Handbook of Geotechnical Investigation and Design Tables: Second Edition, 2nd Edition (Paperback) book cover

Handbook of Geotechnical Investigation and Design Tables

Second Edition, 2nd Edition

By Burt G. Look

CRC Press

418 pages | 40 B/W Illus.

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This practical handbook of properties for soils and rock contains in a concise tabular format the key issues relevant to geotechnical investigations, assessments and designs in common practice. There are brief notes on the application of the tables. These data tables are compiled for experienced geotechnical professionals who require a reference document to access key information. There is an extensive database of correlations for different applications. The book should provide a useful bridge between soil and rock mechanics theory and its application to practical engineering solutions.

The initial chapters deal with the planning of the geotechnical investigation and the classification of the soil and rock properties, after which some of the more used testing is covered. Later chapters show the reliability and correlations that are used to convert that data in the interpretative and assessment phase of the project. The final chapters apply some of these concepts to geotechnical design. The emphasis throughout is on application to practice.

This book is intended primarily for practicing geotechnical engineers working in investigation, assessment and design, but should provide a useful supplement for postgraduate courses. It evolved from the need to have a "go to" reference book which has both breadth and depth of information to apply immediately to projects. To keep to a handbook size one has to compress/restrict details to a few key bullet points – but a comprehensive reference list provides the "appendix" for additional information if required. This 2nd edition keeps to that format but contains updated information and adjustments that take into account feedback received since initial publication.

