Handbook of Ion Sources: 1st Edition (Hardback) book cover

Handbook of Ion Sources

1st Edition

By Bernhard Wolf

CRC Press

560 pages

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Hardback: 9780849325021
pub: 1995-08-31
eBook (VitalSource) : 9781315214054
pub: 2017-07-12
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The Handbook of Ion Sources delivers the data needed for daily work with ion sources. It also gives information for the selection of a suitable ion source and ion production method for a specific application.

The Handbook concentrates on practical aspects and introduces the principle function of ion sources. The basic plasma parameters are defined and discussed. The working principles of various ion sources are explained, and examples of each type of ion source are presented with their operational data. Tables of ion current for various elements and charge states summarize the performance of different ion sources.

The problems related to the production of ions of non-gaseous elements are detailed, and data on useful materials for evaporation and ion source construction are summarized. Additional chapters are dedicated to extraction and beam formation, ion beam diagnosis, ion source electronics, and computer codes for extraction, acceleration, and beam transport. Emittance and brilliance are described and space charge effects and neutralization discussed. Various methods for the measurement of current, profile, emittance, and time structure are presented and compared. Intensity limits for these methods are provided for different ion energies.

Typical problems related to the operation of ion source plasmas are discussed and practical examples of circuits are given. The influence of high voltage on ion source electronics and possibilities for circuit protection are covered. The generation of microwaves and various microwave equipment are described and special problems related to microwave operation are summarized.

The Handbook of Ion Sources is a valuable reference on the subject, of benefit to practitioners and graduate students interested in accelerators, ion implantation, and ion beam techniques.

Table of Contents

Fundamental Processes, I. Brown


Basic Plasma Parameters

Ionization Phenomena

The Plasma Boundary

Magnetic Field Effects


Characterization of Ion Sources, B.H. Wolf, K.N. Leung, B. Sharkow, R. Becker, T. Jolly, G. Alton, and J. Ishikawa



Electron Bombardment Ion Source

Plasmatron Ion Sources

Magnetron and Freeman Type Ion Sources

Penning Ion Sources

Multicusp ("Bucket" type) Ion Sources

Rf Ion Sources

Microwave and ECR Ion Sources =2.4 GHz

ECR Ion Sources =2.4 GHz

Laser Ion Source

Ebis and EBIT

Vacuum Arc Ion Sources

Large Area Ion Sources

Industrial Ion Sources and Application

Liquid Metal and Field Emission Ion Sources

Negative Ion Sources

Surface and Thermal Ionization Ion Sources

High Efficiency Ion Sources

Other Ion Sources


Production of Ions from Nongaseous Materials, B.H. Wolf


Methods of Ion Production from Solids

Materials for Oven and High Temperature Ion Source Design

Temperature Control

Examples of Metal Ion Sources


Beam Formation and Transport, P. Spädtke

Beam Formation

Beam Transport


Ion Beam Diagnosis, P. Strehl

The Most Important Ion Beam Parameters

Beam Current Measurements

Beam Profile Measurements

Measurements in the Transverse Phase Space

Measurements in the Longitudinal Phase Space


Ion Source Electronics, H. Horneff and F. Bourg


Power Supplies

Pulse Switch with Vacuum Tubes

Pulse Switch with Transistors

Pulse Switch with IGBTs

Constant Current Pulse Generator with Semiconductors

High Voltage Trigger Generator

Pulse Line for MEVVA Ion Sources

Extraction and High Voltage Power Supplies

Control and Test Electronics

High Power Generators

Microwave Tubes

Transmission Lines

Stub Tuner

Hazards Caused by Microwave Radiation

Power Measurements


Computer Codes, P. Spädtke

General Solution to Maxwell's Equations

Laplace Solver

Poisson and Vlasov Solver

Magnetic Fields

Trajectory Codes

Particle-in-Cell Codes

Numerical Methods



Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCIENCE / Chemistry / General
SCIENCE / Physics