2nd Edition

Handbook of Superconductivity Theory, Materials, Processing, Characterization and Applications (3-Volume Set)

    1976 Pages 1499 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Completely revised and updated, the second edition of the Handbook of Superconductivity is now available in three stand-alone volumes. As a whole they cover the depth and breadth of the field, drawing on an international pool of respected academics and industrial engineers. The three volumes provide hands-on guidance to the manufacturing and processing technologies associated with superconducting materials and devices. A comprehensive reference, the handbook supplies a tutorial on techniques for the beginning graduate student and a source of ancillary information for practicing scientists. The past twenty years have seen rapid progress in superconducting materials, which exhibit one of the most remarkable physical states of matter ever to be discovered. Superconductivity brings quantum mechanics to the scale of the everyday world where a single, coherent quantum state may extend over a distance of metres, or even kilometres, depending on the size of a coil or length of superconducting wire. Viable applications of superconductors rely fundamentally on an understanding of this intriguing phenomena and the availability of a range of materials with bespoke properties to meet practical needs. This first volume covers the fundamentals of superconductivity and the various classes of superconducting materials, which sets the context for volumes 2 and 3. Volume 1 ends with a tutorial on phase diagrams, and a glossary relevant to all 3 volumes.






    Volume 1 – Fundamentals and Materials

    Part A Fundamentals of Superconductivity

    A1 Introduction to Section A1: History, Mechanisms and Materials

    David A. Cardwell and David C. Larbalestier

    A1.1 Historical Development of Superconductivity

    Brian Pippard

    A1.2 An Introduction to Superconductivity

    William F. "Joe" Vinen and Terry P. Orlando

    A1.3 The Polaronic Basis for High-Temperature Superconductivity

    K. Alex Müller

    A2 Introduction to Section A2: Fundamental Properties

    Alexander V. Gurevich

    A2.1 Phenomenological Theories

    Archie M. Campbell

    A2.2 Microscopic Theory

    Anthony J. Leggett

    A2.3 Normal-State Metallic Behavior in Contrast to Superconductivity: An Introduction

