Handbook of Microbial Biofertilizers  book cover
1st Edition

Handbook of Microbial Biofertilizers

ISBN 9781560222705
Published February 28, 2006 by CRC Press
610 Pages

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Book Description

Sharply focused, up-to-date information on microbial biofertilizers—including emerging options such as Piriformospora indica and Matsutake

The Handbook of Microbial Biofertilizers provides in-depth coverage of all major microbial biofertilizers (rhizobia, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and cyanobacteriaas well as new and emerging growth promoters (endophytes). It examines the role of microbes in growth promotion, bioprotectors, and bioremidiators, and presents protocols and practical strategies for using microbes in sustainable agriculture. An abundance of helpful charts, tables, and figures make complex information easy to access and understand.

In this first-of-its-kind volume, contributors from 11 countries and several continents address important issues surrounding microbial biofertilizers, including:

  • the rhizobium-host-arbuscular mycorrhizal tripartite relationship
  • mycorrhiza as a disease suppresser and stress reducer
  • mycorrhiza helping bacteria
  • the impact of functional groups of soil microorganisms on nutrient turnover
  • PBPRs as biofertilizers and biopesticides
  • the potential of wild-legume rhizobia for use as a biofertilizers
  • the expanding role of blue-green algae in sustainable agriculture
  • the role of microbial fertilizers in sustainable plant production
  • new and emerging endophytes
  • the commercial potential of biofertilizers
In this young century, the use of biofertilizers is already growing rapidly. It has been recognized that these environment-friendly bioprotectors, growth boosters, and remediators are essential for soil/plant health. The Handbook of Microbial Biofertilizers is designed to fit the expanding information needs of current and future biotechnologists, microbiologists, botanists, agronomists, environmentalists, and others whose work involves sustained agriculture.