Table of Contents

1 Site investigation

1.1 Geotechnical engineer

1.2 Developing models

1.3 Geotechnical involvement

1.4 Geotechnical requirements for the different project phases

1.5 Relevance of scale

1.6 Planning of site investigation

1.7 Planning of groundwater investigation

1.8 Level of investigation

1.9 Planning prior to ground truthing

1.10 Extent of investigation

1.11 Site investigation for driven piles to rock

1.12 Volume sampled

1.13 Relative risk ranking of developments

1.14 Sample amount

1.15 Sample disturbance

1.16 Sample size

1.17 Quality of site investigation

1.18 Costing of investigation

1.19 Site investigation costs

1.20 The business of site investigation

2 Soil classification and description

2.1 Important information

2.2 Soil borehole record

2.3 Borehole record in the field

2.4 Drilling information

2.5 Water level

2.6 Soil type

2.7 Major and minor components of soil descriptions

2.8 Field guide identification

2.9 Sedimentation test

2.10 Unified soil classification

2.11 Particle description

2.12 Gradings

2.13 Colour

2.14 Soil plasticity

2.15 Atterberg limits

2.16 Consistency of cohesive soils

2.17 Consistency of non-cohesive soils

2.18 Structure

2.19 Moisture content

2.20 Origin

2.21 Comparison of characteristics between residual and transported soils

2.22 Classification of residual soils by its primary mode of occurrence

3 Rock classification

3.1 Important rock information

3.2 Rock description

3.3 Field rock core log

3.4 Drilling information

3.5 Rock weathering

3.6 Colour

3.7 Rock structure

3.8 Rock quality designation

3.9 Rock strength

3.10 Rock hardness

3.11 Discontinuity scale effects

3.12 Rock defects spacing

3.13 Rock defects description

3.14 Rock defect symbols

3.15 Sedimentary and pyroclastic rock types

3.16 Metamorphic and igneous rock types

4 Field sampling and testing

4.1 Types of sampling

4.2 Boring types

4.3 Field sampling

4.4 Field testing

4.5 Comparison of in situ tests

4.6 Standard penetration test in soils

4.7 Standard penetration test in rock

4.8 Overburden correction factors to SPT result

4.9 Equipment and borehole correction factors for SPT result

4.10 Cone penetration test

4.11 Dilatometer

4.12 Pressuremeter test

4.13 Vane shear

4.14 Vane shear correction factor

4.15 Dynamic cone penetrometer tests

4.16 Light weight falling deflectometer

4.17 Clegg impact soil tester

4.18 Surface strength from site walk over

4.19 Surface strength from vehicle drive over

4.20 Operation of earth moving plant

5 Soil strength parameters from classification and testing

5.1 Errors in measurement

5.2 Clay strength from pocket penetrometer

5.3 Clay strength from SPT data

5.4 Residual soils strength from SPT data

5.5 Clean sand strength from SPT data

5.6 Fine and coarse sand strength from SPT data

5.7 Effect of aging

5.8 Effect of angularity and grading on strength

5.9 Critical state angles in sands

5.10 Peak and critical state angles in sands

5.11 Strength parameters from DCP data

5.12 CBR value from soil classification test

5.13 CBR value from DCP data

5.14 CBR values from DCP data specific to soil type

5.15 Allowable bearing capacity from DCP tests

5.16 Soil classification from cone penetration tests

5.17 Soil type from friction ratios

5.18 Clay parameters from cone penetration tests

5.19 Clay strength from cone penetration tests

5.20 Simplified sand strength assessment from cone penetration tests

5.21 Soil type from Dilatometer test

5.22 Lateral soil pressure from Dilatometer test

5.23 Soil strength of sand from Dilatometer test

5.24 Clay strength from effective overburden

5.25 Variation of undrained strength ratio

6 Rock strength parameters from classification and testing

6.1 Rock strength

6.2 Typical refusal levels of drilling rig

6.3 Parameters from drilling rig used

6.4 Field evaluation of rock strength

6.5 Rock strength from point load index values

6.6 Strength from Schmidt hammer

6.7 Strength assessment from RQD

6.8 Relative change in strength between rock weathering grades

6.9 Parameters from rock weathering

6.10 Rock classification

6.11 Rock strength from slope stability

6.12 Typical field geologist’s rock strength

6.13 Typical engineering geology rock strengths

6.14 Relative strength – combined considerations

6.15 Parameters from rock type

6.16 Rock durability

6.17 Material use

7 Soil properties and state of the soil

7.1 Soil behaviour

7.2 State of the soil

7.3 Soil weight

7.4 Significance of colour

7.5 Plasticity characteristics of common clay minerals

7.6 Weighted plasticity index

7.7 Effect of grading

7.8 Effective friction of granular soils

7.9 Effective strength of cohesive soils

7.10 Over-consolidation ratio

7.11 Pre-consolidation stress from cone penetration testing

7.12 Pre-consolidation stress from Dilatometer

7.13 Pre-consolidation stress from shear wave velocity

7.14 Over-consolidation ratio from Dilatometer

7.15 Lateral soil pressure from Dilatometer test

7.16 Over consolidation ratio from undrained strength ratio and friction angles

7.17 Over-consolidation ratio from undrained strength ratio

