Handbook of Seed Physiology : Applications to Agriculture book cover
1st Edition

Handbook of Seed Physiology
Applications to Agriculture

ISBN 9781560229292
Published September 21, 2004 by CRC Press
479 Pages

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Book Description

The latest findings in seed physiology—discussed as they relate to agricultural problems!

Presenting the latest findings in the area of seed physiology as well as the practical applications of that knowledge in the field, the Handbook of Seed Physiology: Applications to Agriculture provides a comprehensive view of seed biology and its role in crop performance. Key topics include seed germination, crop emergence, crop establishment, dormancy, preharvest sprouting, plant hormones, abscisic and giberellic acids, weeds, grain quality, oil crops, and malting quality. Abundant case studies provide information of value to researchers, students, and professionals in the fields of seed science, field crop research, crop science, agronomy, and seed technology.

The Handbook of Seed Physiology discusses vital topics which serve as the basis for the development of techniques and processes to improve seed performance and crop yield. In this text, you will explore:

  • the effect of the soil physical environment on seed germination
  • the roles of physiology, genetics, and environment in the inception, maintenance, and termination of dormancy
  • the relationship between the termination of dormancy and the synthesis and signaling of gibberellins and abscisic acid
  • mechanisms of orthodox seed deterioration and approaches for repair of seed damage
  • characteristics, behavior, and mechanisms of desiccation tolerance in recalcitrant seeds
  • the role of seed moisture in free radical assaults on seeds and the protective function of raffinose oligosaccharides
  • the production of free radicals and their effect on lipids and lipid peroxidation
  • components of grain quality in oil crops and factors influencing them
  • structural components and genotypic and environmental factors affecting barley malting quality
In addition to the latest scientific information in the area of seed physiology, this text provides insights into practical applications of that knowledge through the description of:
  • screening protocols for germination tolerance to temperature and water stress
  • methods for improving seed performance in the field
  • techniques for controlling preharvest sprouting of cereals
  • breeding and production strategies for improving grain quality
  • population-based threshold models in the prediction of germination and emergence patterns
  • modeling changes in dormancy to predict weed emergence
Extensive reference sections accompanying each chapter include both foundation texts and current research. Principles and concepts discussed in the text are elaborated upon through equations, figures, and tables covering such topics as water and soil thermal regimes; seed water potential; temperature and water effects on germination; free radical attack; and molecular structures. Exploring concepts, techniques, and processes related to seed germination and crop establishment, this comprehensive, one-of-a-kind reference is an indispensable tool for seed scientists and agricultural professionals. Add it to your library today and put seed physiology research to work in establishing high-quality “next crops”!