    David Welch

    A2.4 The Meissner–Ochsenfeld Effect

    Rudolf P. Huebener

    A2.5 Loss of Superconductivity in Magnetic Fields

    Rudolf P. Huebener

    A2.6 High-Frequency Electromagnetic Properties

    Adrian Porch, Enrico Silva, and Ruggero Vaglio

    A2.7 Flux Quantization

    Colin Gough

    A2.8 Josephson Effects

    Edward J. Tarte

    A2.9 Other Josephson-Related Phenomena

    Alexander A. Golubov and Francesco Tafuri

    A3 Introduction to Section A3: Critical Currents of Type II Superconductors

    David A. Cardwell

    A3.1 Vortices and Their Interaction

    E. Helmut Brandt

    A3.2 Flux Pinning

    Kees van der Beek and Peter H. Kes

    Part B Low-Temperature Superconductors

    B Introduction to Section B: Low-Temperature Superconductors

    Peter J. Lee

    B1 Nb-Based Superconductors

    Gianluca De Marzi and Luigi Muzzi

    B2 Magnesium Diboride

    Chiara Tarantini

    B3 Chevrel Phases

    Damian P. Hampshire

    Part C High-Temperature Superconductors

    C Introduction to Section C: High-Temperature Superconductors

    Jeffery L. Tallon

    C1 YBCO

    Jeffery L. Tallon

    C2 Bismuth-Based Superconductors

    Jun-ichi Shimoyama


    Emilio Bellingeri and René Flükiger

    C4 HgBCCO

    Judy Z. Wu

    C5 Iron-Based Superconductors

    Hideo Hosono

    C6 Hydrides

    Jeffery L. Tallon

    Part D Other Superconductors

    D Introduction to Section D: Other Superconductors

    Peter B. Littlewood

    D1 Unconventional Superconductivity in Heavy Fermion and Ruthenate Materials

    Stephen R. Julian

    D2 Organic Superconductors

    Gunzi Saito and Yukihiro Yoshida

    D3 Fullerene Superconductors

    Yoshihiro Iwasa and Kosmas Prassides

    D4 Future High-Tc Superconductors

    Ching-Wu Chu, Liangzi Deng, and Bing Lv

    D5 Fe-Based Chalcogenide Superconductors

    Ming-Jye Wang, Phillip M. Wu, and Maw-Kuen Wu

    D6 Interface Superconductivity

    Jörg Schmalian

    D7 Topological Superconductivity

    Panagiotis Kotetes

    Volume 2 – Processing and Cryogenics

    PART E Processing

    E1 Introduction to Processing Methods

    Kazumasa Iida

    E2 Introduction to Section E2: Bulk Materials

    Kazumasa Iida

    E2.1 Introduction to Bulk Firing Techniques

    Mark O. Rikel and Frank N. Werfel

    E2.2 (RE)BCO Melt Processing Techniques: Fundamentals of the Melt Process

    Yunhua Shi and David A. Cardwell

    E2.3 Melt Processing Techniques: Melt Processing for BSCCO

    Jun-ichi Shimoyama

    E2.4 Growth of Superconducting Single Crystals

    Debra L. Kaiser and Lynn F. Schneemeyer

    E2.5 Growth of A15 Type Single Crystals and Polycrystals and Their Physical Properties

    René Flükiger

    E2.6 Irradiation

    Harald W. Weber

    E2.7 Superconductors in Future Accelerators: Irradiation Problems

    René Flükiger, Tiziana Spina, Francesco Cerutti, Amalia Ballarino, and Luca Bottura

    E3 Introduction to Section E3: Processing of Wires and Tapes

    Jianyi Jiang

    E3.1 Processing of High Tc Conductors: The Compound Bi-2212

    Jianyi Jiang and Eric E. Hellstrom

    E3.2 Processing of High Tc Conductors: The Compound Bi,Pb(2223)

    Kenichi Sato

    E3.3 Highlights on Tl(1223)

    Athena Safa Sefat

    E3.4 Processing of High Tc Conductors: The Compound YBCO

    Judith L. MacManus-Driscoll

    E3.5 Processing of High Tc Conductors: The Compound Hg(1223)

    Ayako Yamamoto

    E3.6 Overview of High Field LTS Materials (Without Nb3Sn)

    René Flükiger

    E3.7 Processing of Low Tc Conductors: The Alloy Nb–Ti

    Lance D. Cooley, Peter J. Lee, and David C. Larbalestier

    E3.8 Processing of Low Tc Conductors: The Compound Nb3Sn

    Ian Pong

    E3.9 Processing of Low Tc Conductors: The Compound Nb3Al

    Takao Takeuchi, Akihiro Kikuchi, Nobuya Banno, and Yasuo Iijima

    E3.10 Processing of Low Tc Conductors: The Compounds PbMo6S8 and SnMo6S8

    Bernd Seeber

    E3.11 Processing of Low Tc Conductors: The Compound MgB2

    Akiyasu Yamamoto and René Flükiger

    E3.12 Processing Pnictide Superconductors

    Jeremy D. Weiss and Eric E. Hellstrom

    E4 Introduction to Section E4: Thick and Thin Films

    François Weiss and Michael Lorenz

    E4.1 Substrates and Functional Buffer Layers

    Bernhard Holzapfel and Jörg Wiesmann

    E4.2 Physical Vapor Thin-Film Deposition Techniques

    Roger Wördenweber

    E4.3 Chemical Deposition Processes for REBa2Cu3O7 Coated Conductors

    François Weiss and Carmen Jimenez

    E4.4 High Temperature Superconductor Films: Processing Techniques

    Paul Seidel and Volker Tympel

    E4.5 Processing and Manufacture of Josephson Junctions: Low-Tc

    Sergey K. Tolpygo, Thomas Schurig, and Johannes Kohlmann

    E4.6 Processing and Manufacture of Josephson Junctions: High-Tc

    Aleksander I. Braginski and Brian H. Moeckly

    E5 Introduction to Section E5: Superconductor Contacts

    Kazumasa Iida

    E5.1 Superconductor to Normal-Metal Contacts

    Jack W. Ekin

    E5.2 Resistive High Current Splices

    Christian Scheuerlein

    E5.3 Persistent Mode Joints

    Susie Speller, Timothy Davies, and Chris Grovenor

    PART F Refrigeration Methods

    F1 Introduction to Part F: Refrigeration Methods

    Ray Radebaugh

    F1.1 Review of Refrigeration Methods

    Ray Radebaugh

    F1.2 Pulse Tube Cryocoolers

    John M. Pfotenhauer and Xiaoqin Zhi

    F1.3 Gifford–McMahon Cryocoolers

    Mingyao Xu and Ralph Longsworth

    F1.4 Microcooling

    Marcel ter Brake and Haishan Cao

    F1.5 Cooling with Liquid Helium

    John M. Pfotenhauer


    Volume 3 – Characterization and Applications

    Part G Characterization and Modelling Techniques

    G1 Introduction to Section G1: Structure/Microstructure

    Lance D. Cooley

    G1.1 X-Ray Studies: Chemical Crystallography

    Lance D. Cooley, Roman Gladyshevskii, and Theo Siegrist

    G1.2 X-Ray Studies: Phase Transformations and Microstructure Changes

    Christian Scheuerlein and M. Di Michiel

    G1.3 Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Fumitake Kametani

    G1.4 An Introduction to Digital Image Analysis of Superconductors

    Charlie Sanabria and Peter J. Lee

    G1.5 Optical Microscopy

    Pavel Diko

    G1.6 Neutron Techniques: Flux-Line Lattice

    Jonathan White

    G2 Introduction to Section G2: Measurement and Interpretation of Electromagnetic Properties

