The Handbook of Environmental Health-Biological, Chemical and Physical Agents of Environmentally Related Disease, Volume 1, Fourth Edition includes twelve chapters on a variety of topics basically following a standard chapter outline where applicable with the exception of chapters 1, 2 and 12. The outline is as follows:
1. Background and status
2. Scientific, technological and general information
3. Statement of the problem
4. Potential for intervention
5. Some specific resources
6. Standards, practices, and techniques
7. Modes of surveillance and evaluation
8. Various controls
9. Summary of the chapter
10. Research needs for the future
Chapter 1, Environment and Humans discusses ecosystems, energy technologies and environmental problems, important concepts of chemistry, transport and alteration of chemicals in the environment, environmental economics, risk-benefit analysis, environmental health law, environmental impact statements, competencies for the environmental health practitioner.
Chapter 2, Environmental Problems and Human Health has a general discussion of people and disease followed by a brief discussion of physiology including the human cell, blood, lymphatic system, tissue membranes, nervous system, respiratory system, gastrointestinal system and urinary system. There is a discussion of toxicological principles including toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics. There is a discussion of carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, reproductive toxicity and teratogenesis and the role of environmental contaminants in causing disease. Medical surveillance techniques utilized to measure potential toxicity are included. Basic concepts of microbiology are discussed followed by principles of communicable diseases and emerging infectious diseases. There’s an explanation of epidemiological principles including epidemiological investigations and environmental health and environmental epidemiology. The chapter concludes with a discussion of risk assessment and risk management.
Chapter 3, Food Protection discusses food microbiology, reproduction and growth of microorganisms, environmental effects on bacteria, detergents and disinfectants, sources of foodborne disease exposure, FoodNet, various foodborne infections, bacterial food poisoning, chemical poisoning, poisonous plants and fungi, allergic reactions, parasitic infections, chronic aftereffects of foodborne disease, vessel sanitation programs, food quality protection acts, plans review, food service facilities, food storage, inspection techniques, preparation and serving of food, cleaning and sanitizing equipment and utensils, insect and rodent control, flow systems, epidemiological study techniques, Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Inspection, food protection controls, food service training programs, national food safety initiative.
Chapter 4, Food Technology discusses emerging or reemerging foodborne pathogens, chemistry of foods, food additives and preservatives, food spoilage, pesticides and fertilizers in food, antibiotics in food, heavy metals and the food chain, use of recycled plastics in food packaging, environmental problems in milk processing, poultry processing, egg processing, meat processing, fish and shellfish processing, produce processing, and imported foods. National standards, practices and techniques are provided for milk, ice cream, poultry, eggs, meat, produce and seafood. Current modes of surveillance and evaluation as well as appropriate control measures are provided for each of the above areas.
Chapter 5, Insect Control discusses scientific, technological, and general information about various insects of public health significance including fleas, flies, lice, mites, mosquitoes, and roaches. There is a substantial discussion of the many diseases transmitted by insects including African Bite Fever, Bubonic Plague, Chagas Disease, Colorado Tick Fever, Dengue Fever, Ehrlichioses, Encephalitis, Lyme Disease, Malaria, Rickettsial Pox, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Scabies, Scrub Typhus, Tularemia, Typhus Fever, Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers, Yellow Fever. Included in the text are the national standards, practices, and techniques utilized to conduct surveys, methods of prevention and controls of the insects. Further there is a discussion of emerging and reemerging insect borne diseases including why this is occurring. Integrated pest management is a special topic.
Chapter 6, Rodent Control discusses the characteristics and behavior of murine rodents and deer mice, how they affect humans and the various diseases that they cause. National standards, practices and techniques are established for rodent poisoning and trapping, food and harborage removal, and rodent proofing. A special feature is the discussion of an actual working community rodent control program.