Table of Contents

  • About the Editor
  • Contributors
  • Preface
  • Chapter 1. Seedbed Preparation—The Soil Physical Environment of Germinating Seeds (Amos Hadas)
  • Introduction
  • Environmental Requirements of Germinating Seed
  • Soil Environment—Physical Aspects
  • Seedbed Preparation, Characterization of Seedbed Attributes, and Seedbed Environment Conditions and Seed Germination
  • Water Uptake by Seeds and Seedlings
  • Seed-Soil Water Relationships
  • Modeling Seed Germination and Seedbed Physical Attributes
  • Concluding Remarks
  • Chapter 2. The Use of Population-Based Threshold Models to Describe and Predict the Effects of Seedbed Environment on Germination and Seedling Emergence of Crops (William E. Finch-Savage)
  • Introduction
  • Imbibition
  • Germination
  • Other Germination Models
  • Postgermination Seedling Growth
  • Threshold Models: Prediction of Germination and Emergence Patterns in the Field
  • Summary and Conclusions
  • Appendix
  • Chapter 3. Seed and Agronomic Factors Associated with Germination Under Temperature and Water Stress (Mark A. Bennett)
  • Introduction
  • Seed Coats
  • Seed Size
  • Seed Water Uptake
  • Radicle Emergence and Root System Development
  • Genetic Links to Germination Temperature Limits
  • Seed Production and Seed Vigor
  • Sowing Depths and Planter Technology
  • Tillage Systems and Soil Structure Effects
  • Interactions with Seed Treatments and Other Crop Protection Chemicals
  • Screening Protocols for Germination Tolerance to Low Temperature and Water Stress
  • Concluding Remarks
  • Chapter 4. Methods to Improve Seed Performance in the Field (Peter Halmer)
  • Introduction
  • Changing Seed Form and Lot Composition
  • Physiological Enhancement
  • Physiological Responses to Enhancement
  • Ecological Aspects of Seed Hydration
  • Conclusions and Future Directions
  • Chapter 5. Inception, Maintenance, and Termination of Dormancy in Grain Crops: Physiology, Genetics, and Environmental Control (Roberto L. Benech-Arnold)
  • Introduction
  • Physiology of Dormancy in the Cereal Grain
  • Physiology of Dormancy in the Sunflower Seed
  • The Expression of Dormancy in Grain Crops
  • Removing Dormancy at an Industrial Scale
  • Genetics and Molecular Biology of Dormancy in Grain Crops
  • Environmental Control of Dormancy in Grain Crops
  • Concluding Remarks
  • Chapter 6. Preharvest Sprouting of Cereals (Gary M. Paulsen and Andrew S. Auld)
  • Introduction
  • The Preharvest Sprouting Process
  • Physiological Control of Preharvest Sprouting
  • Quality of Products from Sprouted Cereals
  • Measurement of Preharvest Sprouting
  • Controlling Sprouting by Breeding
  • Controlling Sprouting in the Field
  • Chapter 7. The Exit from Dormancy and the Induction of Germination: Physiological and Molecular Aspects (Rodolfo A. Sánchez and R. Alejandra Mella)
  • Introduction
  • The Effects of Light Photoreceptors
  • Embryo Growth Potential
  • Endosperm Weakening
  • Termination of Dormancy: Its Relationship with the Synthesis and Signaling of Gibberellins and ABA
  • Concluding Remarks
  • Chapter 8. Modeling Changes in Dormancy in Weed Soil Seed Banks: Implications for the Prediction of Weed Emergence (Diego Batlla, Betina Claudia Kruk, and Roberto L. Benech-Arnold)
  • Introduction
  • Dormancy: Definitions and Classification
  • How Is Dormancy Level Expressed?
  • Environmental Factors Affecting Dormancy Level of Seed Populations
  • Factors That Terminate Dormancy
  • Conceptualizing the System with Modeling Purposes
  • Modeling Dormancy Changes in Weed Seed Banks As Affected by the Environment
  • Concluding Remarks
  • Chapter 9. Orthodox Seed Deterioration and Its Repair (Miller B. McDonald)
  • Introduction
  • The First Seed
  • Seed Deterioration
  • Mechanisms of Orthodox Seed Deterioration
  • Free Radical Production
  • Free Radicals and Their Effects on Lipids
  • How Do Free Radicals Cause Lipid Peroxidation?
  • What Is the Influence of Seed Moisture Content on Free Radical Assault?
  • Do Free Radicals Attack Only Lipids?
  • Why Suspect Free Radical Attack on Mitochondria?
  • How Are Seeds Protected Against Free Radical Attack?
  • Raffinose Oligosaccharides and Their Protective Role
  • Repair of Seed Damage
  • Model of Seed Deterioration and Repair During Priming/Hydration
  • Conclusions
  • Chapter 10. Recalcitrant Seeds (Patricia Berjak and Norman W. Pammenter)
  • Seed Characteristics—The Broad Picture
  • Seed Behavior
  • The Suite of Interacting Processes and Mechanisms Involved in Desiccation Tolerance
  • Drying Rate and Causes of Damage in Recalcitrant Seeds
  • Chapter 11. Processing Quality Requirements for Wheat and Other Cereal Grains (Colin W. Wrigley and Ferenc Bekes)
  • Introduction
  • The Range of Grain Species Used Industrially
  • Cereal Grains and Our Diet
  • Uses of Cereal Grains
  • Wheat-Grain Quality Traits: A Molecular Basis
  • Grain Hardness
  • Starch Properties
  • Conclusion
  • Chapter 12. Grain Quality in Oil Crops (Leonardo Velasco, Begoña Pérez-Vich, and José M. Fernández-Martínez)
  • Introduction
  • Components of Grain Quality in Oil Crops and Factors Influencing Them
  • Oil Quality
  • Meal Quality
  • Breeding and Production Strategies
  • Chapter 13. The Malting Quality of Barley (Roxana Savin, Valeria S. Passarella, and José Luis Molino-Cano)
  • Introduction
  • Grain Structural Components That Affect Malting Quality
  • Genotypic and Environmental Factors Affecting Malting Quality
  • Achieving Barley-Grain Quality Targets
  • Conclusions
  • Index
  • Reference Notes Included

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