Green Energy: Technology, Economics and Policy, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Green Energy

Technology, Economics and Policy, 1st Edition

Edited by U. Aswathanarayana, Tulsidas Harikrishnan, Thayyib S. Kadher-Mohien

CRC Press

364 pages

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Hardback: 9780415876285
pub: 2010-08-11
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Renewable fuels, such as wind, solar, biomass, tides, and geothermal, are inexhaustible, indigenous, and often free. However, capturing them and transforming them into electricity, hydrogen, or clean transporation fuels often is not. Green Energy: Technology, Economics, and Policy addresses how to approach and apply technology, economics, and policy to bring down the costs involved with renewables, the most important challenge faced in the green era. Intended for students and professionals in resources, energy and environmental engineering and in economic fields focusing on green energy.

It explores the ways and means of using technology, economics, and policy to address R & D issues, market penetration, improved efficiency, investment capital, policy changes, and more. It elucidates Green New Deal models in which the twin objectives of job generation and mitigation of climate change impacts are achieved through the harnessing of the transformative power of technology. The book links energy science and technology with energy economics, markets, policy, and planning. It describes how this can be accomplished through public – private partnership in the prosecution of Innovation Chain (Basic Research - Applied Research & Development - Demonstration - Deployment - Commercialization).

Table of Contents

Section 1: Introduction (U.Aswathanarayana)

Section 2: Renewable EnergyTechnologies (U.Aswathanarayana)

Chapter 1 Renewables and climate change (U. Aswathanarayana)

1.1 Projected growth of renewables

Chapter 2 Wind power (U. Aswathanarayana)

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Environmental factors

2.3 Costs

2.4 Wind power markets

2.5 Projected growth of wind power

2.6 Offshore wind power

2.7 Prognosis

Chapter 3 Solar energy (U. Aswathanarayana)

3.1 Introduction

3.2 PV Technology

3.3 Thin Films

3.4 Costs

3.5 Research & Development needed

3.6 New concept PV devices

3.7 Concentrated Solar Power

Chapter 4 Biomass (U. Aswathanarayana)

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Technology

4.3 Algal biofuels

4.4 Biomass wastes

4.5 Costs

4.6 Ethanol

4.7 Landfill Gas

4.8 Prognosis

Chapter 5 Hydropower (U. Aswathanarayana)

5.1 Introduction

5.2 "Storage’’ Projects

5.3 Pumped storage hydroelectricity

5.4 "In-river’’ hydroelectric projects.

Chapter 6 Geothermal energy (U. Aswathanarayana)

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Technology

6.3 Resources

6.4 Costs

6.5 Research & Development

Chapter 7 Tidal power (U. Aswathanarayana)

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Resource position

7.3 Rance (France) and Severn (UK) tidal barrages

7.4 Research & Development and Costs

Chapter 8 Deployment of renewable energy technologies (U. Aswathanarayana)

8.1 Characteristics and costs of common RETs

8.2 Potentials of RETs

8.3 Measuring policy effectiveness and efficiency

8.4 Overview of support schemes

8.5 Public–private partnership

8.6 An Integrated Strategy for the deployment of RETs

8.7 Renewable energy development in China and India


Section 3: Supply-side EnergyTechnologies (T. Harikrishnan, IAEA)

Chapter 9 Fossil fuels and CCS (T. Ohsumi)

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Efficiency improvement in power generation

9.3 Fuel switching in fossil fuel power plants

9.4 Capture of CO2

9.5 Compression of CO2

9.6 Transport of CO2 in CCS

9.7 Storage of CO2

Chapter 10 Nuclear power (T. Harikrishnan)

