1st Edition

Guidance of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

By Rafael Yanushevsky Copyright 2011
    376 Pages 104 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    376 Pages 104 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Written by an expert with more than 30 years of experience, Guidance of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles contains new analytical results, taken from the author’s research, which can be used for analysis and design of unmanned aerial vehicles guidance and control systems. This book progresses from a clear elucidation of guidance laws and unmanned aerial vehicle dynamics to the modeling of their guidance and control systems.

    Special attention is paid to guidance of autonomous UAVs, which differs from traditional missile guidance. The author explains UAV applications, contrasting them to a missile’s limited ability (or inability) to control axial acceleration. The discussion of guidance laws for UAVs presents a generalization of missile guidance laws developed by the author. The computational algorithms behind these laws are tested in three applications—for the surveillance problem, the refueling problem, and for the motion control of a swarm of UAVs. The procedure of choosing and testing the guidance laws is also considered in an example of future generation of airborne interceptors launched from UAVs.

    The author provides an innovative presentation of the theoretical aspects of unmanned aerial vehicles’ guidance that cannot be found in any other book. It presents new ideas that, once crystallized, can be implemented in the new generation of unmanned aerial systems.

    Basics of Guidance

    Guidance Process

    Missile Guidance

    Guidance of Cruise Missiles and UAVs

    Representation of Motion


    Longitudinal and Lateral Motions


    Control of Lateral Motion

    Parallel Navigation

    Proportional Navigation: Planar Engagement

    Proportional Navigation: Three-Dimensional Engagement

    Augmented Proportional Navigation

    Proportional Navigation as a Control Problem

    Augmented Proportional Navigation as a Control Problem

    When Is the PN law Optimal?


    Control of Longitudinal and Lateral Motions

    Guidance Correction Controls

    Lyapunov Approach to Control Law Design

    Bellman-Lyapunov Approach: Optimal Guidance Parameters

    Modified Linear Planar Model of Engagement

    General Planar Case

    Three-Dimensional Engagement Model

    Generalized Guidance Laws

    Modifies Generalized Guidance Laws



    Analysis of Proportional Navigation Guided Systems in Time Domain

    Inertialess PN Guidance System

    Method of Adjoints


    Analysis of Proportional Navigation Guided Systems in the Frequency Domain

    Adjoint Method: Generalized Model

    Frequency Domain Analysis

    Steady-State Miss Analysis

    Weave Maneuver Analysis


    Frequency Analysis and Miss Step Response

    Bounded Input—Bounded Output Stability

    Frequency Response of the Generalized Guidance Model


    Design of Guidance Laws Implementing Parallel Navigation: Frequency-Domain Approach

    Neoclassical Missile Guidance

    Pseudoclassical Missile Guidance

    Example Systems


    Guidance Law Performance Analysis Under Stochastic Inputs

    Brief Discussion of Stochastic Processes

    Random Target Maneuvers

    Analysis of Influence of Noises on Miss Distance

    Effect of Random Target Maneuvers on Miss Distance

    Computational Aspects




    Guidance of UAVs

    Basic Guidance Laws and Vision-Based Navigation

    Generalized Guidance Laws for UAVs

    Guidance of a Swarm of UAVs

    Obstacle Avoidance Algorithms


    Testing Guidance Laws Performance

    Forces Acting on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Reference Systems and Transformations

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Dynamics

    Autopilot and Actuator Model

    Seeker Model

    Filtering and Estimation

    Kappa Guidance

    Lambert Guidance

    Simulation Models of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles


    Integrated Design

    Integrated Guidance and Control Model

    Synthesis of Control Laws

    Integration and Decomposition


    Guidance Laws for Boost-Phase Interceptors Launched from UAVs

    Kill Vehicles for Boost-Phase Defense

    Development of the Missile Model and Selection of Guidance Law Parameters

    Endgame Requirements and the Comparative Analysis of Efficiency of Guidance Laws

    Advanced Guidance Laws Applied to Boost Stage

    Interceptor’s Performance With Axial Control

    Comparative Analysis with Lambert Guidance




    Rafael Yanushevsky was born in Kiev, Ukraine. He received a BS in mathematics and a MS (with honors) in electromechanical engineering from Kiev University and the Kiev Polytechnic Institute, respectively. He earned a Ph.D in optimization of multivariable systems in 1968 from the Institute of Control Sciences of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia. After immigration to the United States in December 1987, he started teaching at the University of Maryland, first in the Department of Electrical Engineering, then in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, He also taught at the University of the District of Columbia in the Department of Mathematics. Since 1999, Dr. Yanushevsky has been involved in projects related to the aerospace industry.

    This book provides very detailed analytical descriptions of guidance laws for UAVs … I think it is a good reference book for those who are involved or are interested in autonomous UAV control systems. The concrete theoretical aspects provided in this book will help reader to further explore optimal solutions towards future and autonomous UAVs.
    —Dr. Shigang Yue, The Aeronautical Journal, May 2012