2nd Edition

Handbook of Radiotherapy Physics Theory and Practice, Second Edition, Two Volume Set

    1460 Pages 757 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    From the essential background physics and radiobiology to the latest imaging and treatment modalities, the updated second edition of Handbook of Radiotherapy Physics: Theory & Practice covers all aspects of the subject.

    In Volume 1, Part A includes the Interaction of Radiation with Matter (charged particles and photons) and the Fundamentals of Dosimetry with an extensive section on small-field physics. Part B covers Radiobiology with increased emphasis on hypofractionation. Part C describes Equipment for Imaging and Therapy including MR-guided linear accelerators. Part D on Dose Measurement includes chapters on ionisation chambers, solid-state detectors, film and gels, as well as a detailed description and explanation of Codes of Practice for Reference Dose Determination including detector correction factors in small fields. Part E describes the properties of Clinical (external) Beams. The various methods (or ‘algorithms’) for Computing Doses in Patients irradiated by photon, electron and proton beams are described in Part F with increased emphasis on Monte-Carlo-based and grid-based deterministic algorithms.

    In Volume 2, Part G covers all aspects of Treatment Planning including CT-, MR- and Radionuclide-based patient imaging, Intensity-Modulated Photon Beams, Electron and Proton Beams, Stereotactic and Total Body Irradiation and the use of the dosimetric and radiobiological metrics TCP and NTCP for plan evaluation and optimisation. Quality Assurance fundamentals with application to equipment and processes are covered in Part H. Radionuclides, equipment and methods for Brachytherapy and Targeted Molecular Therapy are covered in Parts I and J, respectively. Finally, Part K is devoted to Radiation Protection of the public, staff and patients. Extensive tables of Physical Constants, Photon, Electron and Proton Interaction data, and typical Photon Beam and Radionuclide data are given in Part L.

    Edited by recognised authorities in the field, with individual chapters written by renowned specialists, this second edition of Handbook of Radiotherapy Physics provides the essential up-to-date theoretical and practical knowledge to deliver safe and effective radiotherapy. It will be of interest to clinical and research medical physicists, radiation oncologists, radiation technologists, PhD and Master’s students.


    Part A Fundamentals

    Chapter 1 Structure of Matter

    Jean Chavaudra

    Chapter 2 Radioactivity

    Jean Chavaudra

    Chapter 3 Interactions of Charged Particles with Matter

    Alan Nahum

    Chapter 4 Interactions of Uncharged Particles with Matter

    David R. Dance, Jean-Claude Rosenwald, and Gudrun Alm Carlsson

    Chapter 5 Principles and Basic Concepts in Radiation Dosimetry

    Alan Nahum


    Part B Radiobiology

    Chapter 6 Radiobiology of Tumours

    Gordon Steel, Catharine West, and Alan Nahum

    Chapter 7 Radiobiology of Normal Tissues

    Gordon Steel and Catharine West

    Chapter 8 Dose Fractionation in Radiotherapy

    Gordon Steel, Catharine West, and Alan Nahum


    Part C Equipment

    Chapter 9 Equipment for Patient Data Acquisition

    Jean-Claude Rosenwald

    Chapter 10 Kilovoltage X-Ray Units

    Tony Greener and David Eaton

    Chapter 11 Traditional Linear Accelerators

    Hamish Porter

    Chapter 12 Machines with Radionuclide Sources

    John Saunders, Lee Walton, and Katharine Hunt

    Chapter 13 In-Room Imaging Devices Used for Treatment

    Cephas Mubata

    Chapter 14 CyberKnife, TomoTherapy and MR-Guided Linear Accelerators

    Thomas Lacornerie, Albert Lisbona, and Andrew W. Beavis

    Chapter 15 Accelerators for Protons and Other Heavy Charged Particles

    Alejandro Mazal and Annalisa Patriarca


    Part D Dose Measurement

    Chapter 16 Ionisation Chambers

    Bryan Muir and Alan Nahum

    Chapter 17 Solid-State Dose Measuring Devices

    Ginette Marinello

    Chapter 18 Two-dimensional and Three-dimensional Dosimetry

    Mark Oldham, Devon Godfrey, Titania Juang, and Andrew Thomas

    Chapter 19 Reference Dose Determination under Reference Conditions

    Alan Nahum and Bryan Muir

    Chapter 20 Relative Dose Measurements

    Ivan Rosenberg


    Part E Clinical Beams

    Chapter 21 The Framework Relating Measurements to Calculation of Delivered Dose

    Philip Mayles

    Chapter 22 Kilovoltage X-Ray Beams

    Philip Mayles

    Chapter 23 High-Energy Photon Beams

    Philip Mayles

    Chapter 24 Electron Beams

    David Thwaites and Alan McKenzie

    Chapter 25 Proton and Other Heavy Charged-Particle Beams

    Alejandro Mazal and Ludovic de Marzi


    Part F Patient Dose Calculation Methods

    Chapter 26 Parameters and Methodology for Point Dose Calculation in Photon Beams

    Ivan Rosenberg and Jean-Claude Rosenwald

    Chapter 27 Framework for Computation of Patient Dose Distribution

    Jean-Claude Rosenwald

    Chapter 28 Photon Beams: Broad-Beam and Superposition Methods

    Jean-Claude Rosenwald, Ivan Rosenberg, and Glyn Shentall

    Chapter 29 Charged-Particle Beams: The Pencil-Beam Approach

    Alan Nahum

    Chapter 30 Monte-Carlo and Grid-Based-Deterministic Models for Patient Dose Computation

