1st Edition

Green Electronics Manufacturing Creating Environmental Sensible Products

By John X. Wang Copyright 2013
    360 Pages 97 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    360 Pages 97 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Going "green" is becoming a major component of the mission for electronics manufacturers worldwide. While this goal seems simplistic, it poses daunting dilemmas. Yet, to compete effectively in the global economy, manufacturers must take the initiative to drive this crucial movement. Green Electronics Manufacturing: Creating Environmental Sensible Products provides you with a complete reference to design, develop, build, and install an electronic product with special consideration for the product’s environmental impacts during its whole life cycle.

    The author discusses how to integrate the state-of-the-art technologies of finite element method (FEM) modeling, simulation, and testing to create environmental sensible products of satisfying global environmental regulations, such as Restriction of Hazardous Substances (ROHS) compliance. He covers enabling techniques such as advanced fatigue life modeling, crack propagation analysis, and probabilistic robust design of lead-free electronics. The book also explores how risk engineering methodology empowers practitioners with effective tools such as buckling analysis of tin whiskers.

    With its emphasis on reducing parts, rationing materials, and reusing components to make products more efficient to build, green electronics intertwines today’s electronics with manufacturing strategies of global sourcing, concurrent engineering, and total quality. Implemented through product and process design, it can help you achieve sustainability to support future generations and at the same time preserve our natural resources. Green Electronics Manufacturing: Creating Environmental Sensible Products gives you the tools to create environmental sensible products while maintaining electronics quality and reliability.

    Green Electronic Assembly: Strategic Industry Interconnection Direction
    Starting from Your Personal Electronic Lab: Review the Soldering Process
    Lead-Free Solder Tip
    Lead-Free Solder Bumps
    Flip-Chip Technology
    Flip-Chip Assembly Process
    Mechanical Stress and Electromigration
    Residual Mechanical Stress
    Mitigate Deterioration of Lead-Free Tin Solder at Low Temperatures
    Able to "Take the Heat?": Capability to Withstand High Temperature
    Solder Joint Fatigue
    Finite Element Analysis

    Tin Whiskers: New Challenge for Long-Term RoHS Reliability
    Tin Whisker Growth in Lead-Free Electronics
    Variability with Tin Whisker Mechanisms
    Tin Whisker Risk: Lesson from the Nuclear Industry
    What Are Tin Whiskers?
    What Factors Influence Whisker Growth?
    Why Whiskers Are a Serious Reliability Risk to Electronic Assemblies
    How to Mitigate Tin Whisker Risk
    Use Finite Element Modeling to Assess Tin Whisker Risk
    How to Evaluate Tin Whisker Impact on High-Reliability Applications

    Fatigue Characterization of Lead-Free Solders
    Surface-Mount Technology
    Fatigue and Thermal Fatigue of Solder Joints
    Fatigue, Microstructure, and Microstructural Aging

    Lead-Free Electronic Reliability: Finite Element Modeling
    Finite Element Modeling and Inelastic Strain Energy Density
    FEM Model Description
    Inelastic Strain Energy Density
    Material Characterizaton of Underfill Materials
    Solder Joint Integrity in Accelerated Thermal Cycling
    Life Prediction and Field Life Correlation with ATC Life

    Lead-Free Electronic Reliability: Fatigue Life Model
    Time-Independent Plasticity Model
    Fatigue Life Prediction Models
    Life Prediction Calculation Using Darveaux’s Energy-Based Model
    Solder Joint Integrity in Accelerated Thermal Cycling
    Effect of Tg of the Underfill Material

    Lead-Free Electronic Reliability: Higher Temperature
    Computer Coupling of Phase Diagrams and Thermochemistry and Differential Thermal Analysis
    Solder Joint Integrity in Accelerated Thermal Cycling 0°C to 90°C
    Field Profiles
    Relative Damage Index