Table of Contents

  • About the Editor
  • Contributors
  • Foreword (Ian Robert Hall)
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • Chapter 1. Potential and Possible Uses of Bacterial and Fungal Biofertilizers (Francesco Gentili and Ari Jumpponen)
  • Introduction
  • N2-Fixing Bacteria As Microbial Biofertilizers
  • Symbiotic N2-Fixing Bacteria
  • Cyanobacteria
  • N2-Fixing Associated Bacteria
  • Free-Living N2-Fixing Bacteria
  • Plant-Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria
  • Phosphorus-Solubilizing Bacteria
  • Plant Hormone Production by Bacteria
  • Fungi and Their Potential As Biofertilizers
  • Use of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi As Biofertilizers
  • Use of Ectomycorrhizal Fungi As Biofertilizers
  • Other Root-Colonizing Fungi
  • Multiple Inoculations and Interactions Among Potential Biofertilizers
  • Future Perspectives and Conclusions
  • Chapter 2. Evaluation of the Functional Group of Microorganisms As Bioindicators on the Rhizosphere Miscrocosm (Ulisses Brigatto Albino and Galdino Andrade)
  • Introduction
  • The Functional Groups
  • Methods to Assess the Soil Functional Microorganism Groups
  • Protocols
  • Future Perspectives
  • Conclusions
  • Chapter 3. Tripartite Relationship of Rhizobium, AMF, and Host in Growth Promotion (Nanjian Raman and Thangaswamy Selvaraj)
  • Introduction
  • Rhizobium and AMF Interactions
  • Rhizobium, AMF, and Biochemical Activities
  • Enzyme Activities
  • Growth Hormones
  • Calcium and Phosphorus Requirements
  • Heavy Metals
  • Plant Uptake of Metals
  • Plant-Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria
  • Coexistence of Rhizobium and AM Symbioses
  • Conclusions and Future Perspectives
  • Chapter 4. Biological Fertilizers for Sustainable Rice Production (S. Kannaiyan and K. Kumar)
  • Introduction
  • Azolla Biofertilizer for Rice Crop
  • Nitrogen-Fixing Blue Green Algae
  • Acid-Tolerant Cyanobacteria
  • N2-Fixng Stem-Nodulating Sesbania Biofertilizer for Rice
  • Sesbania As Biofertilizer for Rice
  • Neem Cake and N Use Efficiency
  • Urea Super Granules and N Use Efficiency
  • Soil Enzyme Activity
  • Induction of Nodule-Like Structures in Rice Roots for N2 Fixation
  • Azospirillum Biofertilizer for Rice
  • Phosphobacterial Biofertilizer
  • Future Perspectives
  • Conclusions
  • Chapter 5. Mycorrhizal Helper Bacteria: Their Ecological Impact in Mycorrhizal Symbiosis (Robin Duponnois)
  • Introduction
  • The Mycorrhizosphere Effect
  • Evidence
  • Biological Properties
  • Mechanisms Involved in the MHB Effect
  • Application
  • Conclusions and Perspectives
  • Chapter 6. Plant-Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria As Biofertilizers and Biopesticides (Manas Ranjan Banerjee, Laila Yesmin, and Joseph Kevin Vessey)
  • Introduction
  • Biofertilizers
  • Endophytic and Rhizospheric Relationships Between PGPR and Their Hosts
  • Mode of Action of PGPR As Biofertilizers
  • Biopesticides
  • Mode of Action of PGPR As Biopesticides
  • Viability and Shelf Life of PGPR
  • Benefits of PGPR
  • Limitations of PGPR
  • Future Perspectives
  • Conclusions
  • Chapter 7. Sustainable Agriculture and the Rhizobia/Legumes Symbiosis (João Ruy Jardim Freire and Enilson Luiz Saccol de Sá)
  • Introduction
  • Diversity of Rhizobia
  • The Selection of Rhizobia Strains
  • Desirable Characteristics
  • Production and Quality of the Inoculants
  • Techniques of Inoculation
  • Soil Limiting Factors
  • Some Management Practices
  • Future Perspectives
  • Conclusions
  • Chapter 8. Wild-Legume Rhizobia: Biodiversity and Potential As Biofertilizer (Hamdi Hussein Zahran)
  • Introduction
  • Taxonomy and Biodiversity of Wild-Legume Rhizobia
  • Symbiotic Nitrogen-Fixing Systems Established with Wild Rhizobia
  • Behavior of Wild-Legume Rhizobia Under Extreme Conditions
  • Future Perspectives
  • Conclusions
  • Chapter 9. Potential of Arbuscular Mycorrhizae in Organic Farming Systems (Tanu, Anil Prakash, and Alok Adholeya)
  • Introduction
  • Mycorrhizae in Organic Farming
  • Factors Affecting Mycorrhizal Inoculum Potential
  • Selection of AM Fungi
  • Integration of AM Fungi and Composts for Disease Control
  • Organic Manure and AMF Inoculum Production
  • Application of AM Fungi
  • Future Perspectives
  • Conclusions
  • Chapter 10. Role of Mycorrhizae in Forestry (Hanna Dahm)
  • Introduction
  • Ecological Significance of Mycorrhizae
  • Types of Mycorrhizae on Forest Trees
  • Occurrence of Mycorrhizal Fungi in Soils of Native Forests
  • Soil Type and Humus Properties
  • Ecological Specificity
  • Competition Among Ectomycorrhizal Fungi in Forest Soil
  • Favorable Effects of Mycorrhizae on Plant Growth
  • Factors Affecting Ectomycorrhizal Reduction
  • Receptiveness of Forest Soils to Ectomycorrhizal Association
  • Practical Aspects of Mycorrhizae: Perspectives
  • Conclusions
  • Chapter 11. Physiological and Molecular Aspects of Osmotic Stress Alleviation in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Plants (Juan Manuel Ruiz-Lozano)
  • Introduction
  • Uptake and Transfer of Water Through the Fungal Hyphae to the Host Plant
  • Amelioration of Plant Gas Exchange
  • Changes in the Water Retention Properties of the Soil
  • Stimulation of Assimilative Activities Essential for Plant Growth
