range of aspects that are critical to producing high-quality products – not the old paradigm of working out the defects after placing a product on the market. The market today requires very efficient manufacturing with attention given to environmental impact in addition to meeting the functional need satisfied by the given product. While broad in scope, this book goes into detail about soldering as a process as well as the quality of the bond and function of the solder joint. This book is both practical as well as thorough in its approach."
—Marvin Roush, Professor Emeritus, Reliability Engineering, University of Maryland

"… clearly the result of high quality work done by a very competent person. Dr. Wang manages to make available very complex subject both for the experienced reader as well as for the inexperienced reader. … The book gives a very comprehensive description of the multidisciplinary approach to reduce the energy- and material-intensiveness of manufacturing electronical components."
—Dr. Rune Reinertsen, Eni Norge AS, Norway

"I have known Dr. Wang for over 10 years. He is very thorough and knowledgeable. I have copies of his previous books and use them as reference material often. I have no doubt that this book will be as valuable as his others. I look forward to receiving a copy when it is completed."
—Vincent S. Lyons, Leggett & Platt, Incorporated