Handbook of Inland Aquatic Ecosystem Management: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Handbook of Inland Aquatic Ecosystem Management

1st Edition

By Sven Erik Jorgensen, Jose Galizia Tundisi, Takako Matsumura Tundisi

CRC Press

452 pages | 150 B/W Illus.

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Hardback: 9781439845257
pub: 2012-10-17
eBook (VitalSource) : 9780429189395
pub: 2012-10-17
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Combining background knowledge and practical tools, Handbook of Inland Aquatic Ecosystem Management gives you an overview of how to manage inland waters in a holistic manner. It examines the problems that threaten aquatic inland water ecosystems and presents a set of toolboxes for solving them. The book focuses on lakes, reservoirs, ponds, rivers, wetlands, lagoons, and estuaries, including the predominant freshwater ecosystems as well as saline and brackish ecosystems.

Understand Ecosystem Properties and Ecological Processes

The book consists of two parts. The first part reviews the basic scientific knowledge needed in the environmental and ecological management of aquatic ecosystems, from limnology and ecology of inland water ecosystems to environmental physics and chemistry. It emphasizes the interacting processes that characterize all inland aquatic ecosystems and explains the scientific considerations behind the conservation principles and their applications.

Define the Problems and Quantify Their Sources

The second part of the book presents toolboxes that you can apply to achieve more holistic environmental and ecological management. After an overview of the environmental problems of inland aquatic ecosystems and their sources, the book examines toolboxes to help you identify the problem, namely mass balances, ecological indicators, and ecological models. It also discusses toolboxes that can be used to find an environmental management solution to the problem: environmental technology, cleaner technology, and ecotechnology.

Integrate Science and Practical Toolboxes to Manage Inland Waters More Effectively

This book shows you how to integrate biology, ecology, limnology, and chemistry with the toolboxes in an up-to-date, multidisciplinary approach to environmental management. It provides a powerful framework for identifying ecological mechanisms that interact with global environmental problems threatening inland aquatic ecosystems.


"… a book on the subject of lakes and reservoirs is extremely welcome today when fast global changes, including urbanization, global commerce, and climate, are posing—and will pose in the near future—greater stress in our hydrologic systems. The authors present the subject in such a way that the reader will learn not only fundamentals of limnology but also the behavior of lakes and reservoirs both from a physicochemical and an ecosystemic point of view. The book relies on several examples from projects developed by the authors on the ground. This is something that professionals working in this field will benefit significantly from …"

—Benedito Braga, Polytechnic School of the University of São Paulo, Brazil

Table of Contents

Part I Limnology and Ecology of Inland Waters

Overview of Inland Aquatic Ecosystems and Their General Characteristics

Introduction: A Short Overview

Reservoirs in Brazil: An Example of Large-Scale Construction of Artificial Aquatic Systems

Lakes and Reservoirs as Ecosystems

Lakes and Reservoirs Have Many Interactive Factors

Pulse Effects in Lakes and Reservoirs

Vertical and Longitudinal (or Horizontal) Processes in Reservoirs and Their Complexity

Differences between Lakes and Reservoirs

External Nutrient Loading and Nutrient Dynamics

Succession in Lakes and Reservoirs

Lake and Reservoir Sedimentation

Shallow Lakes

Future Research Needs for Lakes and Reservoirs as Tools for Advanced Management of These Ecosystems

Eutrophication Problem

Growth of Phytoplankton

Solutions to the Eutrophication Problem

Reservoirs and Lakes as Complex Systems and They Require an Integrated Management Plan

Physical Processes and Circulation in Lakes and Reservoirs


Physical Processes

Potential Energy and the Turbulent Kinetic Energy

Transport Process in Lake and Reservoir

Stratification and the Circulation of Lakes and Reservoirs and the Ecological Processes

Classification of Lakes


Lake Morphometry and Lake Forms

Rivers as Ecosystems

Physical Characteristics: Horizontal Gradients

Biogeochemical Cycles

Aquatic Biota of Rivers

Energy Flux and Food Chains

Large Rivers

River Fisheries

Small Creeks and Streams

Ecological, Economical, and Social Importance of the Rivers: The Hydrosocial Cycle

Human Impacts on River Ecosystems

Estuaries and Coastal Lagoons as Ecosystems


Classification and Zonation of Estuaries

Environmental Factors

Aquatic Biota of the Estuaries

Freshwater Inflow into Estuaries

Primary Production in Estuaries and Coastal Lagoons

Anthropogenic Impacts on Estuaries


Introduction: The Importance of Wetlands

Ecosystem Services by Wetlands

Types of Wetlands and Wetland Processes

Constructed Wetlands

Natural Wetlands

Tropical Freshwater Ecosystems

Tropical Lakes and Floodplains of the South American Continent

Continental Waters of Tropical Africa

Floodplains and Wetlands in Asia

Tropical Freshwater Environments

Freshwater Temperate Lakes and Reservoirs


English Lake District

Laurentian Great Lakes in North America

Japanese Lakes

Reservoirs in Temperate Regions

Application of the Conservation Principles

Mass Conservation: An Important Basic Principle

Threshold Levels

Steady State and Equilibrium

Basic Concepts of Mass Balances

Mass Conservations in a Food Chain

Hydrological Cycle

Application of Aquatic Chemistry in Environmental Management I: Calculations of Equilibria

