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Handbook of Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology




ISBN 9781574446753
Published July 9, 2007 by CRC Press
1720 Pages 1051 B/W Illustrations

 
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Book Description

Retaining the comprehensive and in-depth approach that cemented the bestselling first edition's place as a standard reference in the field, the Handbook of Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology, Second Edition features new and updated material that keeps it at the vanguard of today's most dynamic and rapidly growing field. Iconic experts Robert Doering and Yoshio Nishi have again assembled a team of the world's leading specialists in every area of semiconductor manufacturing to provide the most reliable, authoritative, and industry-leading information available.

Stay Current with the Latest Technologies
In addition to updates to nearly every existing chapter, this edition features five entirely new contributions on…

  • Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) materials and devices
  • Supercritical CO2 in semiconductor cleaning
  • Low-κ dielectrics
  • Atomic-layer deposition
  • Damascene copper electroplating
  • Effects of terrestrial radiation on integrated circuits (ICs)

    Reflecting rapid progress in many areas, several chapters were heavily revised and updated, and in some cases, rewritten to reflect rapid advances in such areas as interconnect technologies, gate dielectrics, photomask fabrication, IC packaging, and 300 mm wafer fabrication.

    While no book can be up-to-the-minute with the advances in the semiconductor field, the Handbook of Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology keeps the most important data, methods, tools, and techniques close at hand.
  • Table of Contents

