Handbook of Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology: 2nd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Handbook of Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology

2nd Edition

Edited by Yoshio Nishi, Robert Doering

CRC Press

1,720 pages | 1051 B/W Illus.

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Hardback: 9781574446753
pub: 2007-07-09
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Description

Retaining the comprehensive and in-depth approach that cemented the bestselling first edition's place as a standard reference in the field, the Handbook of Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology, Second Edition features new and updated material that keeps it at the vanguard of today's most dynamic and rapidly growing field. Iconic experts Robert Doering and Yoshio Nishi have again assembled a team of the world's leading specialists in every area of semiconductor manufacturing to provide the most reliable, authoritative, and industry-leading information available.

Stay Current with the Latest Technologies

In addition to updates to nearly every existing chapter, this edition features five entirely new contributions on…

  • Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) materials and devices

  • Supercritical CO2 in semiconductor cleaning

  • Low-κ dielectrics

  • Atomic-layer deposition

  • Damascene copper electroplating

  • Effects of terrestrial radiation on integrated circuits (ICs)

    Reflecting rapid progress in many areas, several chapters were heavily revised and updated, and in some cases, rewritten to reflect rapid advances in such areas as interconnect technologies, gate dielectrics, photomask fabrication, IC packaging, and 300 mm wafer fabrication.

    While no book can be up-to-the-minute with the advances in the semiconductor field, the Handbook of Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology keeps the most important data, methods, tools, and techniques close at hand.

  • Table of Contents

    INTRODUCTION TO SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; John R. Hauser

    Introduction

    Overview of MOS Device Characteristics

    MOSFET Device Scaling

    Manufacturing Issues and Challenges

    MOSFET Gate Stack Issues

    Advanced MOS Device Concepts

    Conclusions

    References

    OVERVIEW OF INTERCONNECT-COPPER AND LOW-κ INTEGRATION; Girish A. Dixit and Robert H. Havemann

    Introduction

    Dual Damascene Copper Integration

    Copper/Low κ Reliability

    Conclusion

    References

    SILICON MATERIALS; Wen Lin and Howard Huff

    Introduction

    Silicon Crystal Growth Processes

    Characteristics of Czochralski Silicon Growth

    Trends in Large Diameter Silicon Growth

    Wafer Preparation

    Epitaxial Growth

    Oxygen Behavior in Silicon Processing

    Other and New Applications of Silicon Materials

    Summary

    References

    SOI MATERIALS AND DEVICES; Sorin Cristoloveanu and G.K. Celler

    Introduction

    SOI Basics: A Tutorial

    SOI Wafer Fabrication Methods-Some Details

    Advanced Wafer Engineering

    Physical Characterization of SOI Wafers

    Electrical Characterization

    Partially Depleted SOI MOSFETs

    Fully Depleted SOI MOSFETs

    Scaling Trends

    Multiple-Gate SOI MOSFETs

    MEMS and Photonic Applications of SOI

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgements

    References

    SURFACE PREPARATION; Glenn W. Gale, Brian K. Kirkpatrick, and Frederick W. Kern Jr.

    RCA Clean

    Electrochemistry

    The Chemistry of Aqueous Solutions

    SC-1

    Complexing

    Particle Removal

    Particle Adhesion

    Particle Removal-Chemical Undercutting

    Particle Removal-Electrophoretic Effects and DLVO Theory

    Particle Removal-Megasonics

    Wet Chemical Etching

    Oxide Etch

    Hydrofluoric Acid and Metallic Contamination

    Defects Related to Drying

    Polysilicon Etch

    Selective Nitride Etch

    Oxide/Nitride Etch

    Bulk Organic Removal/Photoresist Strip

    Photolithography

    Sulfuric/Oxidizer Chemistry

    Reaction Mechanism

    Sulfuric/Peroxide (PIRANHA)

    DI/OZONE

    Surface Preparation and Cleaning for Interconnect

    Subtractive Aluminum Interconnect

    Key Subtractive Aluminum Cleaning Challenges with Associated Defects

    Copper/Low-κ Dual Damascene Interconnect

    Key Cu/Low-κ Challenges with Associated Defects

    Typical Defects

    Control and Monitoring of Surface Treatment Processes

    References

    SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE IN SEMICONDUCTOR CLEANING; Mohammed J. Meziani, Pankaj Pathak, and Ya-Ping Sun

    Introduction

    Supercritical Fluids

    Supercritical CO2 Cleaning Processes

    Processing Equipment

    Conclusions and Perspectives

    References

    ION IMPLANTATION; Michael Ameen, Ivan Berry, Walter Class, Hans-Joachim Gossmann, and Leonard Rubin