    Alan Nahum and Jean-Claude Rosenwald



    VOLUME 2

    Preface to the Second Edition

    The Editors

    List of Contributors to the Second Edition

    Part G Treatment Planning

    Chapter 31 Target and Organ at Risk Definition – Dose Prescription and Reporting

    Anthony Neal and Jean-Claude Rosenwald

    Chapter 32 Computed Tomography Imaging in Radiotherapy

    Nathalie Fournier-Bidoz

    Chapter 33 Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Treatment Planning

    Vincent S. Khoo

    Chapter 34 Radionuclide Imaging in Treatment Planning

    Yolande Petegnief

    Chapter 35 Image Registration, Segmentation and Virtual Simulation

    Vibeke Nordmark Hansen and Jean-Claude Rosenwald

    Chapter 36 Photon-Beam Forward Planning Techniques

    Peter Childs and Christine Lord

    Chapter 37 Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy and Inverse Planning

    Helen Mayles, John Fenwick, and Steve Webb

    Chapter 38 Electron-Beam Treatment Planning Techniques

    Alan McKenzie and David Thwaites (Updated by Philip Mayles)

    Chapter 39 Proton-Beam Treatment Planning Techniques

    Francesca Albertini, Alessandra Bolsi, and Juliane Daartz

    Chapter 40 Intracranial and Body Stereotactic Radiotherapy

    Jim Warrington and Vivian Cosgrove

    Chapter 41 Total Body Irradiation

    Philip Mayles

    Chapter 42 Total Skin Electron Irradiation

    David Thwaites and Alan McKenzie (Updated by Philip Mayles)

    Chapter 43 Dose Evaluation of Treatment Plans

    Margaret Bidmead and Jean-Claude Rosenwald

    Chapter 44 Radiobiological Evaluation and Optimisation of Treatment Plans

    Alan Nahum and Eva Onjukka


    Part H Quality Assurance

    Chapter 45 Quality and Safety Management

    Philip Mayles, David Thwaites, and Jean-Claude Rosenwald

    Chapter 46 Quality Control of High-Energy External Beams

    Edwin Aird, Philip Mayles, and Cephas Mubata

    Chapter 47 Quality Assurance of the Treatment Planning Process

    Jean-Claude Rosenwald

    Chapter 48 Quality Assurance of Treatment Delivery

    Margaret Bidmead, Nathalie Fournier-Bidoz, Ginette Marinello, Jean-Claude Rosenwald, Helen Mayles

    Chapter 49 Data Communication with DICOM

    John Sage, John N.H. Brunt and Philip Mayles


    Part I Brachytherapy

    Chapter 50 Brachytherapy Clinical Introduction

    Peter Hoskin

    Chapter 51 Calibration and Quality Assurance of Sources

    Colin H. Jones and Chris D. Lee

    Chapter 52 Afterloading Equipment for Brachytherapy

    Margaret Bidmead

    Chapter 53 Dose Calculation for Brachytherapy Sources

    Philip Mayles

    Chapter 54 Brachytherapy Treatment Planning

    Margaret Bidmead, Dorothy Ingham, Peter Bownes and Chris D. Lee

    Chapter 55 Radiobiology of Brachytherapy

    Roger Dale


    Part J Therapy with Unsealed Sources

    Chapter 56 Radionuclide Selection for Targeted Molecular Radiotherapy

    Caroline Stokke

    Chapter 57 Targeted Molecular Radiotherapy – Clinical Considerations and Dosimetry

    Glenn Flux and Alan Nahum


    Part K Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy

    Chapter 58 Theoretical Background to Radiation Protection

    Mike Rosenbloom and Philip Mayles

    Chapter 59 Radiation Protection Regulation

    Mike Rosenbloom and Philip Mayles

    Chapter 60 Radiation Protection of Staff and the Public

    Mike Rosenbloom and Philip Mayles

    Chapter 61 Radiation Protection of the Patient

    Philip Mayles and Uwe Schneider

    Appendix K1: A Regulatory Framework (UK example

    Philip Mayles

    Appendix K2: Example Wall Thickness Calculations

    Philip Mayles

    Appendix K3: Example Local Rules for Handling Radioactive Sources

    Mike Rosenbloom and Philip Mayles


    Part L Data Tables

    Tables L1 Physical Constants and Useful Data

    Tables L2 Charged Particle Stopping Power and Range

    Tables L3 Photon Interaction Coefficients

    Tables L4 Typical Megavoltage Photon Beam Data.