Equilibrium Constant

Activities and Activity Coefficients

Mixed Equilibrium Constant

Classification of Chemical Processes and Their Equilibrium Constants

Many Simultaneous Reactions

Henry’s Law


Biological Concentration Factor

Application of Aquatic Chemistry in Environmental Management II: Equilibrium Calculations of the Four Types of Reactions

Double Logarithmic Diagrams Applied on Acid–Base Reactions

Molar Fraction, Alkalinity, and Buffer Capacity

Dissolved Carbon Dioxide

Precipitation and Dissolution: Solubility of Hydroxides

Solubility of Carbonates in Open Systems

Solubility of Complexes

Stability of the Solid Phase

Complex Formation

Environmental Importance of Complex Formation

Conditional Constant

Application of Double Logarithmic Diagrams to Determine the Conditional Constants for Complex Formation

Redox Equilibria: Electron Activity and Nernst’s Law

pe as Master Variable

Examples of Relevant Processes in the Aquatic Environment

Redox Conditions in Natural Waters

Construction of pe–pH Diagrams

Redox Potential and Complex Formation

Future of Limnology and Aquatic Ecology as a Tool for Management of Inland Waters

Our Demand to Limnology and Aquatic Ecology

Part II Holistic, Environmental and Ecological Management

Impacts on Watersheds and Inland Aquatic Ecosystems

Environmental Problems, Their Sources, and Evaluation of Impacts


Impacts of Climatic Change on Aquatic Ecosystems

Integrated Ecological and Environmental Management


Ecological and Environmental Management Procedure

Tool Boxes Available Today to Develop an Ecological–Environmental Diagnosis

Tool Boxes Available Today to Solve the Environmental Problems

Follow the Recovery Process

Implementation of the Presented Ecological and Environmental Management Procedure in Practice on Inland Water Ecosystems

Conclusions about Integrated Environmental and Ecological Management of Inland Water Ecosystems

Application of Environmental Technology in the Environmental and Ecological Management


Wastewater Treatment: An Overview

Municipal Wastewater

Combinations of Methods for the Treatment of Municipal Wastewater (Reduction of BOD5)

Methods for the Treatment of Municipal Wastewater (Reduction of Phosphorus Concentration)

Methods for the Treatment of Municipal Wastewater (Reduction of Nitrogen Concentration)

Application of Cleaner Technology in Environmental and Ecological Management


Application of Life Cycle Analyses and Cleaner Technology

Recycling and Reuse: Green Tax

Application of Ecotechnology in Ecosystem Management of Inland Waters

Ecotechnology: Definition and Classification

Application of Class 1 and Class 2 Methods in Ecotechnology

Ecotechnology: Restoration Methods

Selection of the Most Appropriate Methods or Combination of Methods in Environmental and Ecological Management: A Conclusion of Chapters 14 through 17

Example to Illustrate the Selection of Pollution Abatement Methods


Application of Ecological Indicators in Environmental Management of Freshwater Ecosystems


Tools to Synthesize and Overview: Models and Indicators

Ecological Indicators: Application and Classification

Emergy and Exergy

Selection of Ecological Indicator

Case Study

Application of Ecological Models in Management of Aquatic Inland Ecosystems

Models as Tools in Ecological Management

Institutionalized or Mediated Modeling

Model Selection

Models as a Strong Management Tool: Problems and Possibilities

Eutrophication Models

Toxic Substance Models

Acidification Models

Wetland Models

Fisheries Models

Structurally Dynamic Models


Chapters include references.

About the Authors

Sven Erik Jørgensen is a professor of environmental chemistry at University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. He is an honorable doctor of science at Coimbra University, Portugal, and at Dar es Salaam University, Tanzania. In 2004 and 2005, Dr. Jørgensen was awarded the prestigious Stockholm Water Prize, the Prigogine Prize, and the Einstein Professorship by the Chinese Academy of Sciences. In 2007, he received the Pascal medal and was elected a member of the European Academy of Sciences.

Jose Galizia Tundisi is a retired professor of environmental sciences at the University of São Paulo, São Carlos, Brazil. He currently serves as president of the International Institute of Ecology and Environmental Management, a nonprofit organization at São Carlos. He also serves as full professor of environmental quality at University Feevale, Novo Hamburgo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. He has served as a consultant in 40 countries in water and resource management, and limnology, aquatic biology, and watershed management.

Takako Matsumura Tundisi is a retired professor of ecology at the Federal University of São Carlos, Brazil. She currently serves as scientific director of the International Institute of Ecology and Environmental Management, a nonprofit organization at São Carlos. She developed several projects in limnology of tropical lakes and reservoirs and coordinated a large-scale study of 220 reservoirs in São Paulo State for the Biota-FAPESP program. Since 1999, she has been chief editor of the Brazilian Journal of Biology.

About the Series

Applied Ecology and Environmental Management

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Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
NATURE / Ecology
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / General
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / Water Supply