7.18 Sign posts along the soil suction pF scale

7.19 Soil suction values for different materials

7.20 Capillary rise

7.21 Equilibrium soil suctions in Australia

7.22 Effect of climate on soil suction change

7.23 Effect of climate on active zones

7.24 Compaction concepts

7.25 Effect of compaction on suction

8 Permeability and its influence

8.1 Typical values of permeability

8.2 Permeability equivalents

8.3 Comparison of permeability with various engineering materials

8.4 Permeability based on grain size

8.5 Permeability based on soil classification

8.6 Permeability from dissipation tests

8.7 Effect of pressure on permeability

8.8 Effect of fines on permeability

8.9 Permeability of compacted clays

8.10 Effect of moulding water content on permeability

8.11 Permeability of untreated and asphalt treated aggregates

8.12 Dewatering methods applicable to various soils

8.13 Radius of influence for drawdown

8.14 Typical hydrological values

8.15 Relationship between coefficients of permeability and consolidation

8.16 Typical values of coefficient of consolidation

8.17 Variation of coefficient of consolidation with liquid limit

8.18 Coefficient of consolidation from dissipation tests

8.19 Time factors for consolidation

8.20 Time required for drainage of deposits

8.21 Estimation of permeability of rock

8.22 Effect of joints on rock permeability

8.23 Lugeon tests in rock

9 Rock properties

9.1 General engineering properties of common rocks

9.2 Rock weight

9.3 Rock minerals

9.4 Silica in igneous rocks

9.5 Hardness scale

9.6 Rock hardness

9.7 Influence of properties on bored pile

9.8 Mudstone–shale classification based on mineral proportion

9.9 Relative change in rock property due to discontinuity

9.10 Rock strength due to failure angle

9.11 Rock defects and rock quality designation

9.12 Rock laboratory to field strength

9.13 Rock shear strength and friction angles of specific materials

9.14 Rock shear strength from RQD values

9.15 Rock shear strength and friction angles based on geologic origin

9.16 Friction angles of rocks joints

9.17 Asperity rock friction angles

9.18 Shear strength of filled joints

10 Material and testing variability with risk assessment

10.1 Variability of materials

10.2 Variability of soils

10.3 Variability of in-situ tests

10.4 Soil variability from laboratory testing

10.5 Guidelines for inherent soil variability

10.6 Compaction testing

10.7 Guidelines for compaction control testing

10.8 Subgrade and road material variability

10.9 Deflection testing for pavements

10.10 Distribution functions

10.11 Distribution functions for rock strength

10.12 Effect of distribution functions on rock strength

10.13 CBR values for a linear (transportation) project

10.14 Point load index values for a vertical linear (bridge) project

10.15 Variability in design and construction process 1

10.16 Prediction variability for experts compared with industry practice

10.17 Variability in selecting design values

10.18 Tolerable risk for new and existing slopes

10.19 Probability of failures of rock slopes

10.20 Qualitative risk analysis

10.21 Qualitative measure of likelihood

10.22 Qualitative measure of consequences to property

10.23 Risk level implications

10.24 Acceptable probability of slope failures

10.25 Probabilities of failure based on lognormal distribution

10.26 Project reliability

10.27 Road reliability values

10.28 Reliability index

10.29 Concrete quality

10.30 Soil property variation for reliability calibration

10.31 Testing, spatial and temporal variation

11 Deformation parameters

11.1 Modulus definitions

11.2 Small strain shear modulus

11.3 Comparison of small to large strain modulus

11.4 Strain levels for various applications

11.5 Modulus applications

11.6 Typical values for elastic parameters

11.7 Elastic parameters of various soils

11.8 Typical values for coefficient of volume compressibility

11.9 Coefficient of volume compressibility derived from SPT

11.10 Deformation parameters from CPT results

11.11 Drained soil modulus from cone penetration tests

11.12 Soil modulus in clays from SPT values

11.13 Drained modulus of clays based on strength and plasticity

11.14 Undrained modulus of clays for varying over consolidation ratios

11.15 Soil modulus from SPT values and plasticity index

11.16 Short and long term modulus

11.17 Poisson ratio in soils

11.18 Resilient modulus

11.19 Typical rock deformation parameters

11.20 Rock deformation parameters

11.21 Rock mass modulus derived from the intact rock modulus

11.22 Modulus ratio based on open and closed joints

11.23 Rock modulus from rock mass ratings

11.24 Poisson ratio in rock

11.25 Significance of modulus

12 Earthworks

12.1 Earthworks issues

12.2 Excavatability

12.3 Excavation requirements

12.4 Excavation characteristics

12.5 Excavatability assessment

12.6 Excavatability assessment for heavy ripping equipment

12.7 Excavatability assessment based on seismic wave velocities

12.8 Excavatability production rates

12.9 Diggability index

12.10 Diggability classification