    INTRODUCTION TO SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; John R. Hauser
    Introduction
    Overview of MOS Device Characteristics
    MOSFET Device Scaling
    Manufacturing Issues and Challenges
    MOSFET Gate Stack Issues
    Advanced MOS Device Concepts
    Conclusions
    References
    OVERVIEW OF INTERCONNECT-COPPER AND LOW-κ INTEGRATION; Girish A. Dixit and Robert H. Havemann
    Introduction
    Dual Damascene Copper Integration
    Copper/Low κ Reliability
    Conclusion
    References
    SILICON MATERIALS; Wen Lin and Howard Huff
    Introduction
    Silicon Crystal Growth Processes
    Characteristics of Czochralski Silicon Growth
    Trends in Large Diameter Silicon Growth
    Wafer Preparation
    Epitaxial Growth
    Oxygen Behavior in Silicon Processing
    Other and New Applications of Silicon Materials
    Summary
    References
    SOI MATERIALS AND DEVICES; Sorin Cristoloveanu and G.K. Celler
    Introduction
    SOI Basics: A Tutorial
    SOI Wafer Fabrication Methods-Some Details
    Advanced Wafer Engineering
    Physical Characterization of SOI Wafers
    Electrical Characterization
    Partially Depleted SOI MOSFETs
    Fully Depleted SOI MOSFETs
    Scaling Trends
    Multiple-Gate SOI MOSFETs
    MEMS and Photonic Applications of SOI
    Conclusions
    Acknowledgements
    References
    SURFACE PREPARATION; Glenn W. Gale, Brian K. Kirkpatrick, and Frederick W. Kern Jr.
    RCA Clean
    Electrochemistry
    The Chemistry of Aqueous Solutions
    SC-1
    Complexing
    Particle Removal
    Particle Adhesion
    Particle Removal-Chemical Undercutting
    Particle Removal-Electrophoretic Effects and DLVO Theory
    Particle Removal-Megasonics
    Wet Chemical Etching
    Oxide Etch
    Hydrofluoric Acid and Metallic Contamination
    Defects Related to Drying
    Polysilicon Etch
    Selective Nitride Etch
    Oxide/Nitride Etch
    Bulk Organic Removal/Photoresist Strip
    Photolithography
    Sulfuric/Oxidizer Chemistry
    Reaction Mechanism
    Sulfuric/Peroxide (PIRANHA)
    DI/OZONE
    Surface Preparation and Cleaning for Interconnect
    Subtractive Aluminum Interconnect
    Key Subtractive Aluminum Cleaning Challenges with Associated Defects
    Copper/Low-κ Dual Damascene Interconnect
    Key Cu/Low-κ Challenges with Associated Defects
    Typical Defects
    Control and Monitoring of Surface Treatment Processes
    References
    SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE IN SEMICONDUCTOR CLEANING; Mohammed J. Meziani, Pankaj Pathak, and Ya-Ping Sun
    Introduction
    Supercritical Fluids
    Supercritical CO2 Cleaning Processes
    Processing Equipment
    Conclusions and Perspectives
    References
    ION IMPLANTATION; Michael Ameen, Ivan Berry, Walter Class, Hans-Joachim Gossmann, and Leonard Rubin
    Introduction
    Ion Implant Physics and Materials Science
    Applications of Ion Implantation
    Commercial Ion Implantation Equipment
    Process Control in Ion Implantation
    References
    DOPANT DIFFUSION; Sanjay Banerjee
    Introduction
    Definition of Point Defects
    Thermodynamics of Defects
    Migration and Diffusion of Point Defects
    Fick's Laws of Diffusion
    Equilibrium Formulation for Dopant Diffusion
    Non-Equilibrium Formulation for Dopant Diffusion
    Diffusion in Strained Silicon
    Conclusions and Future Research
    Acknowledgments
    References
    OXIDATION AND GATE DIELECTRICS; C. Rinn Cleavelin, Luigi Colombo, Hiro Niimi, Sylvia Pas, and Eric M. Vogel
    Introduction to Oxidation and Gate Dielectric Technology
    Oxidation Theory
    Oxidation Interactions
    Numerical Modeling of Oxidation
    Metrology of Dielectric Films
    Gate Dielectrics
    Summary
    References
    SILICIDES; Christian Lavoie, Francois M. d'Heurle, and Shi-Li Zhang
    Scope of the Chapter
    Introduction
    Development Trends of Silicide
    Nickel Silicide for Contacts and Interconnections
    Metal Gate and Schottky Barrier Source-Drain
    Summary
    Acknowledgments
    References
    RAPID THERMAL PROCESSING; P.J. Timans
    Introduction
    RTP System Hardware and Control Technology
    Semiconductor Processing Using RTP
    Conclusion
    Acknowledgments
    References
    LOW-κ DIELECTRICS; Ting Y. Tsui and Andrew J. McKerrow
    Introduction
    Channel Crack Failures
    Elastic Constraint Effects
    Pattern Layout Effects
    Environmental Effects
    Conclusion
    References
    CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION; Li-Qun Xia and Mei Chang
    Introduction: What Is CVD and Why CVD
    Basic Aspects of CVD
    CVD System Design
    CVD Thin Films
    References
    ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION; Thomas E. Seidel
    Introduction
    ALD Origins
    Chemical Processes
    ALD System Technology
    Applications
    Summary of Current Status and Outlook
    Acknowledgments
    References
    PHYSICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION; Stephen M. Rossnagel
    Introduction and Semiconductor Applications
    Sputtering Background and Basics
    PVD Systems
    Applications and Variations for Interconnect Applications
    Summary, Future Directions
    References
    DAMASCENE COPPER ELECTROPLATING; Jonathon Reid
    Introduction
    Fundamentals of Electroplating
    Damascene Cu Electroplating Chemistry
    Damascene Film Deposition
    Modeling Capabilities
    Process Integration
    Process Control Approaches
    Acknowledgments
    References
    CHEMICAL-MECHANICAL POLISHING; Gregory B. Shinn, Vincent Korthuis, Gautum Grover, Simon Fang, and Duane S. Boning
    Introduction
    Equipment and Consumables
    Mechanisms and Models
    Applications and Issues
    Post-CMP Clean
    References
    OPTICAL LITHOGRAPHY; Gene E. Fuller
    Introduction
