1st Edition

Handbook of Processes and Modeling in the Soil-Plant System

Edited By

Rolf Nieder


D. Benbi

ISBN 9781560229155
Published September 15, 2003 by CRC Press
762 Pages

USD $150.00

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Book Description

Learn to create and use simulation models—the most reliable and cost-effective tools for predicting real-world results!

The Handbook of Processes and Modeling in the Soil-Plant System is the first book to present a holistic view of the processes within the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. Unlike other publications, which tend to be more specialized, this book covers nearly all of the processes in the soil-plant system, including the fundamental processes of soil formation, degradation, and the dynamics of water and matter. It also illustrates how simulation modeling can be used to understand and forecast multiple interactions among various processes and predict their environmental impact.

This unique volume assembles information that until now was scattered among journals, bulletins, reports, and symposia proceedings to present models that simulate almost all of the processes occurring in the soil-plant system and explores the results that these models are capable of producing.

With chapters authored by experts with years of research and teaching experience, the Handbook of Processes and Modeling in the Soil-Plant System examines:

  • physical, chemical, and biological soil processes
  • the soil formation and weathering process and its modeling
  • the impact of radioactive fallout on the soil-plant system
  • soil degradation processes and ways to control them
  • water and matter dynamics in the soil-plant system
  • growth and development of crops at various levels of production
  • the potentials and limitations of using simulation models
Students, educators, and professionals alike will find the Handbook of Processes and Modeling in the Soil-Plant System an invaluable reference on the soil-plant-atmosphere system and an ideal tool to help develop an effective decision support system.