Chapter 7, Pesticides discusses current issues, current laws and the effects of pesticides on groundwater, surface water, land, food, air and people. The various categories of pesticides and current allowable usage of inorganic insecticides and petroleum compounds, chlorinated hydrocarbons, organophosphates, carbamates, biolarvicides, and insect growth regulators are discussed.
Chapter 8, Indoor Environment discusses indoor air pollution, housing, health and the housing environment, human illness, monitoring environmental disease, residential wood combustion, environmental tobacco smoke, carbon monoxide, radon gas, volatile organic compounds, asbestos, molds, bacteria and other biological contaminants, environmental lead hazards, noise, accidents and injuries. National standards, practices, and techniques are provided for all areas of the indoor environment, and survey techniques and housing studies are included.
Chapter 9-Institutional Environment discusses the complex environment and potential for disease in nursing and convalescent homes, old-age homes, schools, colleges, and universities, prisons and hospitals. There are in-depth discussions on the potential for spread of disease through air, water, fomites, surfaces, people, food, laundry, insects and rodents, laboratories and biohazards, and surgical suites. Within the hospital setting there are extended discussions of heating, air conditioning, and laminar flow, housekeeping, laundry, solid and hazardous waste, maintenance, plumbing, food, hazardous chemicals, insects and rodents, radioactive materials, water supply, emergency medical services, fire safety and patient safety programs. Handwashing and hospital environmental control is explained in depth including the various microorganisms that may be transmitted by hands. There is a special discussion on laboratories and bio hazards including bacterial agents, fungal agents, parasitic agents, prions, rickettsial agents, viral agents, arborviruses and related zoological viruses. There are additional discussions on human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, tuberculosis, resistant organisms. Emerging and reemerging infection problems are of great significance. Hospital acquired infection and routes of transmission are significant problems. Occupational health and safety problems in the hospital are analyzed. The most recent CDC guidelines for all these areas are included. A significant number of inspection and survey forms are included in order for the reader to get a better understanding of specific problems in a specific institution.
Chapter 10-Recreational Environment includes problems and solutions to problems in water quality, water supply, sewage, plumbing, shelter, food, solid waste, fish handling, stables, swimming and boating.
Chapter 11-Occupational Environment includes a discussion of the interrelated challenges of various pressures in the environment. It includes physical agents such as sound, non-ionizing radiation, ionizing radiation, hot and cold temperature extremes. It also includes discussions of chemical agents such as toxic chemicals, flammable chemicals, corrosive chemicals, reactive agents. It includes discussions of biological agents. Ergonomics is an essential part of the chapter. The occupational health controls of substitution, isolation, ventilation, personal protective equipment, housekeeping, and education for control of physical agents, chemical agents, biological agents and ergonomic factors are also discussed.
Chapter 12-Major Instrumentation for Environmental Evaluation of Occupational, Residential, and Public Indoor Settings discusses instantaneous or real-time monitoring, integrated or continuous monitoring, personal monitoring and area monitoring. Techniques and equipment are discussed for various airborne particulates and gaseous agents. Integrated or continuous monitoring of sound as well as instantaneous or real-time monitoring of sound is explained. Evaluation of air temperature factors are discussed. Evaluations of the illumination, microwave radiation, electric and magnetic fields, ionizing radiation, air pressure, velocity and flow rate are presented. Excellent graphics help the reader understand the principles of instrumentation.
A large and current bibliography by chapter is included at the end of the book. This state-of-the-art computerized graphics can be found throughout the book. A comprehensive index of both Volume I and Volume II is at the end of the book to aid the reader in easily finding necessary information. The reader is referred to the Volume II when appropriate.
The book is user-friendly to a variety of individuals including generalalist professionals as well as specialists, industrial hygiene personnel, health and medical personnel, the media, supervisors and managers of environmental health and occupational health areas, and students. Individuals can easily gain appropriate and applicable standards, rules and regulations to help the individual increase knowledge in a given area or solve actual problems. The book is utilized to help individuals also prepare for registration examinations.
The book is co-published with the National Environmental Health Association.