10.1 Introduction

10.1.1 Future projections

10.1.2 Nuclear power and green energies

10.2 Nuclear fusion

10.2.1 Fission chain reaction

10.2.2 Natural fission reactors

10.2.3 Nuclear reactors

10.3 Sustainable nuclear fuel cycle options

10.3.1 Thorium fuel cycle

10.3.2 Uranium resources and products

10.3.3 Thorium resources

10.3.4 Uranium conversion, enrichment and fuel fabrication

10.3.5 Spent fuel management and reprocessing

10.4 Advanced and next generation reactors

10.4.1 Generation IV reactors

10.4.2 Generation V reactors

10.4.3 Fusion reactors

10.4.4 Accelerator Driven System

10.5 Nuclear economics

10.6 Nuclear safety

10.7 Disposal of nuclear wastes

Chapter 11 Next generation green technologies (T. Harikrishnan)

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Biomass gasification

11.2.1 Biomass

11.2.2 Gasification

11.2.3 Syngas

11.2.4 Fischer–Tropsch process

11.2.5 Biomass Integrated gasifier/gas turbine combined cycle

11.2.6 Environmental benefits of gasification

11.3 Marine energy

11.3.1 Marine current power

11.3.2 Ocean thermal energy

11.3.3 Salinity gradient power

11.3.4 Tidal power

11.3.5 Wave power

11.3.6 Damless hydro

11.4 Enhanced Geothermal Systems

11.4.1 Technical considerations

11.4.2 Economic considerations

11.4.3 Further studies required

11.4.4 Induced seismicity

Chapter 12 Algal biofuels (Sabil Francis)

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Comparative advantages

12.3 Problems with algal biofuels

12.4 Technologies

12.4.1 Cultivation of algae

12.4.2 Harvesting of algae

12.4.3 Extraction of various energy products


Section 4: Demand-side energy technologies (U.Aswathanarayana)

Chapter 13 Industry (U. Aswathanarayana)

13.1 Industrial energy use and CO2 emissions profile

13.2 Iron and steel

13.3 Non-metallic minerals

13.4 Chemicals and petrochemicals

13.5 Pulp and Paper

13.6 Non-ferrous metals

13.7 Research & Development, Demonstration and Deployment

Chapter 14 Buildings & Appliances (U. Aswathanarayana)

14.1 Introduction

14.1.1 The building shell, heating and cooling

14.1.2 Windows

14.1.3 Hot water

14.1.4 Cooling systems: air conditioning

14.1.5 Appliances

14.1.6 Lighting

14.1.7 Heat pumps

14.1.8 Solar thermal heating

14.2 Passive houses and zero energy buildings

14.3 Bioenergy technologies

14.4 Research & Development, Demonstration and Deployment

Chapter 15 Transport (U. Aswathanarayana)

15.1 Overview

15.2 Alternative fuels

15.2.1 Biofuels for transport

15.2.2 Electricity in transport

15.2.3 Hydrogen in transport

15.3 Light-duty vehicles

15.4 Trucking and freight movement

15.5 Aviation

15.6 Maritime transport

15.7 Research & Development breaktroughs required for technologies in transport

Chapter 16 Electricity systems (U. Aswathanarayana)

16.1 Overview

16.2 Transmission Technologies

16.3 Distribution

16.4 Electricity Storage Systems

16.5 Demand Response

16.6 "Smart’’ Grid application

16.6.1 Electricity Pricing

16.6.2 Electricity grid and peak demand response

16.6.3 Incentives to shed loads

16.6.4 Technologies for demand reduction.

16.6.5 "Power plant in a box’’


Section 5: Making green energy competitive (U. Aswathanarayana)

Chapter 17 Roadmaps and Phases of Development of low-carbontechnologies (U. Aswathanarayana)

17.1 Why low-carbon technologies?

17.2 Emission reductions and Research Development & Demonstration investment

17.3 Innovation Systems in Technology Development

17.4 Research, development & Demonstration in the energy sector

17.4.1 Renewable Energy Sector

17.4.2 Fossil Fuel Power

17.4.3 Electricity System

17.4.4 Industry – Process Innovations

17.4.5 Buildings and Appliances

17.4.6 Transport – Vehicles

17.4.7 Transport – Fuels

17.4.8 Cross-cutting

17.5 Research, development & Demonstration policies

Chapter 18 Deployment and role of technology learning (U. Aswathanarayana)