    Introduction

    Ion Implant Physics and Materials Science

    Applications of Ion Implantation

    Commercial Ion Implantation Equipment

    Process Control in Ion Implantation

    References

    DOPANT DIFFUSION; Sanjay Banerjee

    Introduction

    Definition of Point Defects

    Thermodynamics of Defects

    Migration and Diffusion of Point Defects

    Fick's Laws of Diffusion

    Equilibrium Formulation for Dopant Diffusion

    Non-Equilibrium Formulation for Dopant Diffusion

    Diffusion in Strained Silicon

    Conclusions and Future Research

    Acknowledgments

    References

    OXIDATION AND GATE DIELECTRICS; C. Rinn Cleavelin, Luigi Colombo, Hiro Niimi, Sylvia Pas, and Eric M. Vogel

    Introduction to Oxidation and Gate Dielectric Technology

    Oxidation Theory

    Oxidation Interactions

    Numerical Modeling of Oxidation

    Metrology of Dielectric Films

    Gate Dielectrics

    Summary

    References

    SILICIDES; Christian Lavoie, Francois M. d'Heurle, and Shi-Li Zhang

    Scope of the Chapter

    Introduction

    Development Trends of Silicide

    Nickel Silicide for Contacts and Interconnections

    Metal Gate and Schottky Barrier Source-Drain

    Summary

    Acknowledgments

    References

    RAPID THERMAL PROCESSING; P.J. Timans

    Introduction

    RTP System Hardware and Control Technology

    Semiconductor Processing Using RTP

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    References

    LOW-κ DIELECTRICS; Ting Y. Tsui and Andrew J. McKerrow

    Introduction

    Channel Crack Failures

    Elastic Constraint Effects

    Pattern Layout Effects

    Environmental Effects

    Conclusion

    References

    CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION; Li-Qun Xia and Mei Chang

    Introduction: What Is CVD and Why CVD

    Basic Aspects of CVD

    CVD System Design

    CVD Thin Films

    References

    ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION; Thomas E. Seidel

    Introduction

    ALD Origins

    Chemical Processes

    ALD System Technology

    Applications

    Summary of Current Status and Outlook

    Acknowledgments

    References

    PHYSICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION; Stephen M. Rossnagel

    Introduction and Semiconductor Applications

    Sputtering Background and Basics

    PVD Systems

    Applications and Variations for Interconnect Applications

    Summary, Future Directions

    References

    DAMASCENE COPPER ELECTROPLATING; Jonathon Reid

    Introduction

    Fundamentals of Electroplating

    Damascene Cu Electroplating Chemistry

    Damascene Film Deposition

    Modeling Capabilities

    Process Integration

    Process Control Approaches

    Acknowledgments

    References

    CHEMICAL-MECHANICAL POLISHING; Gregory B. Shinn, Vincent Korthuis, Gautum Grover, Simon Fang, and Duane S. Boning

    Introduction

    Equipment and Consumables

    Mechanisms and Models

    Applications and Issues

    Post-CMP Clean

    References

    OPTICAL LITHOGRAPHY; Gene E. Fuller

    Introduction

    Patterning Basics

    Optics for Manufacturing

    Exposure Tool System Considerations

    Resolution Enhancement Techniques

    Manufacturing Considerations

    Recent Advances in Optical Lithography

    Patterning Roadmaps

    Summary

    References

    PHOTORESIST MATERIALS AND PROCESSING; César M. Garza, Will Conley, and Jeff Byers

