Across the world, ecosystems are for sale. ‘Green grabbing’ – the appropriation of land and resources for environmental ends – is an emerging process of deep and growing significance. A vigorous debate on ‘land grabbing’ already highlights instances where ‘green’ credentials are called upon to justify appropriations of land for food or fuel. Yet in other cases, environmental green agendas are the core drivers and goals of grabs. Green grabs may be drivn by biodiversity conservation, biocarbon sequestration, biofuels, ecosystem services or ecotourism, for example. In some cases theyse agendas involve the wholesale alienation of land, and in others the restructuring of rules and authority in the access, use and management of resources that may have profoundly alienating effects.
Green grabbing builds on well-known histories of colonial and neo-colonial resource alienation in the name of the environment. Yet it involves novel forms of valuation, commodification and markets for pieces and aspects of nature, and an extraordinary new range of actors and alliances. This book draws together seventeen original cases from African, Asian and Latin American settings to ask: To what extent and in what ways do ‘green grabs’ constitute new forms of appropriation of nature? What political and discursive dynamics underpin ‘green grabs’? How and when do appropriations on the ground emerge out of circulations of green capital? What are the implications for ecologies, landscapes and livelihoods? Who is gaining and who is losing? How are agrarian social relations, rights and authority being restructured, and in whose interests?
This book was published as a special issue of the Journal of Peasant Studies.
1. Green Grabbing: A New Appropriation of Nature? James Fairhead, University of Sussex; Melissa Leach, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, and Ian Scoones, University of Sussex
2. Enclosing the Global Gommons: The Convention on Biological Diversity and Green Grabbing Catherine Corson, Mount Holyoke College and Kenneth Iain MacDonald, University of Toronto
3. Green Grabs and Biochar: Revaluing African Soils and Farming in the New Carbon Economy Melissa Leach, Institute of Development Studies, James Fairhead, University of Sussex and James Fraser, University of Sussex
4. Green Multiculturalism: Articulations of Ethnic and Environmental Politics in a Colombian ‘Black Community’ Roosbelinda Cárdenas, University of California, Santa Cruz
5. Conservation, Green/Blue Grabbing and Accumulation by Dispossession in Tanzania Tor A. Benjaminsen, Norwegian University of Life Sciences and Ian Bryceson, Norwegian University of Life Sciences
6. Green Pretexts: Ecotourism, Neoliberal Conservation and Land Grabbing in Tayrona National Natural Park, Colombia Diana Ojeda, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Colombia
7. Tourism and the Politics of the Global Land Grab in Tanzania: Markets, Appropriation and Recognition Benjamin Gardner, University of Washington Bothell
8. Marginal Lands: The Role of Remote Sensing in Constructing Landscapes for Agrofuel Development Rachel Nalepa, Boston University and Dana Marie Bauer, Boston University
9. Green Grabbing at the ‘Pharm’ Gate: Rosy Periwinkle Production in Southern Madagascar Benjamin D. Neimark, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA.
10. Inverting the Impacts: Mining, Conservation and Sustainability Claims near the Rio Tinto/QMM Ilmenite Mine in Fort Dauphin, Southeast Madagascar Caroline Seagle, VU University Amsterdam and McGill University
11. Taming the Jungle, Saving the Maya Forest: Sedimented Counterinsurgency Practices in Contemporary Guatemalan Conservation Megan Ybarra, Willamette University
12. Wild Property and its Boundaries: on Wildlife Policy and Rural Implications in South Africa Dhoya Snijders, VU University Amsterdam
13. Trajectories of Land Acquisition and Enclosure: Development Schemes, Virtual Land Grabs, and Green Acquisitions in
14. Indonesia’s Outer Islands John F McCarthy, Australian Ntaional University, Jacqueline Vel, Leiden University and Suraya Afiff, University of Indonesia
15. The Potential Perils of Forest Carbon Contracts for Developing Countries: Cases from Africa Kyla Tienhaara, Australian National University
16. Ordenamento Territorial: Neo-developmentalism and the Struggle for Territory in the Lower Brazilian Amazon Brenda Baletti, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
17. Why Green Grabs Don’t Work in Papua New Guinea Colin Filer, Australian National University