Containing more than 300 equations and nearly 500 drawings, photographs, and micrographs,
this reference surveys key areas such as optical measurements and in-line calibration methods. It describes cleanroom-based measurement technology used during the manufacture of silicon integrated circuits and covers model-based, critical dimension, overlay, acoustic film thickness, dopant dose, junction depth, and electrical measurements; particle and defect detection; and flatness following chemical mechanical polishing. Providing examples of well-developed metrology capability, the book focuses on metrology for lithography, transistor, capacitor, and on-chip interconnect process technologies.
Table of Contents
Introduction - silicon semiconductor metrology. Part 1 Transistor fabrication metrology: gate dielectric metrology; metrology for ion implantation; MOS device characterization; carrier illumination characterization of ultra-shallow implants;modelling of statistical manufacturing sensitivity and of process control and metrology requirements for a 0.18Mum NMOSFET. Part 2 On-chip interconnect metrology: overview of metrology for on-chip interconnect; metrology for on-chip interconnectdielectrics; thin film metrology using impulsive stimulated thermal scattering (ISTS); metal interconnect process control using picosecond ultrasonics; sheet resistance measurements of interconnect films; characterization of low dielectric constantmaterials; high resolution profilometry for CMP and etch metrology. Part 3 Lithography metrology: critical dimension metrology in the scanning electron microscope; scanned probe microscope dimensional metrology; electrical DC metrology and relatedreference materials; metrology of image placement; scatterometry for semiconductor metrology. Part 4 Defect detection and characterization: unpatterned wafer defect detection; particle and defect characterization; calibration of particle detectionsystems. Part 5 Sensor based metrology: in-situ metrology. Part 6 Data management: metrology data management and information systems. Part 7 Electrical measurement based statistical metrology: statistical metrology. Part 8 Overviews of key measurement andcalibration technology: physics of optical metrology of silicon based semiconductor devices; UV, VUV and extreme UV spectroscopic reflectometry and ellipsometry; analysis of thin layer structures by x-ray reflectometry; ion beam methods; electronmicroscopy based measurement of feature thickness and calibration of reference materials; status of lithography at the end of 2000.
Alain C. Diebold