The Handbook of Carbohydrate Engineering provides an overview of the basic science, theory, methods, and applications of this broad, interdisciplinary field. The text provides background information along with practical knowledge for current and future research methodologies used in the characterization and synthesis of various carbohydrates. This multidisciplinary perspective involves aspects of basic biology, synthetic chemistry, enzymology, complex instrumentation, and sophisticated modeling.
The book presents the fundamentals of carbohydrate engineering, addressing concepts in structure, biosynthesis, and biological functions for a variety of carbohydrates with a particular emphasis on mammalian glycoproteins and their N-linked oligosaccharides, glycolipids, sialic acid, as well as polysaccharides from both eukaryotes and bacteria. It describes glycosylation processes found in nature and surveys methods to manipulate these metabolic systems in living cells both for the improved production of carbohydrates and to give these molecules novel properties. Subsequent sections discuss the various methods of purification, synthesis, modification, and analysis used to create and manipulate carbohydrates in the laboratory; these approaches include chemical-enzymatic synthesis, small-molecule cell-based strategies, as well as complete chemical synthesis.
The Handbook of Carbohydrate Engineering also focuses on practical applications for carbohydrates. It emphasizes methods to characterize glycosylation pathways and expounds upon the role of carbohydrates in health and disease, a significant - and rapidly growing - area of research. World-renowned experts discuss biomedical applications, including the development of vaccines, therapeutics, glycomimetics, antibody engineering, drug delivery, tissue engineering and organ regeneration, and diagnostic agents. Several chapters also cover important applications in agriculture, industry, food technology, and envir
Mammalian Glycosylation: An Overview of Carbohydrate Biosynthesis. Patterning of Lectins of Vero and MDCK Cells and Influenza Viruses: The Search for Additional Virus/Cell Interactions. O-Acetyl Sialic Acids in Parasitic Diseases. Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation. Role of Milk Carbohydrates in Preventing Bacterial Adhesion. Structural Characterization of Glycosaminoglycans. Carrageenans: Structural and Conformational Studies. Computational Modeling in Glycosylation. Biosynthetic Pathways for Differential Expression of Functional Chondroitin Sulfate and Heparan Sulfate. Large-Scale Production of Oligosaccharides Using Engineered Bacteria. Fructan Biosynthesis in Genetically-Modified Plants. Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) Glycosylation Mutants for Glycan Engineering. Biochemical Engineering of Sialic Acids. Glycosylation in Native and Engineered Insect Cells. N-Glycan Engineering in Yeasts and Fungi: Progress Toward Human-Like Glycosylation. Bacterial Capsules: A Route for Polysaccharide Engineering. Chemo-Biological Approach to Modification of the Bacterial Cell Wall. Engineering Bacterial Biopolymers for the Biosorption of Heavy Metals. Treatment of Wastewaters with the Biopolymer Chitosan. The Role of Glycosylation in Engineered Antibodies. Recent Developments in the Synthesis of Oligosaccharides by Hyperthermophilic Glycosidases. Modification of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides Using Enzymes from Aspergillus. ß-Glucosidases from Filamentous Fungi: Properties, Structure, and Applications. Sialic Acids and Sialylmimetics: Useful Chemical Probes of Sialic Acid-Recognizing Proteins. Engineering Carbohydrate Scaffolds into the Side Chains of Amino Acids and Use in Combinatorial Synthesis. Effects of Short- and Long-Chain Fructans on Large Intestinal Physiology and Development of Pre-Neoplastic Lesions in Rats. Alginate as Drug a Delivery Carrier. Chitosan-Based Nonviral Vectors for Gene Delivery. Polysaccharides in Tissue Engineering Applications. Index