Handbook - Soil mix walls: Design and execution, 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Handbook - Soil mix walls

Design and execution, 1st Edition

Edited by Nicolas Denies, Noël Huybrechts

CRC Press

600 pages

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Hardback: 9789053676417
pub: 2018-07-13
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Description

Handbook - Soil mix walls

For several decades now, the deep mixing method has been used for ground improvement works.

A more recent application is the use of soil mix as structural elements for the construction of earth-water retaining structures and cut-off walls. Since 2000, due to the economic and environmental advantages of the method, these particular applications have shown an amazing growth. Nevertheless, in practice, no pragmatic standards or guidelines were available for the design, the execution, the quality control and the maintenance of this kind of applications. This is the reason why the present publication was initiated.

The Handbook - Soil mix walls is based on existing literature and the knowledge and experiences of committee members, and includes an extensive description of the design and execution processes.

It also establishes the link between the conditions of use (functional requirements), the design and the quality control of the final soil mix structure that is especially important in the construction of soil mix walls.

Based on a large test campaign, a methodology is proposed for the design of the soil mix walls for which the interaction between steel and soil mix can possibly be taken into account dependent upon the application. Each potential function of the soil mix wall is described (e.g. earth retaining wall, cut-off wall, bearing capacity, etc.) and the temporary or permanent character of the application (its lifetime) is always considered. Furthermore, the design methodology presented in this handbook is in agreement with the Eurocodes.

The Handbook - Soil mix walls also includes aspects such as the hydromechanical characterisation and the durability of the soil mix material, the interaction between steel and soil mix and the monitoring and quality control of soil mix structures. The purpose of this publication is to contribute to the realisation of soil mix walls of high quality and to minimise the risk of calamities or damage.

This manual has been drawn up under the responsibility of a joint committee of SBRCURnet (the Netherlands) and the Belgian Building Research Institute (BBRI, Belgium). There is a certain difference in the design approach between Belgium and the Netherlands. These differences are also discussed in this handbook.

Features:

  • First reference handbook dedicated to the use of soil mix as structural elements for the construction of earth-water retaining structures and cut-off walls.
  • Establishes the link between the functional requirements, the design and the quality control of the final soil mix structure.
  • The design methodology presented in this handbook is in agreement with the Eurocodes.
  • Table of Contents

    PART 1

    Chapter 1 Introduction

    Chapter 2 Soil mix walls: general observations and area of application

    2.1 Construction principles and execution processes

    2.2 Characteristics of the soil mix material

    2.3 Field of applications of soil mix walls

    Chapter 3 Functional requirements of the soil mix walls

    Chapter 4 Risk management

    Chapter 5 Preliminary research and preparation

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Preliminary research

    5.3 Chemical substances

    5.4 Relationship with the environmental precautions

    Chapter 6 Design

    6.1 Notations

    6.2 Safety philosophy and approach to design

    6.3 Material properties

    6.4 Analysis of the arching effect

    6.5 Specific parameters for the design calculations

    6.6 Determination of the horizontal bending stiffness EI

    6.7 Determination of the structural strength (M, N, D) of the soil mix wall

    6.8 Horizontal support

    6.9 Determination of the vertical bearing capacity

    6.10 Influence of the wall installation on adjacent foundations

    6.11 Constructive design aspects

    6.12 Watertightness design aspects

    6.13 Fire

    6.14 Durability

    Chapter 7 Execution

    7.1 Execution standard

    7.2 Execution methods

    7.3 Horizontal alignment of the walls

    7.4 Steel beams

    7.5 Reducing the wall thickness

    7.6 Anchoring/bracing

    7.7 Execution near existing buildings

    7.8 Execution monitoring

    Chapter 8 Quality control

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Quality plan

    8.3 Suitability tests

    8.4 Sampling

    8.5 Storage, treatment and preparation of the test specimens and determination of the volume percentage of inclusions

    8.6 Determination of the soil mix characteristics

    8.7 Monitoring of the wall deformations

    8.8 Determination of the in situ permeability of soil mix walls: Pumping tests

    8.9 Leak detection method for soil mix walls

    8.10 Permanent walls

    Chapter 9 Lifetime considerations, management and maintenance

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Degradation mechanisms

    9.3 Damage to soil mix material

    9.4 Damage from steel corrosion

    9.5 Design considerations

    9.6 Execution in accordance with the design

    9.7 Management

    9.8 Maintenance

    Chapter 10 Conclusions and recommendations (aspects that require further research)

    Appendix 1 - Determination of the compressive strength of the soil mix material

    Appendix 2 - Horizontal bending stiffness and moment capacity of soil mix walls - background information and calculation examples

    T2.1 Horizontal bending stiffness - generalities

    T2.2 Influence of the bending stiffness on the calculated internal forces and deformations

    T2.3 Comparison of the calculated bending stiffness EI-eff with the BBRI test data

    T2.4 Resistance moment and moment capacity - general observations

    T2.5 Effective width for the verification of the internal forces

    T2.6 Evaluation of the large-scale bending tests performed at the BBRI

    Appendix 3 - Example calculations of the arching effect in Plaxis 2D

    Appendix 4 - Example calculations based on 2 case studies

    T4.1 Introduction

    T4.2 Case study 1: Cantilever retaining wall made of soil mix panels

    T4.3 Case study 2: Anchored retaining wall made of soil mix columns

    PART 2

    Chapter 1 Introduction

    Chapter 2 State-of-the-art

    2.1 Soil mix walls as retaining structures

    2.2 Construction principles and execution processes

    2.3 Hydro-mechanical characterisation of the soil mix material

    2.4 Durability of the soil mix material

    2.5 Case histories of soil mix walls

    2.6 Other fields of application of the deep mixing method

    2.7 International QC/QA procedures

    About the Editors

    Dr Ir Nicolas Denies is Deputy Head of laboratory in the Geotechnical Division of the Belgian Building Research Institute (BBRI). His core business is the deep mixing technology, the ground improvement works and the geotechnical monitoring. He is also involved in the testing of piles, anchors, jet grouting columns and micropiles. Nicolas Denies is member of the Belgian Member Society of ISSMGE (BGGG-GBMS) and he is the Secretary of the ISSMGE Technical Committee 211 for Ground Improvement for the period 2013-2021.

    Prof. Ir. Noël Huybrechts is Head of the Geotechnical Division of the Belgian Building Research Institute (BBRI). Since 2012, Noël Huybrechts is visiting professor at the Civil Engineering Department of the KU Leuven for the domain of soil mechanics and foundation engineering. He is chairman of the ISSMGE TC 211 for Ground Improvement for the period 2013-2021, board member and acting president (period 2016-2018) of ELGIP (European Large Geotechnical Institutes Platform), Board Member of the Belgian Member Society of ISSMGE (BGGG-GBMS), the Belgian Chapter of ITA and the Belgian Chapter of ISG.

    Subject Categories

    BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
    TEC005000
    TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Construction / General
    TEC009020
    TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Civil / General