2nd Edition

Hailstorms Prediction, Control and Damage Assessment, Second Edition

By Prabhat Kumar Copyright 2017
    350 Pages
    by CRC Press

    Each year hailstorm damage to human life, property, livestock, and agriculture is appalling in nature. Broadly, there are two problems related with hailstorms i.e. cloud physics problem of the growth of hailstones and the synoptic problem which relates to the thermodynamic investigation of the conditions that produce hailstorms. Thus, present book discusses climatology, physical properties of hail, measurements, prediction, control and damage assessment. Separate chapter discusses the typical features of hailstorm formation. Forecasters in any part of the world could find fair order of similarity in the synoptic models discussed amongst the four regions of India, with their regions, too.

    Climatology of Hailstorm

    Geographical Distribution of Hailstorm

    Global Climatology of Severe Hailstorm

    Regional Climatology of Hailstorms

    Hailstorms over India

    Seasonal Variation of Hailstorm in India

    Hail Path, Hail Streak and Hailswath

    Duration of Hail Fall

    Duration of Hail Damage


    Classification of Hail


    The Shapes of Hailstone

    Size of the Hailstone


    Hail Sampling and Analysis

    Hailstone Sampling

    Measurement of Shape and Size of Hail

    Instruments Related to Hailfall

    Hailstone Examination

    Storing of Hail Stones

    Aerodynamic Forces, Stability and Position during

    Free Fall

    Method of obtaining thin Sections

    The Structure of Air Bubble and their Significance

    The Structure of Ice Portion of Hail

    Painter and Schaefer Method for Internal Examination

    The Structure of Water Caverns

    Convection and Thunderstorm Formation


    The Concept of Buoyancy

    Computation of Ascending Velocity


    Parts of Matured Thunderstorm


    Types of Thunderstorms

    Movement of Thunderstorm

    Hail Growth and Hailstorm

    Precipitation Process Chain

    Mechanism of Hail Growth

    Vertical Wind Shear and Tilt

    Commonly used Nomenclatures Related to Hailstorms

    Hail Size on surface

    Numerical Simulations of Hailstorm

    Cave Channel Hypothesis

    Echoes Associated with Hailstorm on Radar

    Satellite observation of Hailstorm

    Structure of Hailstorm

    Stability Indices

    Pressure and Humidity Dip

    Hygrograph Dip

    Hailstorm over North-East India

    Favorable Conditions for Hailstorm Occurrence

    Vertical Wind Shear

    Humidity Parameter

    Radar Study of Hailstorm over Gauhati

    Hailstorm over North West India

    Favorable Condition for Hailstorm Occurrence

    Vertical Wind Shear

    Humidity Parameter

    Hailstorm over Central India

    Favorable Condition for Hailstorm Occurrence

    Vertical Wind Shear

    Humidity Parameter

    Radar Study of Hailstorm over Kamptee

    Hailstorm over South Peninsular India

    Favorable Conditions for Hailstorm Occurrence

    Vertical Wind Shear

    Humidity Parameter

    Hailstorm Modification and Control

    Sulakvelidze Hypothesis of Hail Control

    Seeding in Atmosphere

    Seeding Strategy

    Seeding Technology

    Why Success in Hail Control Mostly Eluded

    National Initiative on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) on Hail Control

    The Environmental Impact of Using Silver Iodide as a Cloud Seeding Agent

    Future Prospects

    Damage Due to Hail and Risk Cover

    Hail Impact Energy

    Damage to Property

    Loss of Life

    Damage to Automobiles

    Damage of Aircrafts

    Roof Top Damage by Hail Fall

    Protection against Hail Damage to the Crops

    Assessing the risk of Hail Damage and Insurance Cover


    Prabhat Kumar was conferred Ph.D.(Mathematics) by Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi for his researches in Fluid Mechanics and Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). As post-doctoral research fellow of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), India, he initiated innovative researches in artificial rain making through MHD. He was also commissioned in Meteorological Branch of Indian Air Force (IAF), wherein he served for 22 years. His glorious IAF tenure included Operational Weather Forecasting at various regions of India. He did Theoretical as well as applied researches and modelling in Mountain Waves at Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi. He was also Senior Instructor, and guided M.Phil and Ph.D in Meteorology at Air Administrative College, Coimbatore – affiliated to Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, India. He is recognized Ph. D guide from the Department of Mathematics and also from the Department of Atmospheric and Space Science, University of Pune, India He is recipient of President of India Medal for meritorious services. He was awarded "Best Application Paper Award" at National Systems Conference, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, India. He was guest speaker at University of Melbourn, and at CSIRO, Melbourn, Australia and at Estov University, Budapest, Hungary. His key areas of researches include Mountain Waves, Air Pollution, Thunderstorm, Duststorm and Hailstorm, Tropical Storm and Climate Dynamics.