2nd Edition

Handbook for the Chemical Analysis of Plastic and Polymer Additives

    654 Pages 422 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Polymers have undoubtedly changed the world through many products that improve our lives. However, additives used to modify the overall characteristics of these materials may not be fully disclosed or understood. These additives may present possible environmental and health hazards. It is important to monitor consumer products for these compounds using high-quality reference materials and dependable analytical techniques.

    The Handbook for the Chemical Analysis of Plastic and Polymer Additives, Second Edition provides the necessary tools for chemists to obtain a more complete listing of additives present in a particular polymeric matrix. It is designed to serve as a valuable source for those monitoring a polymer/plastic material for regulatory or internal compliance. It also helps analysts to correctly identify the complex nature of the materials that have been added to the polymer/plastic.

    With 50 additional compounds, this second edition nearly doubles the number of additives in several categories, including processing aids, antistatic compounds, mould release products, and blowing agents. It includes a listing that can be cross-referenced by trade name, chemical name, CAS number, and even key mass unit ions from the GC/MS run.

    Addressing additives from an analytical viewpoint, this comprehensive handbook helps readers identify the additives in plastics. This information can be used to assess compliance with regulations issued by the FDA, US EPA, EU, and other agencies.

    Overview of Polymers, Additives, and Processing
    Classes of Polymeric Compounds
    Compounding Objectives
    Thermoplastic Compounding
    Crosslinked Elastomer Compounding
    Thermoplastic Elastomer Compounding
    Compounding Overview
    Methods of Compounding: Thermoplastic Polymers
    Methods of Compounding: Crosslinked Elastomers

    Extraction and Analysis

    Extraction Methods
    Analytical Methods
    System Maintenance

    Crosslinking Compounds/Accelerators



    Coupling Agents

    Flame Retardants


    Other Compounds of Interest

    Practical Applications of Investigative Analyses
    Case Studies: Polymer Additives in Pharmaceutical Packaging
    Case Study #1: Pre-Filled Syringe Vials
    Case Study #2: Nasal Pump Delivery System
    Case Study #3: Dry Powder Inhalation Device
    Case Studies: Performance and Exposure Issues with Organic Additives
    Case Study #1: Contaminants in Plastic Food Packaging
    Case Study #2: Peeling Labels
    Case Study #3: BPA-Free Coffee Cup
    Case Study #4: Polymers Used in Infant Chew/Teething Toys
    Case Studies: Polymers for Electrical Equipment Applications
    Case Study #1: Electrical Insulators
    Case Study #2: Review of Field-Aged Elastomeric Materials
    Case Study #3: Performance of Polymeric Seals
    Case Studies: Questioned Analytical Procedures
    Case Study #1: Benzene in Blister Packaging Materials
    Case Study #2: Toxic Material in Medication Container Lining

    APPENDIX A Chromatograms

    APPENDIX B Definitions and Abbreviations

    Subject Index

    Molecular Weight Index

    Five Peak Index of Mass Spectra

    CAS Number Index

    RTECS Number Index


    Jack Hubball, PhD, is the lead criminalist for the Connecticut State Police Forensic Laboratory, which provides analyses for organic compounds from a variety of samples submitted from crime scenes. During his tenure at the Laboratory, Dr. Hubball has analyzed more than 10,000 items. He is the laboratory representative to the Connecticut State Police K-9 Unit and provides final testing and third-party certification for the accelerant, drug, and explosives detection teams. Dr. Hubball also is a consultant to two companies specializing in polymer-related cases. As a consultant he has performed hundreds of polymer analyses.

    Michael Bolgar is the founder and CEO of AccuStandard, Inc. and an organic chemist with over 40 years experience in synthesizing complex organic molecules. His early work with unique industrial compounds led him to start his own company concentrating on the synthesis, formulation and certification of organic chemical reference standards. These standards are used worldwide for monitoring pollutants originating from industrial chemical products such as polymers. AccuStandard is the first and only company to have synthesized all 209 PCB congeners and all 209 PBDE congeners. In addition to these primary compounds, his synthesis department has produced many of their metabolites and has published papers on these subjects.

    Joseph Groeger is president of Mantis Associates Inc. in Storrs Mansfield, Connecticut, which is dedicated to product development in consumer products, food packaging, and drug delivery devices/systems. He has more than 30 years of practical experience in development, selection, formulation, testing, and analysis of rubber, thermoplastics, adhesives, foams, composites, and polymer coatings. He has developed new materials for medical delivery devices, battery seals and insulators, electrical insulation systems, flame-retardant materials, coatings, food packaging, adhesives, and others. Mr. Groeger has published extensively and holds numerous patents that focus on polymer applications.

    Susan Meronek is the general manager at AccuStandard, Inc. in New Haven, Connecticut. She is an inorganic analytical chemist with over 25 years experience in environmental analysis and reference standards manufacturing. Ms. Meronek has many years of environmental analytical experience, including integrating the inorganic chemical reference standard product line into AccuStandard's original organic-only business. She was instrumental in AccuStandard's original ISO certifications and accreditation by NIST under the NVLAP program for the years of NIST's involvement.

    "…a welcome tool to help bench chemists obtain a more complete listing of additives present in a particular polymeric matrix."
    —Valerio Causin, University of Padova, in Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry


    "Material scientists and plastic compounders will find this handbook to be a very useful reference for identifying plastic/polymer additives and a good source of information on extraction and compunding methods for plastics used in many consumer, commercial, and industrial applications."

    IEEE Electrial Insulation magazine, Volume 35, Number 4