12.11 Excavations in rock

12.12 Rippability rating chart

12.13 Bulking factors

12.14 Practical maximum layer thickness

12.15 Large compaction equipment

12.16 Ease of compaction

12.17 Compaction requirements for various applications

12.18 Required compaction

12.19 Comparison of relative compaction and relative density

12.20 Field characteristics of materials used in earthworks

12.21 Typical compaction characteristics of materials used in earthworks

12.22 Suitability of compaction plant

12.23 Typical lift thickness

12.24 Maximum size of equipment based on permissible vibration level

12.25 Compaction required for different height of fill

12.26 Typical compaction test results

12.27 Field compaction testing

12.28 Standard versus modified compaction

12.29 Application of standard and modified compaction

12.30 Effect of excess stones

13 Subgrades and pavements

13.1 Types of subgrades

13.2 CBR laboratory model

13.3 CBR tests in subgrade assessment

13.4 CBR reporting

13.5 CBR soaked and unsoaked tests

13.6 Subgrade strength classification

13.7 Damage from volumetrically active clays

13.8 Subgrade volume change classification

13.9 Minimising subgrade volume change

13.10 Subgrade moisture content

13.11 Subgrade strength correction factors to soaked CBR

13.12 Approximate CBR of clay subgrade

13.13 Typical values of subgrade CBR

13.14 Properties of mechanically stable gradings

13.15 Soil stabilisation with additives

13.16 Soil stabilisation with cement

13.17 Effect of cement soil stabilisation

13.18 Soil stabilisation with lime

13.19 Lime stabilisation rules of thumb

13.20 Soil stabilisation with bitumen

13.21 Pavement strength for gravels

13.22 CBR values for pavements

13.23 CBR swell in pavements

13.24 Plasticity index properties of pavement materials

13.25 Typical CBR values of pavement materials

13.26 Typical values of pavement modulus

13.27 Typical values of existing pavement modulus

13.28 Equivalent modulus of sub bases for normal base material

13.29 Equivalent modulus of sub bases for high standard base material

13.30 Typical relationship of modulus with subgrade CBR

13.31 Typical relationship of modulus with base course CBR

13.32 Aggregate loss to weak subgrades

13.33 Elastic modulus of asphalt

13.34 Poisson ratio

13.35 Specific gravity

14 Slopes

14.1 Slope measurement

14.2 Factors causing slope movements

14.3 Causes of slope failure

14.4 Factors of safety for slopes

14.5 Factor of safety for different input assumptions

14.6 Comparison of factor of safety with probability if failure

14.7 Factors of safety for new slopes

14.8 Factors of safety for existing slopes

14.9 Risk to life

14.10 Economic and environmental risk

14.11 Cut slopes

14.12 Fill slopes

14.13 Factors of safety for dam walls

14.14 Typical slopes for low height dam walls

14.15 Effect of height on slopes for low height dam walls

14.16 Design elements of a dam walls

14.17 Stable slopes of levees and canals

14.18 Slopes for revetments

14.19 Crest levels based on revetment type

14.20 Crest levels based on revetment slope

14.21 Stable slopes underwater

14.22 Side slopes for canals in different materials

14.23 Seismic slope stability

14.24 Stable topsoil slopes

14.25 Design of slopes in rock cuttings and embankments

14.26 Factors affecting the stability of rock slopes

14.27 Rock falls

14.28 Coefficient of restitution

14.29 Rock cut stabilization measures

14.30 Rock trap ditch

14.31 Trenching

15 Terrain assessment, drainage and erosion

15.1 Terrain evaluation

15.2 Scale effects in interpretation of aerial photos

15.3 Development grades

15.4 Equivalent gradients for construction equipment

15.5 Development procedures

15.6 Terrain categories

15.7 Landslide classification

15.8 Landslide velocity scales

15.9 Slope erodibility

15.10 Erodibility hierarchy

15.11 Soil erosion

15.12 Soil dispersivity

15.13 Erosion thresholds

15.14 Sediment loss from linear vs. concave slopes

15.15 Typical erosion velocities based on material

15.16 Typical erosion velocities based on depth of flow

15.17 Erosion control

15.18 Benching of slopes

15.19 Subsurface drain designs

15.20 Subsurface drains based on soil types

15.21 Open channel seepages

15.22 Comparison between open channel flows and seepages through soils

15.23 Drainage measures factors of safety

15.24 Aggregate drains

15.25 Aggregate drainage properties

15.26 Discharge capacity of stone filled drains

15.27 Slopes for chimney drains

15.28 Drainage blankets

15.29 Resistance to piping

15.30 Soil filters

15.31 Seepage loss through earth dams

15.32 Clay blanket thicknesses

16 Geosynthetics

16.1 Type of geosynthetics

16.2 Geosynthetic properties

16.3 Geosynthetic functions

16.4 Leakage rates

16.5 Static puncture resistance of geotextiles

16.6 Construction survivability ratings

16.7 Physical property requirements

16.8 Robustness classification using the G– rating

16.9 Geotextile durability for filters, drains and seals

16.10 Geotextile durability for ground conditions and construction equipment

16.11 Geotextile durability for cover material and construction equipment