    Formation of the Relief Image

    Formation of a Relief Image in Novolac-Based Photoresists

    Formation of the Relief Image in Chemically Amplified Resists

    ArF Materials, Immersion Lithography, and Extension of ArF

    References

    PHOTOMASK FABRICATION; Syed A. Rizvi and Sylvia Pas

    Introduction

    Photomask: Structure and Fabrication

    Writing Patterns on Masks

    Materials and Processing

    Photomask Qualification

    Manufacturability and COO

    References

    PLASMA ETCH; Peter L.G. Ventzek, Shahid Rauf, and Terry Sparks

    Introduction

    Technical Basics of Plasmas Relevant to Plasma Etching

    65-90 nm CMOS Etch Process Modules

    The Next Generation-45-32 nm Technology Nodes

    Nanotechnology-22 nm and Beyond

    Modeling of Plasma Etching Processes

    References

    EQUIPMENT RELIABILITY; Vallabh H. Dhudshia

    Introduction

    Reliability Metrics Calculations

    Applications of Reliability Metrics

    Confidence Limits Calculations

    Precise Use of the Reliability Metrics

    Maintainability Metrics

    High-Level Equipment Performance Metrics

    An Example of Reliability and High Level Performance Metrics Calculations

    Four Steps to Better Equipment Reliability

    Reliability Testing

    Use of Equipment Reliability Discipline in Business Practices

    SEMI E10

    References

    OVERVIEW OF PROCESS CONTROL; Stephanie Watts Butler

    Introduction to Control of Systematic Yield Loss

    The Control-Type Categories

    History of Process Control in Semiconductor Manufacturing

    Characterization of Control Needs in Semiconductor Manufacturing

    Basic Concepts of all Control Techniques

    Specific Abnormality Detection and Control Methods

    Specific Compensation Control Methods

    Monitoring the Supervisory Run-to-Run Controller and the Controller System (APC)

    Continuous Process Improvement

    Summary

    Acronyms and Glossary

    References

    Further Reading

    IN-LINE METROLOGY; Alain C. Diebold

    Introduction

    Metrology for Lithography Processes: Critical Dimension Measurement and Overlay Control

    Metrology for Front End Processes

    Interconnect Process Control

    In-FAB FIB

    Acknowledgments

    References

    IN-SITU METROLOGY; Gabriel G. Barna and Brad VanEck

    Introduction

    Process State Sensors

    Wafer-State Sensors

    Measurement Techniques for Potential Sensors

    Software for In-Situ Metrology

    Use of In-Situ Metrology in SC Manufacturing

    References

    YIELD MODELING; Ron Ross and Nick Atchison

    Introduction

    Cluster Analysis

    Yield Models

    Yield Limits

    Summary

    References

    YIELD MANAGEMENT; Louis Breaux and Sean Collins

    Introduction

    Sources and Types of Random Defects

    Yield Management Methodology

    Summary

    References

    ELECTRICAL, PHYSICAL, AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION; Dieter K. Schroder, Bruno W. Schueler, and Greg S. Strossman

    Introduction

    Electrical Characterization

    Physical and Chemical Characterization

    References

    FAILURE ANALYSIS; Lawrence C. Wagner

    Introduction

    Failure Site Isolation

    Physical Analysis Tools

    Chemical Characterization

    Future of Failure Analysis

    References

    RELIABILITY PHYSICS; J.W. Mcpherson and E.T. Ogawa

    Introduction

    Accelerated Testing

    Time-to-Failure Modeling

    Time-to-Failure Statistics

    Failure Rate

    Acceleration Factor

    Time-to-Failure Models for Selected ULSI Failure Mechanisms

    Time-Dependent Dielectric Breakdown

    Summary and a Look into the Future

    References

    EFFECTS OF TERRESTRIAL RADIATION ON INTEGRATED CIRCUITS; Robert Baumann

    Background-Motivation and Terminology

    The Terrestrial Radiation Environment

    Radiation Effects on Semiconductor Devices

    Technology Scaling Trends

    Commercial Mitigation Techniques

    Summary

    References

    INTEGRATED-CIRCUIT PACKAGING; Michael Lamson, Andreas Cangellaris, and Erdogan Madenci

    Introduction

    Electronic Packaging Challenges

    Electrical Modeling and Behavior of Packages

    Hygro-Thermo-Mechanical Behavior of Packages

    References

    300 MM WAFER FAB LOGISTICS AND AUTOMATED MATERIAL HANDLING SYSTEMS; Leonard Foster and Devadas Pillai

    Introduction

    Wafer and Reticle Metrics, Carriers, and Tracking Systems

    Interbay Transport and Storage

    Intrabay Transport and Storage

    Material Control System

    AMHS Reliability and Maintainability Requirements

    Anomaly Handling

    Use of Computer Simulation for Designing and Operating AMHS

    AMHS Implementation and Related Considerations

    Extendibility and Scalability of AMH Systems

    Appendix

    References

    Further Reading

    FACTORY MODELING; Samuel C. Wood

    Objectives: How is Factory Modeling Used?

    Static Modeling

    Dynamic Modeling

    Acknowledgments

    References

    ECONOMICS OF SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURING; G. Dan Hutcheson

    Introduction

    Market and Manufacturing Dynamics

    Moore's Law

    Economic Effects and How Manufacturing Fits In

    Economic Models

    The Learning Curve

    The Technology Treadmill

    Technological Driving Forces

    Factory and Equipment Economics

    APPENDIX A: PHYSICAL CONSTANTS

    APPENDIX B: UNITS CONVERSION

    APPENDIX C: STANDARDS COMMONLY USED IN SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURING

    APPENDIX D: ACRONYMS

    INDEX

    Subject Categories

    BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
    TEC008000
    TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electronics / General
    TEC008010
    TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Electronics / Circuits / General