Table of Contents

  • About the Editors
  • Contributors
  • Preface
  • Introduction
  • Chapter 1. Physical Processes
  • Energy Balance at the Earth’s Surface
  • Heat Flow Processes in a Soil Profile
  • Gas/Air Flow Processes in a Soil Profile
  • Water Flow Processes in a Soil Profile
  • Coupled Water and Heat Flow Processes Within the Soil
  • Water and Heat Flow Processes of a Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer System (SVAT)
  • Summary
  • Chapter 2. Chemical Processes
  • Electrochemical Properties of Soil Solids
  • Electrical Charges of Soil Clays
  • Electrical Charges of Soil Organic Substances
  • Electrochemical Properties of Soil Solutes
  • Electric Double Layers
  • Adsorption and Cation Exchange Reactions
  • Summary
  • Chapter 3. Biological Processes
  • Soil As a Biological System
  • Biological Processes Occurring in Soil and Their Kinetics
  • Rhizosphere-Microbial and Soil Fauna-Microbial Interactions
  • Microbial Activity and Microbial Diversity
  • Modeling Soil Biological Processes
  • Summary
  • Chapter 4. The Conformational Structure of Humic Substances
  • Paradigms in Humus Chemistry
  • Models of Conformational Structure of Humic Substances
  • The Supramolecular Associations of Self-Assembling Humic Molecules
  • Enzymatic Polymerization of Humic Molecules
  • Computational Models of Conformational Structure of Humic Substances
  • Concepts of Supramolecular Association of Humic Substances
  • Summary
  • Chapter 5. Processes of Soil Formation
  • Formation of Parent Material
  • Surface Soil-Forming Processes
  • Soil-Forming Processes in Lower Soil Horizons
  • Modeling Soil-Forming Processes
  • Summary
  • Chapter 6. Radioactivity in the Soil-Plant System
  • Deposition of Radionuclides
  • Behaviour of Radionuclides in Soils
  • Soil- to-Plant Transfer of Radionuclides
  • Modeling Radioactivity in Soil-Plant System
  • Future Outlook
  • Summary
  • Chapter 7. Soil Acidification
  • Buffering Processes
  • Acid-Generating Processes Connected with C, N, and S Cycling
  • Proton Budgets
  • Aluminum Chemistry
  • Soil Acidification Sensitivity
  • Acidification of Arable Soils
  • Acidification of Forest Soils
  • Future Perspectives
  • Summary
  • Chapter 8. Soil Alkalinization
  • Origin and Distribution of Alkali Soils
  • Ion Exchange
  • Clay Swelling and Dispersion
  • Alkali Soil Reclamation
  • Summary
  • Chapter 9. Soil Erosion and Conservation
  • Erosion of Soil by Wind
  • Modeling Wind Erosion
  • Erosion of Soil by Water
  • Modeling Water Erosion
  • Summary
  • Chapter 10. Soil Water Dynamics
  • Model Characteristics
  • Simulating Soil-Water-Plant-Atmosphere-Management Dynamics
  • Limitations of Models with Homogenous Soil Water Properties
  • Summary
  • Chapter 11. Solute-Water Interactions
  • The Transport Volume
  • Piston Displacement of Solute
  • Transfer Function Models
  • Solute Reactions During Transport
  • Extension of Models to Large Areas
  • Summary
  • Chapter 12. Soil-Atmosphere Interactions
  • Carbon Dioxide Exchange
  • Soils As a Source/Sink for Methane
  • Oxides of Nitrogen: N2O and NO
  • Past, Current, and Future Trends
  • Summary
  • Chapter 13. Soil Organic Matter Dynamics
  • Assessment of Soil Carbon Pools
  • Organic Matter Fractions and Transformations
  • Factors and Processes Affecting Accumulation and Depletion of Soil Organic Matter
  • Soil Organic Matter and Climate Change
  • A Global Inventory of Soil Organic Matter
  • Modeling Soil Organic Matter Dynamics
  • Summary
  • Chapter 14. Nitrogen Dynamics
  • Assessment of Soil N Pools
  • Nitrogen Input Processes
  • Nitrogen Loss Processes
  • Nitrogen Transformation Processes
  • Crop N Uptake
  • Modeling Nitrogen Dynamics in the Soil-Plant System
  • Evaluation, Comparison, and Application of Models
  • Summary
  • Chapter 15. Phosphorus Dynamics
  • The Conceptual Model
  • Phosphorus Forms in Plant and Soil and Eutrophication
  • Phosphorus Transport Considerations
  • Adsorption-Desportion
  • Precipitation-Dissolution Kinetics
  • Organic-P Transformations
  • P Uptake and Activity and Growth of Roots
  • Models Describing P-Dynamics in Soil
  • Summary
  • Chapter 16. Potassium Dynamics
  • Long-Term K Dynamics in Soil-Plant Systems
  • K Dynamics in Soils and Plants During Crop Growth
  • Validation and Application of Multiparameter Mechanistic K Models
  • Summary
  • Chapter 17. Secondary Nutrients: Sulphur, Calcium, and Magnesium
  • Input to Soils
  • Reactions in Soils
  • Plant Uptake
  • Plant Requirements
  • Interactions with Other Nutrients
  • Animal Requirements
  • Modeling Concepts and Applications
  • Summary
  • Chapter 18. Micronutrients and Toxic Elements
  • Sources of Trace Elements in Soils
  • Forms of Trace Elements in Soils
  • Factors Affecting the Solubility and Bioavailability of Trace Elements
  • Mobility of Trace Elements in Soils
  • Modeling of Trace Element Speciation in Soil Solution
  • Modeling the Distribution of Trace Elements Between Soil Solution and Solid Phases
  • Kinetics of Trace Element Reactions in Soils
  • Modeling of Trace Element Leaching from Soil
  • Applications of Trace Element Modeling in Soils
  • Summary
  • Chapter 19. Agrochemicals
  • Sorption and Degradation in Soil
  • Transport in Soil
  • Volatilization
  • Plant Uptake
  • Summary
  • Chapter 20. Crop Growth and Development
  • History
  • Description of the Appropriate Processes
  • Concepts in Modeling the Processes
  • Applications of Crop Models
  • Generic Crop Simulation Models
  • Summary
  • Chapter 21. Modeling Crop Responses to Plant Growth Regulators
  • The Uses of Plant Growth Regulators
  • The Need for Model Development
  • Crop Growth Model
  • Database and Model Development
  • Model Validation and Application
  • On-Farm Use of Crop Models and Technology Transfer
  • Summary
  • Chapter 22. Modeling: Potential and Limitations
  • Scale and Hierarchy
  • Determinacy and Randomness
  • Error and Nonlinearity
  • Validation and Parameterization
  • Application of Models
  • How Might Soil Modeling Development Further?
  • Summary
  • Index
  • Reference Notes Included

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