Guila Naquitz : Archaic Foraging and Early Agriculture in Oaxaca, Mexico, Updated Edition book cover
1st Edition

Guila Naquitz
Archaic Foraging and Early Agriculture in Oaxaca, Mexico, Updated Edition

Edited By

Kent V Flannery

ISBN 9781598744705
Published August 15, 2009 by Routledge
560 Pages

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Book Description

This volume reports on the excavation of Guilá Naquitz cave in Oaxaca, a site that provides important evidence for the earliest plant domestication in the New World. Stratigraphic studies, examinations of artifactual and botanical remains, simulations, and an imaginative reconstruction make this a model project of processual archaeology.

Table of Contents

Contributors -- Preface -- Acknowledgments -- Foreword to the Updated Edition (2009)/KENT V. FLANNERY -- I THE PROBLEM AND THE MODEL -- 1. The Research Problem/KENT V . FLANNERY -- Introduction -- Agriculture: “How” or “Why”? -- The Paleobotanical Evidence -- Gourds and Squashes -- Beans -- Teosinte and Maize -- The Maize-Bean-Squash Association -- Models and Theories for Early Domestication -- Universal Aspects of the Model -- Epilogue -- 2. Ecosystem Models and Information Flow in the Tehuacan-Oaxaca Region/KENT V . FLANNERY -- Introduction -- Matter, Energy, and Information -- The Choice of an Ecosystem -- Constructing a Multiple-Loop Model -- Deriving a Systems Model from the Tehuacan and Oaxaca Data -- Zea versus Prosopis: An Example o f Two Genera Linked through -- their Relationship to Humans -- Modeling Environmental Variation -- Scheduling -- Summary -- II THE CULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL SETTING -- 3. Guila Naquitz in Spatial, Temporal, and Cultural Context/KENT V. FLANNERY -- Introduction -- The Valley of Oaxaca -- The Discovery of Guild Naquitz -- The Chronological and Cultural Placement of Guild Naquitz -- Guild Naquitz in Its Demographic Context -- Guild Naquitz in the Context of Binford’s Forager-Collector Dichotomy -- Guild Naquitz in the Context of MacNeish’s Macroband-Microband Dichotomy -- Guild Naquitz in the Context of Oaxaca-Tehuacan Settlement Types -- Summary -- 4. The Physical Environment of the Guila Naquitz Cave Group/MICHAEL I. KIRKBY, ANNE V. WHYTE, and KENT V. FLANNERY -- Introduction -- Geology and Soils -- Climate and Hydrology -- Vegetation Zones and Their Facies -- Native Animals -- More Distant Environments -- Conclusion: Factors in Preceramic Site Location -- III EXCAVATION AND ARTIFACT ANALYSIS -- 5. The Excavation of Guila Naquitz/KENT V. FLANNERY, CHRIS L. MOSER, and SILVIA MARANCA -- Introduction -- Excavation Techniques -- Stage : Initial Test -- Stage : Squares D8 and E8 -- Stages -5: Beginning the Main Excavation -- Stages -7: Completing the Main Excavation -- The Preceramic Living Floors: Summary Descriptions -- The Implications of Zone B -- The Postclassic Levels -- Ephemeral Formative Occupations -- 6. Chipped-Stone Tools/FRANK HOLE -- Introduction -- Technology and Raw Material -- Typology -- The Basics of the Guild Naquitz Industry -- Founding and Flaking Tools -- Cores and Core Fragments -- Choppers, Scrapers, and Knives -- Tools for Slotting and Perforating -- Other Flake and Blade Tools -- Projectile Points -- Bifaces -- Unretouched Pieces -- Summary -- 7. Sources of the Guila Naquitz Chipped Stone/MICHAEL E. WHALEN -- Within Kilometers -- At Distances of Kilometers -- At Distances of -55 Kilometers -- 8. Ground-Stone