Handbook of Essential Oils : Science, Technology, and Applications book cover
3rd Edition

Handbook of Essential Oils
Science, Technology, and Applications

ISBN 9780815370963
Published August 11, 2020 by CRC Press
1120 Pages 12 Color & 627 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Handbook of Essential Oils: Science, Technology, and Applications presents the development, use and marketing of essential oils. Exciting new topics include insecticidal applications, but there is a continued focus on the chemistry, pharmacology and biological activities of essential oils.

The third edition unveils new chapters including the insect repellent and insecticidal activities of essential oils, the synergistic activity with antibiotics against resistant microorganisms, essential oil applications in agriculture, plant-insect interactions, and pheromones and contaminants in essential oils.


  • Presents a wide range of topics including sources, production, analysis, storage, transport, chemistry, aromatherapy, pharmacology, toxicology, metabolism, technology, biotransformation, application, utilization, and trade
  • Includes discussions of biological activity testing, results of antimicrobial and antioxidant tests, and penetration enhancing activities useful in drug delivery
  • Covers up-to-date regulations and legislative procedures, together with the use of essential oils in perfumes, cosmetics, feed, food, beverages, and pharmaceutical industries
  • Unveils new chapters including the insect repellent and insecticidal activities of essential oils, the synergistic activity with antibiotics against resistant microorganisms, essential oil applications in agriculture, plant-insect interactions, and pheromones and contaminants in essential oils
  • The American Botanical Council (ABC) named the second edition as the recipient of the 2016 ABC James A. Duke Excellence in Botanical Literature Award and recognized that essential oils are one of the fastest growing segments of the herbal product market

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction

K. Hüsnü Can Başer and Gerhard Buchbauer

Chapter 2: History and Sources of Essential Oil Research

Karl-Heinz Kubeczka

Chapter 3: Sources of Essential Oils

Chlodwig Franz and Johannes Novak

Chapter 4: Natural Variability of Essential Oil Components

Eva Nemeth-Zambori

Chapter 5: Production of Essential Oils

Erich Schmidt

Chapter 6: Chemistry of Essential Oils

Charles Sell

Chapter 7: Analysis of Essential Oils

Adriana Arigo, Mariosimone Zoccali, Danilo Sciarrone, Peter Q. Tranchida, Paola Dugo and Luigi Mondello

Chapter 8: Use of Linear Retention Indices in GC/MS Libraries for Essential Oil Analysis

Emanuela Trovato, Giuseppe Micalizzi, Paola Duga, Margita Utczas, and Luigi Mondello

Chapter 9: Safety Evaluation of Essential Oils

Sean V. Taylor

Chapter 10: Metabolism of Terpenoids in Animal Models and Humans

Walter Jaeger and Martina Hoferl

Chapter 11: Central Nervous System Effects of Essential Oil Compounds

Elaine Elisabetsky and Domingos Savio Nunes

Chapter 12: Effects of Essential Oils on Human Cognition

Eva Heuberger

Chapter 13: Aromatherapy: An Overview and Global Perspectives

Rhiannon Lewis

Chapter 14: Essential Oils in Cancer Therapy

Carmen Trummer and Gerhard Buchbauer

Chapter 15: Antimicrobial Activity of Selected Essential Oils and Aroma Compounds against Airborne Microbes

Sabine Krist

Chapter 16: Quorum Sensing and Essential Oils

Isobel Charlotte Soede and Gerhard Buchbauer

Chapter 17: Functions of Essential Oils and Natural Volatiles in Plant-Insect Interactions

Robert A. Raguso

Chapter 18: Essential Oils as Lures for Invasive Ambrosia Beetles

Paul E. Kendra, Nurhayat Tabanca, Wayne S. Montgomery, Jerome Niogret, David Owens, and Daniel Carrillo

Chapter 19: Adverse Effects and Intoxication with Essential Oils

Rosa Lemmens-Gruber

Chapter 20: Adulteration of Essential Oils

Erich Schmidt and Jürgen Wanner

Chapter 21: Essential Oils and Volatiles in Bryophytes

Agnieczka Ludwiczuk and Yoshinori Asakawa

Chapter 22: Biotransformation of Monoterpenoids by Microorganisms, Insects, and Mammals

Yoshiaki Noma and Yoshinori Asakawa

Chapter 23: Biotransformation of Sesquiterpenoids, Ionones, Damascones, Adamantanes, and Aromatic Compounds by Green Algae, Fungi, and Mammals

Yoshinori Asakawa and Yoshiaki Noma

Chapter 24: Use of Essential Oils in Agriculture

Catherine Regnault-Roger, Susanne Hemetsberger, and Gerhard Buchbauer

Chapter 25: Essential Oils Used in Veterinary Medicine

K. Hüsnü Can Başer and Chlodwig Franz

Chapter 26: Encapsulation and Other Programmed/ Sustained Release Techniques for Essential Oils and Volatile Terpenes

Jan Karlsen

Chapter 27: Essential Oils as Carrier Oils

Romana Aichinger and Gerhard Buchbauer

Chapter 28: Influence of Light on Essential Oil Constituents

Marie-Christine Cudlik and Gerhard Buchbauer

Chapter 29: Influence of Air on Essential Oil Constituents

Darija Gajic and Gerhard Buchbauer

Chapter 30: The Essential Oil Trade

Hugo Bovill

Chapter 31: Industrial Uses of Essential Oils

W.S. Brud

Chapter 32: Storage, Labeling, and Transport of Essential Oils

Jens Jankowski, Jens-Achim Protzen, and Klaus-Dieter Protzen

Chapter 33: Recent EU Legislation on Flavors and Fragrances and Its Impact on Essential Oils