  • Osmotic Adjustment
  • Protection Against the Oxidative Damage Generated by Drought
  • Future Perspectives and Conclusions
  • Chapter 12. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Inoculation in Nursery Practice (Miguel Marin)
  • Introduction
  • Types of Mycorrhizae
  • Mycorrhizae Effects on Plant Physiology
  • Interaction of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi with Soil Microbiota
  • Mycorrhizae As Substitute for Fertilizers
  • Mycorrhizal Symbiosis in Horticultural Systems
  • Endomycorrhizal Technology in Different Propagation Systems
  • Management of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza in Nursery Plant Production
  • Future Perspectives
  • Conclusions
  • Chapter 13. Interaction Between Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Root Pathogens (Leonor Costa Maia, Norma Suely Sobral da Silveira, and Uided Maaze Tiburcio Cavalcante)
  • Introduction
  • Root Colonization
  • Changes Produced by Mycorrhization
  • Interaction: Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Plant Pathogenic Fungi
  • Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi × Bacteria
  • Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi × Nematodes
  • Future Perspectives
  • Conclusions
  • Chapter 14. Production of Seedlings Inoculated with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Their Performance After Outplanting (Orivaldo José Saggin-Júnior, and Elaine Maria Ribeiro da Silva)
  • Introduction
  • Prerequisites for the Inoculation of Seedlings with AMF
  • Production of Inoculants for Seedlings
  • Production of Seedlings Inoculated with AMF
  • Future Perspectives of Mycorrhizal Seedling Production
  • Conclusions
  • Chapter 15. Status of Endomycorrhizal (AMF) Biofertilizer in the Global Market (Polachi Raja)
  • Introduction
  • World Fertilizer Consumption
  • Alternative Farming Systems
  • Sustainable Agriculture Systems
  • Effective Microorganisms
  • Evolution of AMF
  • Techniques of AMF Inoculum Propagation
  • AMF Benefits of Symbiosis
  • Impact of AMF in Agriculture
  • Availability and Cost of Mycorrhizal Inoculum
  • Producers and Formulators of AMF Inoculum
  • Future Perspectives
  • Conclusions
  • Chapter 16. Role of Cyanobacteria As Biofertilizers: Potentials and Limitations (Pilar Irisarri)
  • Introduction
  • Current Status of Cyanobacterial Use As Biofertilizers
  • Availability of Fixed Nitrogen to Rice Plants
  • Cultivation of Cyanobacteria for Biofertilizer
  • Inoculation and Crop Yield
  • Reasons for the Failure of Inoculation
  • Benefits of Cyanobacteria Beyond Nitrogen Input to the Agroecosystem
  • Is Inoculation with Cyanobacteria Worthwhile?
  • Integrated Soil Fertility Management
  • Future Perspectives
  • Conclusions
  • Chapter 17. Cyanobacterial Biofertilizers for Rice: Present Status and Future Prospects (Siba Prasad Adhikary and Bagmi Pattanaik)
  • Introduction
  • Cyanobacteria (Blue-Green Algae)
  • Factors Governing Distribution of Cyanobacteria During the Crop Growth Cycle
  • Seasonal Variation of Cyanobacterial Growth in Paddy Fields
  • Phosphorus
  • Cyanobacteria Biofertilizer for Increased Crop Yield and Maintenance of Soil Quality
  • Algalization Technology
  • Future Perspectives
  • Conclusions
  • Chapter 18. A Comparative Study on Nitrogen-Fixing Cyanobacteria in South American and European Rice-Fields (Carlos Hugo Porsperi)
  • Introduction
  • Measuring Nitrogen Fixation in the Field
  • Determination of Nitrogenase Activity in Vivo
  • Samples Collection and Identification
  • The Diversity of Cyanobacteria
  • Future Perspectives
  • Appendix: Identification Key for Most Common Cyanobacteria in Rice Fields of Argentina and Spain
  • Chapter 19. Piriformospora indica As a New and Emerging Mycofertilizer and Biotizer: Potentials and Prospects in Sustainable Agriculture (Sarika Shende, Kanchan Bhagwat, Prasad Wadegaonkar, Mahendra Rai, and Ajit Varma)
  • Introduction
  • The Morphology and Cultural Characteristics
  • Mycelial Penetration in Host
  • Ultrastructure of Hyphal Wall
  • Molecular Systemetics
  • Root Colonization Potential in Diverse Hosts
  • In Vitro Rapid Proliferation of Roots of Withania somnifera
  • Rhizoctonia-Like Growth Promotion of Orchids
  • Enhancement of Secondary Metabolites
  • Mechanisms Involved During Colonization
  • Mycorrhiza-Like Endophytes
  • Protoplast Fusion for Better Understanding of Interaction
  • Strategies for Mass Production of Inocula
  • Immobilization of Spores and Hyphae: A Step Forward for Inoculum Production
  • Application in Horticulture
  • Potential for Control of Phytopathogenic Rootborne Microbes
  • Conclusions and Future Directions
  • Chapter 20. Matsutake: A Natural Biofertilizer? (Wang Yun and Ian Robert Hall)
  • Introduction
  • Matsutake in the Commercial World
  • Taxonomic History of Matsutake
  • Ecology
  • Morphology of Matsutake Infections
  • Cultivation of Tricholoma matsutake
  • Relationship Between Matsutake and Its Host Plants
  • Future Challenges
  • Conclusions
  • Index
  • Reference Notes Included

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Author - Mahendra  Rai

Mahendra Rai

Professor and Head, Department of Biotechnology, SGB Amravati University
Amravati, Maharashtra, India

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