16.12 Robustness geotextile specifications based on strength class

16.13 Establishing geotextile strength class

16.14 Establishing geotextile strength class adjacent to walls

16.15 Pavement reduction with geotextiles

16.16 Bearing capacity factors using geotextiles

16.17 Geotextiles for separation and reinforcement

16.18 Reinforcement location

16.19 Geotextiles as a soil filter

16.20 Geotextile strength for silt fences

16.21 Typical geotextile strengths

16.22 Geotextile overlap

16.23 Modulus improvements with Geosynthetic inclusions

17 Fill specifications

17.1 Specification development

17.2 Pavement material aggregate quality requirements

17.3 Backfill requirements

17.4 Typical grading of granular drainage material

17.5 Pipe bedding materials

17.6 Compacted earth linings

17.7 Constructing layers on a slope

17.8 Durability of pavements

17.9 Dams specifications

17.10 Frequency of testing

17.11 Rock revetments

17.12 Durability

17.13 Durability of breakwater

17.14 Compaction requirements

17.15 Earthworks control

17.16 Typical compaction requirements

17.17 Typical compacted modulus values

17.18 Compaction layer thickness

17.19 Achievable compaction

17.20 Acceptable levels of ground vibration

18 Rock mass classification systems

18.1 The rock mass rating systems

18.2 Rock Mass Rating System – RMR

18.3 RMR system – strength and RQD

18.4 RMR system – discontinuities

18.5 RMR – groundwater

18.6 RMR – adjustment for discontinuity orientations

18.7 RMR – strength parameters

18.8 RMR – application to tunnels, cuts and foundations

18.9 RMR – excavation and support of tunnels

18.10 Norwegian Q system

18.11 Relative block size

18.12 RQD from volumetric joint count

18.13 Relative frictional strength

18.14 Active stress – relative effects of water, faulting, strength/stress ratio

18.15 Stress reduction factor

18.16 Selecting safety level using the Q system

18.17 Support requirements using the Q system

18.18 Prediction of support requirements using Q values

18.19 Prediction of bolt and concrete support using Q values

18.20 Prediction of velocity using Q values

18.21 Prediction of Lugeon using Q values

18.22 Prediction of advancement of tunnel using Q values

18.23 Relative cost for tunnelling using Q values

18.24 Prediction of cohesive and frictional strength using Q values

18.25 Prediction of strength and material parameters using Q values

18.26 Prediction of deformation and closure using Q values

18.27 Prediction of support pressure and unsupported span using Q values

18.28 Geological strength index – structure description

18.29 Geological strength index – discontinuity description

18.30 Geological strength index – estimating value

18.31 Relationship of rock constant m

18.32 Geological strength index – values of parameter m for a range of rock types

18.33 Mohr-Coulomb strength parameters derived from GSI

19 Earth pressures

19.1 Earth pressures

19.2 Limit state modes

19.3 Earth pressure distributions

19.4 Coefficients of earth pressure at rest

19.5 Variation of at rest earth pressure with OCR

19.6 Variation of at rest earth pressure with OCR using the elastic at rest coefficient

19.7 Movements associated with earth pressures

19.8 Active and passive earth pressures

19.9 Distribution of earth pressure

19.10 Application of at rest and active conditions

19.11 Application of passive pressure

19.12 Use of wall friction

19.13 Values of active earth pressures

19.14 Values of passive earth pressures

19.15 Compaction induced pressures

19.16 Live loads from excavators and lifting equipment

20 Retaining walls

20.1 Wall types

20.2 Gravity walls

20.3 Effect of slope behind walls

20.4 Embedded retaining walls

20.5 Typical pier spacing for embedded retaining walls

20.6 Wall drainage

20.7 Minimum wall embedment depths for reinforced soil structures

20.8 Reinforced soil wall design parameters

20.9 Location of potential failure surfaces for reinforced soil walls

20.10 Sacrificial thickness for metallic reinforcement

20.11 Reinforced slopes factors of safety

20.12 Soil slope facings

20.13 Wall types for cuttings in rock

20.14 Drilled and grouted soil nail designs

20.15 Driven soil nail designs

20.16 Sacrificial thickness for metallic reinforcement

20.17 Design of facing

20.18 Shotcrete thickness for wall facings

20.19 Details of anchored walls and facings

20.20 Anchored wall loads

20.21 Anchor ultimate values for load transfer in soils

20.22 Rock anchor bond stress

20.23 Anchor bond length

21 Soil foundations

21.1 Foundation descriptions

21.2 Techniques for foundation treatment

21.3 Types of foundations

21.4 Strength parameters from soil description

21.5 Bearing capacity

21.6 Bearing capacity factors

21.7 Bearing capacity of cohesive soils

21.8 Bearing capacity of granular soils

21.9 Settlements in granular soils

21.10 Upper limits of settlement in sands

21.11 Factors of safety for shallow foundations

21.12 Factors of safety for driven pile foundations

21.13 Pile characteristics

21.14 Working loads for tubular steel piles

21.15 Working loads for steel H piles