Artifacts/KENT V. FLANNERY -- Preliminary Discussion -- One-Hand Manos -- Metates -- Mortars -- Miscellaneous Categories -- Summaries of Individual Living Floors -- 9. Preceramic Cordage and Basketry from Guila Naquitz/MARY ELIZABETH KING -- Introduction -- Knotted Netting -- Cordage -- Fiber -- Basketry -- Summaries of Individual Living Floors -- 10. Artifacts of Wood and Related Materials/KENT V. FLANNERY -- Fire-Making Equipment -- Atlatl-Hafting Equipment^) -- Nopal-Roasting Equipment -- Miscellaneous Items -- Summaries of Individual Living Floors -- 11. Woods Used as Fuels/KENT V. FLANNERY -- 12. Artifacts of Deer Antler/KENT V. FLANNERY -- Artifact Categories -- Summaries of Individual Living Floors -- 13. Coprolites and Animal Fur/ERIC O. CALLEN -- 14. Radiocarbon Dates/KENT V. FLANNERY -- Comparisons with Tehuacan -- IV COMPARING THE ARCHAIC AND MODERN ENVIRONMENTS -- 15. Pollen Analysis of the Oaxaca Archaic/JAMES SCHOENWETTER and LANDON DOUGLAS SMITH -- Project Description -- The Modem Pollen Rain -- Plant Ecology of the Valley -- Surface Pollen Records -- Fossil Pollen Records -- Appendix .1: Surface Sample Observations -- Appendix .2: Fossil Sample Observations -- Appendix .3: Discriminant Functions Classifications of Fossil Pollen Spectra -- 16. Comparing the Preceramic and Modem Microfauna -- KENT V. FLANNERY and JANE C. WHEELER -- Introduction -- Modem Rodent Samples -- Preceramic Rodent Samples -- Comparing Ancient and Modem Samples -- Songbirds -- Small Lizards -- Mollusks -- Summary and Conclusions -- ANALYSIS OF SUBSISTENCE -- 17. The Quantification of Subsistence Data: An Introduction to Part V/KENT V. FLANNERY -- Introduction -- The Nature of the Guild Naquitz Food Residues -- The Format for Part V -- 18 Wild Food Resources of the Mitla Caves: Productivity, Seasonality, and Annual Variation/KENT V. FLANNERY -- Plant Censuses,1966-1976 -- Seasonal Variation -- Annual Variation -- Estimating the Productivity of Food Animals -- Converting Raw Productivity to Calories and Protein -- 19. Preceramic Plant Remains from Guila Naquitz/C. EARLE SMITH, JR. -- Catalogue of the Plant Remains -- Interpretation of the Plant Remains -- Agriculture in the Preceramic -- Vegetational History of the Guila Naquitz Area -- Summary -- 20. Cucurbits from Preceramic Levels at Guila Naquitz/THOMAS W. WHITAKER and HUGH C. CUTLER -- 21. Preceramic Phaseolus from Guila Naquitz/LAWRENCE KAPLAN -- Introduction -- Description of Guila Naquitz Type -- Native Wild Beans of the Guila Naquitz Area -- Possible Genetic Influence of Guila Naquitz Type on Domesticates -- 22. Animal Food Remains from Preceramic Guila Naquitz/KENT V. FLANNERY and JANE C. WHEELER -- Introduction -- Animals Hunted or Trapped -- Mammals and Reptiles -- Birds -- Summaries of Individual Living Floors -- 23. Nutritional Significance of the Guila Naquitz Food Remains/J. R. K. ROBSON and J. N. ELIAS -- Introduction-^ -- Discussion -- Hypothetical Daily Intakes for Guila Naquitz -- 24. Food Procurement Area and Preceramic Diet at Guila Naquitz/KENT V. FLANNERY -- The Relation between Food Genera and 100-g Portions -- Plant Foods -- Animal Foods -- Harvest Areas Represented by the Cave Remains -- A Summary of the Living Floors -- The Sustaining Area for the Guila Naquitz Population -- Daily Plant Consumption at Guild Naquitz -- Calculating the Sustaining Area -- Changes in Diet through Time -- VI SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF LIVING FLOORS -- 25. Spatial Analysis of Guila Naquitz Living Floors: An Introduction to Part VI/KENT V. FLANNERY -- Graphic Display Techniques -- Defining Activity Areas -- The Data Set -- Sources of Spatial Co-Occurrence and Separation -- 26. Spatial Variation of Debris at Guila Naquitz: A Descriptive Approach/CHARLES S. SPENCER and KENT V. FLANNERY -- Introduction -- Descriptive Measures -- Contour Mapping -- Interpreting the Contour Maps -- Zone E -- Zone D -- Zone C -- Zone B3 -- Zone B2 -- Zone B1 -- Summary and Conclusions -- 27. A Spatial Analysis of Four Occupation Floors at Guila Naquitz/ROBERT WHALLON -- Statistical Methods -- An Introduction to Dimensional Analysis of Variance -- The Statistical Technique -- The Guild Naquitz Occupation Floors -- Results for Individual Occupation Floors -- Conclusion -- 28. Multidimensional Scaling of Four Guila Naquitz Living Floors/ROBERT G . REYNOLDS -- Introduction -- Activity Areas: A Problem in the Partitioning of Space -- The Structure of Cognized Activity Areas -- Partition Distance Techniques -- Q-Mode and R-Mode Analyses -- Results and Discussion -- Changes through Time -- Summary and Conclusions -- 29. Episodal Analysis of Guila Naquitz: A Synthesis of Spencer's, Whallon's, and Reynolds' Results/KENT V. FLANNERY -- Episodal Analysis -- Episode : The Deposition of Zone E -- Episode : The Deposition of Zone D -- Episode : The Deposition of Zone C -- Episodes and : The Deposition of Zones B3 and B2 -- Episode : The Deposition of Zone B1 -- Artifacts and Activity Areas -- VII SIMULATING FORAGING AND EARLY AGRICULTURE IN OAXACA -- 30. The Modeling of Foraging Strategy: An Introduction to Part VII/KENT V. FLANNERY -- Reynolds’ Model in the Context of Other Computer Simulations -- Alternative Ways of Modeling Hunter-Gatherer Subsistence Strategies -- The Rationale for Our Approach -- 31. An Adaptive Computer Model for the Evolution of Plant Collecting and Early Agriculture in the Eastern Valley of Oaxaca/ROBERT G. REYNOLDS -- Part : Introduction -- Part : Modeling Hunter-Gatherer Decision Making -- Part : The Eastern Valley of Oaxaca Data -- Part : The Informal Preagricultural Model -- Part : Developing the Formal Model -- Part : The Preagricultural Simulation -- Part : Modeling Incipient Agriculture -- Part : Simulating the Acquisition of Incipient Agriculture -- Part : Simulating Climatic Change and Population Growth -- Part : Summary and Conclusions -- 32. Adaptation, Evolution, and Archaeological Phases: Some Implications of Reynolds' Simulation/KENT V. FLANNERY -- The Preagricultural Stage -- Implications -- The Incipient Agricultural Stage -- Implications -- Agriculture as an Extension of the Preagricultural Pattern -- Adaptation and Time -- Adaptation and Archaeological Chronology -- VIII SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS -- 33. A Visit to the Master/KENT V. FLANNERY -- The Master -- Afternoon -- Evening -- Midnight -- Dawn -- 34. Resumen en Espahol/DAVID I. WILSON -- Parte I -- Parte II -- Parte III -- Parte IV -- Parte V -- Parte VI -- Parte VII -- Parte VIII -- References -- Index.

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"The whole is impressive." -Don E. Dumond, American Anthropologist

"Not only does it give important data on the Archaic of Oaxaca, a key region of Mesoamerica, but also it adds new techniques and methods of analysis that result in a new approach to theory." -Richard S. MacNeish, American Antiquity