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Technology Learning Curves

18.3 Commercialization of power generation technologies

18.4 Deployment costs

18.5 Regional deployment of key power generation technologies

18.6 Barriers to technology diffusion

18.7 Strategy for accelerating deployment

18.8 Investment issues

Chapter 19 Energy efficiency and energy taxation (U. Aswathanarayana)

19.1 Matrix of Economic Evaluation Measures

19.2 Total Life-Cycle Cost (TLCC)

19.3 Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE)

19.4 Energy Efficiency of Renewable Energy Systems

19.5 Energy taxation

19.6 Renewable Energy Tax Credits

19.7 Depreciation

Chapter 20 Energy economics and markets (U. Aswathanarayana)

20.1 Introduction

20.2 Modeling electricity markets

20.3 Average costs and marginal costs

20.4 Load cycle

20.5 Energy economics

20.6 Levelized costs

20.7 Limit pricing model

20.8 Pollution as a negative externality

20.9 Energy futures and options markets

20.10 Energy and Information technology

Chapter 21 Renewable energy policies (U. Aswathanarayana)

21.1 Why renewables?

21.2 Market-based strategies to promote green energies

21.3 Country case histories

21.3.1 The Dutch Green Electricity programme

21.3.2 The USA Green Electricity Market

21.3.3 U.K. Green Electricity Market

21.4 Lessons


Section 6: A green new deal (Thayyib Sahini)

Chapter 22 Goals of the green new deal (K.M. Thayyib Sahini, IAEA)

22.1 Introduction

22.2 "Smart’’ electricity grid

22.3 Decarbonising electricity production

22.4 Decarbonising transport

22.5 Decarbonising buildings

22.6 Decarbonising industry

22.7 Conclusion

Chapter 23 Ways of "greening the economy’’ (Jayaraj Manepalli, Vienna)

23.1 Introduction

23.1.1 The challenges in the energy sector

23.1.2 The Urgency

23.1.3 Green Energ

23.2 Greening the economy: the challenge

23.2.1 Carbon Credits: Are these measures enough?

23.3 Financial stimuli

23.4 Research and development

23.5 Infrastructure development

23.6 Employment generation

23.7 Social security

23.8 Education and outreach

23.9 Conclusion

Chapter 24 Poverty, environment and climate change (K.M. Thayyib Sahini, IAEA)

24.1 Introduction

24.2 Climate change challenge and poverty

24.3 Poverty and environment

24.4 Eradicating poverty

24.5 Energy for Development

24.6 Integrating poverty eradication, protection of environment and energy security

24.7 Conclusion


Section 7: Overview and integration (U.Aswathanarayana)

About the Editors

U. Aswathanarayana (General Editor) has teaching, R.&D., and institutional capacity building experience in many countries. That he is indeed a polymath is evidenced by his ten, highly-acclaimed, internationally published books (most of them through A.A. Balkema of the Taylor & Francis Group) on topics as diverse as Nuclear Geology, Geoenvironment, Food and Water Security and now, Green Energy. He is the recipient of the Excellence in Geophysical Education (2005) and International (2007) Awards of the American Geophysical Union, Certificate of Recognition (2007) of the International Association of GeoChemistry, and Eminent Citizen Award in the area of water sciences (2007) of Sivananda Trust, India.

T. Harikrishnan (Editor of Section 3) served as a senior officer in the Department of Atomic Energy, Government of India, and is presently employed as Nuclear Technology specialist in IAEA, Vienna.

Thayyib S. Kadher-Mohien (Editor of Section 6) works in the Department of Nuclear Energy, IAEA. He is also associated with the University of Vienna, and Universitat Jaume 1, Spain.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / General
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Power Resources / Alternative & Renewable