    Patterning Basics
    Optics for Manufacturing
    Exposure Tool System Considerations
    Resolution Enhancement Techniques
    Manufacturing Considerations
    Recent Advances in Optical Lithography
    Patterning Roadmaps
    Summary
    References
    PHOTORESIST MATERIALS AND PROCESSING; César M. Garza, Will Conley, and Jeff Byers
    Formation of the Relief Image
    Formation of a Relief Image in Novolac-Based Photoresists
    Formation of the Relief Image in Chemically Amplified Resists
    ArF Materials, Immersion Lithography, and Extension of ArF
    References
    PHOTOMASK FABRICATION; Syed A. Rizvi and Sylvia Pas
    Introduction
    Photomask: Structure and Fabrication
    Writing Patterns on Masks
    Materials and Processing
    Photomask Qualification
    Manufacturability and COO
    References
    PLASMA ETCH; Peter L.G. Ventzek, Shahid Rauf, and Terry Sparks
    Introduction
    Technical Basics of Plasmas Relevant to Plasma Etching
    65-90 nm CMOS Etch Process Modules
    The Next Generation-45-32 nm Technology Nodes
    Nanotechnology-22 nm and Beyond
    Modeling of Plasma Etching Processes
    References
    EQUIPMENT RELIABILITY; Vallabh H. Dhudshia
    Introduction
    Reliability Metrics Calculations
    Applications of Reliability Metrics
    Confidence Limits Calculations
    Precise Use of the Reliability Metrics
    Maintainability Metrics
    High-Level Equipment Performance Metrics
    An Example of Reliability and High Level Performance Metrics Calculations
    Four Steps to Better Equipment Reliability
    Reliability Testing
    Use of Equipment Reliability Discipline in Business Practices
    SEMI E10
    References
    OVERVIEW OF PROCESS CONTROL; Stephanie Watts Butler
    Introduction to Control of Systematic Yield Loss
    The Control-Type Categories
    History of Process Control in Semiconductor Manufacturing
    Characterization of Control Needs in Semiconductor Manufacturing
    Basic Concepts of all Control Techniques
    Specific Abnormality Detection and Control Methods
    Specific Compensation Control Methods
    Monitoring the Supervisory Run-to-Run Controller and the Controller System (APC)
    Continuous Process Improvement
    Summary
    Acronyms and Glossary
    References
    Further Reading
    IN-LINE METROLOGY; Alain C. Diebold
    Introduction
    Metrology for Lithography Processes: Critical Dimension Measurement and Overlay Control
    Metrology for Front End Processes
    Interconnect Process Control
    In-FAB FIB
    Acknowledgments
    References
    IN-SITU METROLOGY; Gabriel G. Barna and Brad VanEck
    Introduction
    Process State Sensors
    Wafer-State Sensors
    Measurement Techniques for Potential Sensors
    Software for In-Situ Metrology
    Use of In-Situ Metrology in SC Manufacturing
    References
    YIELD MODELING; Ron Ross and Nick Atchison
    Introduction
    Cluster Analysis
    Yield Models
    Yield Limits
    Summary
    References
    YIELD MANAGEMENT; Louis Breaux and Sean Collins
    Introduction
    Sources and Types of Random Defects
    Yield Management Methodology
    Summary
    References
    ELECTRICAL, PHYSICAL, AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION; Dieter K. Schroder, Bruno W. Schueler, and Greg S. Strossman
    Introduction
    Electrical Characterization
    Physical and Chemical Characterization
    References
    FAILURE ANALYSIS; Lawrence C. Wagner
    Introduction
    Failure Site Isolation
    Physical Analysis Tools
    Chemical Characterization
    Future of Failure Analysis
    References
    RELIABILITY PHYSICS; J.W. Mcpherson and E.T. Ogawa
    Introduction
    Accelerated Testing
    Time-to-Failure Modeling
    Time-to-Failure Statistics
    Failure Rate
    Acceleration Factor
    Time-to-Failure Models for Selected ULSI Failure Mechanisms
    Time-Dependent Dielectric Breakdown
    Summary and a Look into the Future
    References
    EFFECTS OF TERRESTRIAL RADIATION ON INTEGRATED CIRCUITS; Robert Baumann
    Background-Motivation and Terminology
    The Terrestrial Radiation Environment
    Radiation Effects on Semiconductor Devices
    Technology Scaling Trends
    Commercial Mitigation Techniques
    Summary
    References
    INTEGRATED-CIRCUIT PACKAGING; Michael Lamson, Andreas Cangellaris, and Erdogan Madenci
    Introduction
    Electronic Packaging Challenges
    Electrical Modeling and Behavior of Packages
    Hygro-Thermo-Mechanical Behavior of Packages
    References
    300 MM WAFER FAB LOGISTICS AND AUTOMATED MATERIAL HANDLING SYSTEMS; Leonard Foster and Devadas Pillai
    Introduction
    Wafer and Reticle Metrics, Carriers, and Tracking Systems
    Interbay Transport and Storage
    Intrabay Transport and Storage
    Material Control System
    AMHS Reliability and Maintainability Requirements
    Anomaly Handling
    Use of Computer Simulation for Designing and Operating AMHS
    AMHS Implementation and Related Considerations
    Extendibility and Scalability of AMH Systems
    Appendix
    References
    Further Reading
    FACTORY MODELING; Samuel C. Wood
    Objectives: How is Factory Modeling Used?
    Static Modeling
    Dynamic Modeling
    Acknowledgments
    References
    ECONOMICS OF SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURING; G. Dan Hutcheson
    Introduction
    Market and Manufacturing Dynamics
    Moore's Law
    Economic Effects and How Manufacturing Fits In
    Economic Models
    The Learning Curve
    The Technology Treadmill
    Technological Driving Forces
    Factory and Equipment Economics
    APPENDIX A: PHYSICAL CONSTANTS
    APPENDIX B: UNITS CONVERSION
    APPENDIX C: STANDARDS COMMONLY USED IN SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURING
    APPENDIX D: ACRONYMS
    INDEX

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