Jan C.R. Demyttenaere

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K. Hüsnü Can Başer was born on July 15, 1949 in Çankırı, Turkey. He graduated from the Eskisehir I.T.I.A. School of Pharmacy with diploma number 1 in 1972 and became a research assistant in the pharmacognosy department of the same school. He did his PhD in pharmacognosy between 1974 and 1978 at Chelsea College of the University of London. Upon returning home, he worked as a lecturer in pharmacognosy at the school he had earlier graduated, and served as director of Eskisehir I.T.I.A. School of Chemical Engineering between 1978 and 1980. He was promoted to associate professorship in pharmacognosy in 1981. He served as dean of the faculty of pharmacy at Anadolu University (1993–2001), vice-dean of the faculty of pharmacy (1982–1993), head of the department of professional pharmaceutical sciences (1982–1993), head of the pharmacognosy department (1982–2011), member of the University Board and Senate (1982–2001; 2007), and director of the Medicinal and Aromatic Plant and Drug Research Centre (TBAM) (1980–2002) in Anadolu University.

During 1984–1994, he was appointed as the national project coordinator of Phase I and Phase II of the UNDP/UNIDO projects of the government of Turkey titled "Production of Pharmaceutical Materials from Medicinal and Aromatic Plants," through which TBAM had been strengthened. He was promoted to full professorship in pharmacognosy in 1987. After his early retirement from Anadolu University in 2011, he served as visiting professor in King Saud University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (2011-2015). He is currently working as head of pharmacognosy department in the Faculty of Pharmacy of Near East University in Nicosia, N. Cyprus and director of Graduate Institute of Health Sciences of the same university. His major areas of research include essential oils, alkaloids, and biological, chemical, pharmacological, technological, and biological activity research into natural products. He is the 1995 Recipient of the Distinguished Service Medal of IFEAT (International Federation of Essential Oils and Aroma Trades) based in London, United Kingdom and the 2005 recipient of "Science Award" (Health Sciences) of the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) among the 18 awards he has been bestowed so far. He is listed among the 100 Turks Leading Science. He has published 822 research papers in international refereed journals, 179 papers in Turkish journals, and 141 papers in conference proceedings. He has published altogether 1200 scientific contributions as papers, books, book chapters. According to SCI, his 591 papers were cited 10.214 times. His H-index is 47. According to Google Scholar, his publications were cited 32.162 times. His H-index is 72; i10 index is 559. His 5 books were published in Turkey, Japan, UK and USA (2).

For more information: http://www.khcbaser.com

Gerhard Buchbauer was born in 1943 in Vienna, Austria. He studied pharmacy at the University of Vienna, from where he received his master’s degree (Mag. pharm.) in May 1966. In September 1966, he assumed the duties of university assistant at the Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and received his doctorate (PhD) in pharmacy and philosophy in October 1971 with a thesis on synthetic fragrance compounds. Further scientific education was practiced postdoc in the team of Professor C.H. Eugster at the Institute of Organic Chemistry, University of Zurich (1977–1978), followed by the habilitation (postdoctoral lecture qualification) in pharmaceutical chemistry with the inaugural dissertation entitled "Synthesis of Analogies of Drugs and Fragrance Compounds with Contributions to Structure-Activity-Relationships" (1979) and appointment as permanent staff of the University of Vienna and head of the -rst department of the Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry.

In November1991, he was appointed as a full professor of pharmaceutical chemistry, University of Vienna; in 2002, he was elected as head of this institute. He retired in October 2008. He is married since 1973 and had a son in 1974.

Among others, he is still a member of the permanent scientific committee of International Symposium on Essential Oils (ISEO); a member of the scientific committee of Forum Cosmeticum (1990, 1996, 2002, and 2008); a member of numerous editorial boards (e.g., Journal of Essential Oil Research, the International Journal of Essential Oil Therapeutics, Scientia Pharmaceutica); assistant editor of Flavour and Fragrance Journal; regional editor of Eurocosmetics; a member of many scientific societies (e.g., Society of Austrian Chemists, head of its working group "Food Chemistry, Cosmetics, and Tensides" (2000–2004), Austrian Pharmaceutical Society, and Austrian Phytochemical Society, vice head of the Austrian Society of Scienti-c Aromatherapy, and so on); technical advisor of IFEAT (1992–2008); and organizer of the 27th ISEO (September 2006, in Vienna) together with Professor Dr. Ch. Franz and senior advisor at the 50th ISEO (September 2019) organized in Vienna again.

Based on the sound interdisciplinary education of pharmacists, it was possible to establish an almost completely neglected area of fragrance and avor chemistry as a new research discipline within the pharmaceutical sciences. Our research team is the only one that conducts fragrance research in its entirety and covers synthesis, computer-aided fragrance design, analysis, and pharmaceutical/ medicinal aspects. Because of our efforts, it is possible to show and to prove that these small molecules possess more properties than merely emitting a good odor. Now, this research team has gained a worldwide scienti-c reputation documented by more than 400 scienti-c publications, about 100 invited lectures, and about 200 contributions to symposia, meetings, and congresses, as short lectures and poster presentations