21.16 Load carrying capacity for piles

21.17 Pile shaft capacity

21.18 Pile frictional values from sand

21.19 Earth pressure coefficient after pile installation

21.20 End bearing of piles

21.21 Pile shaft resistance in coarse material based on N-value

21.22 Pile base resistance in coarse material based on N–value

21.23 Design parameters for pipe piles in cohesionless siliceous soils

21.24 Pile interactions

21.25 Influence zone for end bearing piles in sands

21.26 Point of fixity

21.27 Uplift on piles

21.28 Plugging of steel piles

21.29 Time effects on pile capacity

21.30 Piled raft foundations for buildings

21.31 Piled embankments for highways and high speed trains

21.32 Dynamic magnification of loads on piled rafts for highways and high speed trains

21.33 Allowable lateral pile loads

21.34 Load deflection relationship for concrete piles in sands

21.35 Load deflection relationship for concrete piles in clays

21.36 Bending moments for PSC piles in stiff clays

22 Rock foundations

22.1 Rock bearing capacity based on RQD

22.2 Rock parameters from SPT data

22.3 Bearing capacity modes of failure

22.4 Compression capacity of rock for uniaxial failure mode

22.5 Ultimate compression capacity of rock for shallow foundations

22.6 Compression capacity of rock for a shear zone failure mode

22.7 Rock bearing capacity factors

22.8 Compression capacity of rock for splitting failure

22.9 Rock bearing capacity factor for discontinuity spacing

22.10 Compression capacity of rock for flexure and punching failure modes

22.11 Factors of safety for design of deep foundations

22.12 Control factors

22.13 Ultimate compression capacity of rock for driven piles

22.14 Shaft capacity for bored piles

22.15 Shaft resistance roughness

22.16 Shaft resistance based on roughness class

22.17 Design shaft resistance in rock

22.18 End bearing capacity of rock socketed piles

22.19 Load settlement of piles

22.20 Pile refusal

22.21 Limiting penetration rates

22.22 Pile installation

23 Movements

23.1 Types of movements

23.2 Foundation movements

23.3 Immediate to total settlements

23.4 Consolidation settlements

23.5 Typical self-weight settlements

23.6 Limiting movements for structures

23.7 Limiting angular distortion

23.8 Relationship of damage to angular distortion and horizontal strain

23.9 Movements at soil nail walls

23.10 Tolerable strains for reinforced slopes and embankments

23.11 Movements in inclinometers

23.12 Acceptable movement in highway bridges

23.13 Acceptable angular distortion for highway bridges

23.14 Serviceability and ultimate piles design

23.15 Tolerable displacement for slopes and walls

23.16 Observed settlements behind excavations

23.17 Settlements adjacent to open cuts for various support systems

23.18 Tolerable displacement in seismic slope stability analysis

23.19 Seismic performance criteria

23.20 Rock displacement

23.21 Allowable rut depths

23.22 Levels of rutting for various road functions

23.23 Free surface movements for light buildings

23.24 Free surface movements for road pavements

23.25 Allowable strains for roadways

23.26 Limiting strains for mine haul roads

23.27 Tolerable deflection for roads

23.28 Tolerable deflection for roads based on CBR

23.29 Tolerable deflection for proof rolling

23.30 Peak particle velocity

23.31 Vibration from typical construction operations

23.32 Perception levels of vibration

24 Appendix – loading

24.1 Characteristic values of bulk solids

24.2 Surcharge pressures

24.3 Live load on sloping backfill

24.4 Construction loads

24.5 Ground bearing pressure of construction equipment

24.6 Vertical stress changes

25 Appendix – conversions

25.1 Length, area and volume

25.2 Mass, density, force and pressure

25.3 Permeability and consolidation

26 References

26.1 General – most used

26.2 Geotechnical investigations and assessment

26.3 Geotechnical analysis and design


About the Author

Burt Look is a practicing consulting geotechnical engineer. He obtained his first degree in Civil Engineering and his Master’s degree in Soil Mechanics and Engineering Seismology at the Imperial College of Science and Technology, University of London. He completed his PhD at The University of Queensland.and he is a Fellow of the Institute of Engineers, Australia.

He is currently a Geotechnical Practice Leader at Sinclair Knight Merz. He was formerly a Principal and the Geotechnical Knowledge and Service Delivery Leader at Connell Wagner (now Aurecon).

His key role is in the planning and assessment of geotechnical investigations and its implementation into the design. He lectures short courses in industry for Education Engineers Australia to practicing professionals. His research is focused on applications in industry practice and he supervises theses at both The University of Queensland and Queensland University of Technology, Australia.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Earth Sciences / Geology
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Agriculture / General
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Construction / General