    Fatigue Design of Lead-Free Electronics and Weibull Distribution
    Fatigue Design of Lead-Free Electronics
    Weibull Distribution for Life Testing Data Analysis
    Fatigue Life Prediction Based on Field Profile
    Copper Trace Integrity
    Fatigue Validation of Lead-Free Circuit Card Assembly

    Enhancing Reliability of Ball Grid Array
    Thermally Enhanced BGA
    Typical TEBGA Package and Finite Element Modeling
    Finite-Volume-Weighted Averaging Technique
    8.4 Parametric Design of TEBGA Reliability

    Finite Element Modeling under High-Vibration and High-Temperature Environments
    Lead versus Lead-Free Solder
    Analytical Model: PCB Normal Modes and Displacement
    Finite Element Model: Random Vibration
    FEM Model Optimization under High-Vibration Environment
    FEM Model Validation under High-Temperature Environment

    Probabilistic Modeling of the Elastic-Plastic Behavior of 63Sn-37Pb Solder Alloys
    Continuum Damage Mechanics
    Probabilistic Continuum Damage Mechanics Model

    Flip-Chip Assembly for Lead-Free Electronics
    Flip-Chip Assembly Process
    Placement Stage
    Underfill Stage
    Finite Element Modeling of Die Stress
    Gold Stud Bump Bonding
    Impacts on the Process
    Materials and Process Variations
    Integrating Flip Chip into a Standard SMT Process Flow

    Flip-Chip Bonding Technique for Lead-Free Electronics
    Lead-Free Reflow Soldering Techniques and Analytical Methods
    Electromigration Analysis for Mean-Time-to-Failure Calculations
    Electromigration Analysis

    Flip-Chip Bonding of Opto-Electronic Integrated Circuits
    Gold–Tin Solder
    Integrating Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers onto Integrated Circuits
    Flip-Chip Bonding and Opto-Electronic Integration
    Case Study: A VCSEL Bonded to a Driver Chip
    Solders for Flip-Chip Bonding
    Design of Flip-Chip Bonding Structure
    Processing of Flip-Chip Bonding Structures
    Solders for Flip-Chip Bonding

    Let’s Package a Lead-Free Electronic Design
    Select the Package Type: Flip-Chip Packaging
    Select Substrate or Die Attachment: FR4
    Select Electrical Connections from Die to FR4
    Assess Impact of CTE Mismatch on Stress and Fatigue Life
    Design Solder Balls for External Connection to PCB
    Thermal Analysis of Flip-Chip Packaging
    RLC for Flip-Chip Packages
    Drop Test of Flip-Chip Packaging
    Weibull Analysis of Life Test Data


    John X. Wang

    "The book by Dr. Wang, Green Electronics Manufacturing, is a very useful addition to currently available literature. It is written in language that is very clear to the practitioner who is not a specialist in material science. The topics covered in the book cover a broad range of aspects that are critical to producing high-quality products – not the old paradigm of working out the defects after placing a product on the market. The market today requires very efficient manufacturing with attention given to environmental impact in addition to meeting the functional need satisfied by the given product. While broad in scope, this book goes into detail about soldering as a process as well as the quality of the bond and function of the solder joint. This book is both practical as well as thorough in its approach."
    —Marvin Roush, Professor Emeritus, Reliability Engineering, University of Maryland

    "… clearly the result of high quality work done by a very competent person. Dr. Wang manages to make available very complex subject both for the experienced reader as well as for the inexperienced reader. … The book gives a very comprehensive description of the multidisciplinary approach to reduce the energy- and material-intensiveness of manufacturing electronical components."
    —Dr. Rune Reinertsen, Eni Norge AS, Norway

    "I have known Dr. Wang for over 10 years. He is very thorough and knowledgeable. I have copies of his previous books and use them as reference material often. I have no doubt that this book will be as valuable as his others. I look forward to receiving a copy when it is completed."
    —Vincent S. Lyons, Leggett & Platt, Incorporated