What governs the way in which people work together and handle technology in high risk environments? The understanding of decision making, communication and the other dimensions of team interaction within aircrews and other teams in highly stressful situations, is based on a multitude of diverse factors, each with its own literature and individual studies. This book is about how teams function in just such situations, providing a uniquely integrated and interdisciplinary account of the dynamics and main explanatory factors of team interaction under high workload. The book stems from the interdisciplinary research project 'Group Interaction in High Risk Environments' (GIHRE), a Collegium of the Gottlieb Daimler and Karl Benz Foundation. The goals of the project, and therefore the book, are to investigate, analyze and understand the behavior of professional groups working in high risk environments and to develop practical suggestions for enhancing performance. A central focus of this book is how groups in these professions deal with the factors that can threaten the safety and effectiveness of their task performance, whether these factors are part of the environment or part of the team itself. Four representative workplaces were investigated in three broad settings: in aviation, the cockpit of a commercial airliner; in medicine, the operating room and the intensive care unit of a hospital; in nuclear power, the control room of a nuclear power plant. The international and interdisciplinary composition of the Collegium ensures the book features a variety of different methodological and conceptual approaches, which are brought to bear at both theoretical and practical levels. Readers working in all related fields will find value in the case descriptions, the academic synthesis of the similarities between them, and ways to approach new challenges; specialists in applied psychology, human factors and technical management will gain new insights.
Table of Contents
Contents: Introduction, Rainer Dietrich and Traci M. Childress. Part I: Seven Perspectives on Teamwork: Group interaction under threat and high workload, Robert L. Helmreich and J. Bryan Sexton; Behavioral markers in analyzing team performance of cockpit crews, Ruth HÃ¤usler, Barbara Klampfer, Andrea Amacher and Werner Naef; The effects of different forms of co-ordination on coping with workload, Gudela Grote, EnikÃ¶ Zala-MezÃ¶ and Patrick Grommes; Communication in nuclear power plants (NPP), Ryoko Fukuda and Oliver StrÃ¤ter; Linguistic factors, Manfred Krifka, Silka Martens and Florian Schwarz; Language processing, Rainer Dietrich, Patrick Grommes and Sascha Neuper; Task load and the microstructure of cognition, Werner Sommer, Annette Hohlfeld and JÃ¶rg Sangals. Part II: Specific Issues: Setting the stage: characteristics of organizations, teams and tasks influencing team processes, Gudela Grote, Robert L. Helmreich, Oliver StrÃ¤ter, Ruth HÃ¤usler, EnikÃ¶ Zala-MezÃ¶ and J. Bryan Sexton; Structural features of language and language use, Manfred Krifka; Leadership and co-ordination, J. Bryan Sexton, Patrick Grommes, EnikÃ¶ Zala-MezÃ¶, Gudela Grote, Robert L. Helmreich and Ruth HÃ¤usler; Determinants of effective communication, Rainer Dietrich; Task load effects on language processing; experimental approaches, Annette Hohlfeld, Ryoko Fukuda, Sascha Neuper, JÃ¶rg Sangals, Werner Sommer and Oliver StrÃ¤ter, Appendices; Bibliography; Index.
Professor Rainer Dietrich heads the Psycho-linguistic Experimental Laboratory of the Institute for German Language and Linguistics at the Humboldt University Berlin, Faculty of Arts II and has conducted a number of experiments on language processing. The specific objective of the latter is the structure of the production system and the time course of utterance production under conditions of workload. Traci Michelle Childress currently works as Co-ordinator for the GIHRE project at the Humboldt University in Berlin, Germany and as a freelance editor and writer.