    Philip Mayles, formerly of the Clatterbridge Centre for Oncology, UK.

    Alan Nahum, formerly of the Clatterbridge Centre for Oncology, UK.

    Jean Claude Rosenwald, formerly at Institute Curie, Paris, France.

    Praise for the first edition:

    "… Due to the broad range of topics covered and the clear, concise explanations, this text would be ideal for anyone wishing to study or refresh their knowledge of any central area of radiotherapy physics. IPEM Part 1 trainees in the UK (and any other trainee following a similar training programme elsewhere) in particular should take note … . Part 2 trainees will also benefit, especially in exploring the excellent source of referenced material. In comparison to other reference texts, the Handbook of Radiotherapy Physics is clear and also filled with many knowledgeable and useful observations and notes. … It is an excellent reference text and sits nicely on the shelf alongside your old copy of Williams and Thwaites."
    SCOPE, December 2009

    "… comprehensive reference … With contributions from renowned specialists, this book provides essential theoretical and practical knowledge to deliver safe and effective radiotherapy."
    Anticancer Research, 2009, Vol. 29

    "The editors have managed with great success to assemble the information submitted by the contributing authors and put it in a format that is concise, easy to read, and rich in content … it can serve as an excellent reference manual and resource."
    Niko Papanikolaou, University of Texas Health Sciences Center, Medical Physics, September 2008, Vol. 35, No. 9

    Praise for the second edition:

    "This is the 2nd edition of the Handbook of Radiotherapy published in 2007. The book is organized into 11 parts, each dealing with a self-contained subject area including but not limited to Fundamentals, Radiobiology, Equipment, Dose Measurement, Treatment Planning, Quality Assurance, Therapy with Unsealed Sources, and Radiation Protection. An additional part has been included at the end of Vol.2, which provides tables of physical constants and radiation interaction data. This textbook is meant to be a comprehensive handbook practical radiotherapy knowledge for both medical that covers theoretical and physics trainees and practicing medical physicists. It provides a good overview of theoretical knowledge along with a practical description of concepts. In keeping with the original intent of the first edition, this book is intended primarily as course book for physicists in training but could also act as a reference book for practicing radiation physicists. It is a useful supplement to classic radiotherapy textbooks; concepts are introduced very well and extensive references are provided if the readers require a more in-depth review. The editors and authors have wide ranging medical physics experience across the UK, Europe, and U.S.

    The text is very comprehensive, with sections covering classic topics in the field along with modern topics such as knowledge-based planning, artificial intelligence, and MR-guided linear accelerators. I especially appreciated the quality assurance (QA) part, which included chapters ranging from QA of treatment planning and treatment delivery to data communication with DICOM. Overall, this is a well-written handbook. Due to the extensive changes in the field of medical physics since 2007, this is a necessary and thoughtful update. The editors did a great job of assembling a huge amount of information. Given the breadth and scope of this text, along with the extensive bibliography, this handbook would be a great resource, especially for trainees and early career physicists."
    —Katelyn Hasse (University of California, San Francisco), in Medical Physics, The International Journal of Medical Physics Research and Practice (July 2022)

    The treatment of cancer by ionizing radiation – radiotherapy (RT) – has undergone continuous development since the early years of the twentieth century. This book, in two volumes (each containing the contents and index of the complete work) represents a comprehensive updating of the first edition (published in 2007). High-quality RT outcomes depend on close collaboration by radiation oncologists, therapy radiographers (aka radiation technologists), dosimetrists, physicists and, not infrequently, RT equipment engineers. Whilst this book is primarily written by physicists for physicists, some of the material should be useful, even essential, to anyone whose work involves radiotherapy, including those who train such professionals.

    The book is organised into eleven "parts", covering different topics, plus Part L – data tables – now including the stopping power and ranges of protons (up to 300 MeV kinetic energy) in elements, compounds and mixtures of medical interest. A total of 62 scientists – eminent specialists (from Europe, North America and elsewhere) – have produced the 61 chapters, including colleagues who did not contribute to the first edition. Parts A through C cover the fundamentals of the relevant physics, radiobiology and technology. Parts D through H give the practical information necessary for the support of external-beam RT: dose measurements, clinical beam properties, the computation of dose distributions in patient anatomy, treatment (aka dose) planning and quality assurance. RT delivered with radionuclides is described in Part I (brachytherapy) and Part J (unsealed sources aka "molecular radiotherapy"). Part K covers the radiation protection framework, with an emphasis on the legislation in the UK. We editors hope that our readers will learn as much from reading the book as we have by bringing the 2007 edition up to date.

    May they be inspired to continue the development of the scientific and technical basis of radiotherapy for the benefit of cancer patients worldwide.

    Scope magazine, (December 2022)