    Fedor Gömöry

    G2.1 Electromagnetic Properties of Superconductors

    Archie M. Campbell

    G2.2 Numerical Models of the Electromagnetic Behavior of Superconductors

    Francesco Grilli

    G2.3 DC Transport Critical Currents

    Marc Dhallé

    G2.4 Characterisation of the Transport Critical Current Density for Conductor Applications

    Mark J. Raine, Simon A. Keys, and Damian P. Hampshire

    G2.5 Magnetic Measurements of Critical Current Density, Pinning, and Flux Creep

    Michael Eisterer

    G2.6 AC Susceptibility

    Carles Navau, Nuria Del-Valle, and Alvaro Sanchez

    G2.7 AC Losses in Superconducting Materials, Wires, and Tapes

    Michael D. Sumption, Milan Majoros, and Edward W. Collings

    G2.8 Characterization of Superconductor Magnetic Properties in Crossed Magnetic Fields

    Philippe Vanderbemden

    G2.9 Microwave Impedance

    Adrian Porch

    G2.10 Local Probes of Magnetic Field Distribution

    Alejandro V. Silhanek, Simon Bending, and Steve Lee

    G2.11 Some Unusual and Systematic Properties of Hole-Doped Cuprates in the Normal and Superconducting States

    John R. Cooper

    G3 Introduction to Section G3: Thermal, Mechanical, and Other Properties

    Antony Carrington

    G3.1 Thermal Properties: Specific Heat

    Antony Carrington

    G3.2 Thermal Properties: Thermal Conductivity

    Kamran Behnia

    G3.3 Thermal Properties: Thermal Expansion

    Christoph Meingast

    G3.4 Mechanical Properties

    Wilfried Goldacker

    G3.5 Magneto-Optical Characterization Techniques

    Anatolii A. Polyanskii and David C. Larbalestier

    Part H Applications

    H1 Introduction to Large Scale Applications

    John H. Durrell and Mark Ainslie

    H1.1 Electromagnet Fundamentals

    Harry Jones

    H1.2 Superconducting Magnet Design

    M’hamed Lakrimi

    H1.3 MRI Magnets

    Michael Parizh and Wolfgang Stautner

    H1.4 High-Temperature Superconducting Current Leads

    Amalia Ballarino

    H1.5 Cables

    Naoyuki Amemiya

    H1.6 AC and DC Power Transmission

    Antonio Morandi

    H1.7 Fault-Current Limiters

    Tabea Arndt

    H1.8 Energy Storage

    Ahmet Cansiz

    H1.9 Transformers

    Nicholas J. Long

    H1.10 Electrical Machines Using HTS Conductors

    Mark D. Ainslie

    H1.11 Electrical Machines Using Bulk HTS

    Mark D. Ainslie

    H1.12 Homopolar Motors

    Arkadiy Matsekh

    H1.13 Magnetic Separation

    James H. P. Watson and Peter A. Beharrell

    H1.14 Superconducting Radiofrequency Cavities

    Gianluigi Ciovati

    H2 Introduction to Section H2: High-Frequency Devices

    John Gallop and Horst Rogalla

    H2.1 Microwave Resonators and Filters

    Daniel E. Oates

    H2.2 Transmission Lines

    Orest G. Vendik

    H2.3 Antennae

    Heinz J. Chaloupka and Victor K. Kornev

    H3 Introduction to Section H3: Josephson Junction Devices

    John Gallop and Alex I. Braginski

    H3.1 Josephson Effects

    Francesco Tafuri

    H3.2 SQUIDs

    Jaap Flokstra and Paul Seidel

    H3.3 Biomagnetism

    Tilmann H. Sander Thoemmes

    H3.4 Nondestructive Evaluation

    Hans-Joachim Krause, Michael Mück, and Saburo Tanaka

    H3.5 Digital Electronics

    Oleg A. Mukhanov

    H3.6 Superconducting Analog-to-Digital Converters

    Alan M. Kadin and Oleg A. Mukhanov

    H3.7 Superconducting Qubits

    Britton Plourde and Frank K. Wilhelm-Mauch

    H4 Introduction to Radiation and Particle Detectors that Use Superconductivity

    Caroline A. Kilbourne

    H4.1 Superconducting Tunnel Junction Radiation Detectors

    Stephan Friedrich

    H4.2 Transition-Edge Sensors

    Douglas A. Bennett

    H4.3 Superconducting Materials for Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors

    Benjamin A. Mazin

    H4.4 Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters

    Andreas Fleischmann, Loredana Gastaldo, Sebastian Kempf, and Christian Enss

    H4.5 Optical Detectors and Sensors

    Roman Sobolewski

    H4.6 Low-Noise Superconducting Mixers for the Terahertz Frequency Range

    Victor Belitsky, Serguei Cherednichenko, and Dag Winkler

    H4.7 Applications: Metrology

    John Gallop, Ling Hao, and Alain Rüfenacht




    Professor David Cardwell, FREng, is Professor of Superconducting Engineering and Pro-Vice-Chancellor responsible for Strategy and Planning at the University of Cambridge. He was Head of the Engineering Department between 2014 and 2018. Prof. Cardwell, who established the Bulk Superconductor research group at Cambridge in 1992, has a world-wide reputation on the processing and applications of bulk high temperature superconductors. He was a founder member of the European Society for Applied Superconductivity (ESAS) in 1998 and has served as a Board member and Treasurer of the Society for the past 12 years. He is an active board member of three international journals, including Superconductor Science and Technology, and has authored over 380 technical papers and patents in the field of bulk superconductivity since 1987. He has given invited presentations at over 70 international conferences and collaborates widely around the world with academic institutes and industry. Prof. Cardwell was elected to a Fellowship of the Royal Academy of Engineering in 2012 in recognition of his contribution to the development of superconducting materials for engineering applications. He is currently a Distinguished Visiting Professor at the University of Hong Kong. He was awarded a Sc.D. by the University of Cambridge in 2014 and an honorary D.Sc. by the University of Warwick in 2015.

    Professor David Larbalestier is Krafft Professor of Superconducting Materials at Florida State University and Chief Materials Scientist at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. He was for many years Director of the Applied Superconductivity Center, first at the University of Wisconsin in Madison (1991-2006) before moving the Center to the NHMFL at Florida State University, stepping down as Director in 2018. He has been deeply interested in understanding superconducting materials that are or potentially useful as conductors and made major contributions to the understanding and betterment of Nb-Ti alloys, Nb3Sn, YBa2Cu3O7-, Bi2Sr2Ca1Cu2Ox, (Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox, MgB2 and the Fe-based compounds. Fabrication of high field test magnets has always been an interest, starting with the first high field filamentary Nb3Sn magnets while at Rutherford Laboratory and more recently the world’s highest field DC magnet (45.5 T using a 14.5 T REBCO insert inside a 31 T resistive magnet). These works are described in ~490 papers written in partnership with more than 70 PhD students and postdocs, as well as other collaborators. He was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 2003 and is a Fellow of the APS, IOP, IEEE, MRS and AAAS. He received his B.Sc. (1965) and Ph.D. (1970) degrees from Imperial College at the University of London and taught at the University of Wisconsin in Madison from 1976-2006.

    Professor Alex Braginski is retired Director of a former Superconducting Electronics Institute at the Research Center Jülich (FZJ), retired Professor of Physics at the University of Wuppertal, both in Germany, and currently a guest researcher at FZJ. He received his doctoral and D.Sc. degrees in Poland, where in early 1950s he pioneered the development of ferrite technology and subsequently their industrial manufacturing, for which he received a Polish National Prize. He headed the Polfer Research Laboratory there until leaving Poland in 1966. At the Westinghouse R&D Center in Pittsburgh, PA, USA, he then in turn managed magnetics, superconducting materials and superconducting electronics groups until retiring in 1989. Personally contributed there to technology of thin-film Nb3Ge conductors and Josephson junctions (JJs), both A15 and high-Tc, also epitaxial. Invited by FZJ, he joined it and contributed to development of high-Tc JJs and RF SQUIDs. After retiring in 1989, was Vice President R&D at Cardiomag Imaging, Inc. in Schenectady, NY, USA, 2000-2002. Co-edited and co-authored The SQUID Handbook, 2004-2006, several book chapters, and authored or co-authored well over 200 journal publications and 17 patents. He founded and served as Editor of the IEEE CSC Superconductivity News Forum (SNF), 2007-2017. Is Fellow of IEEE and APS, and recipient of the IEEE CSC Award for Continuing and Significant Contributions in the Field of Applied Superconductivity, 2006.