2nd Edition

Handbook of Venoms and Toxins of Reptiles

Edited By Stephen P. Mackessy Copyright 2021
    680 Pages 108 Color & 46 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    680 Pages 108 Color & 46 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    A decade after publication of the first edition, Handbook of Venoms and Toxins of Reptiles responds to extensive changes in the field of toxinology to endure as the most comprehensive review of reptile venoms on the market. The six sections of this new edition, which has nearly doubled in size, complement the original handbook by presenting current information from many of the leading researchers and physicians in toxinology, with topics ranging from functional morphology, evolution and ecology to crystallography, -omics technologies, drug discovery and more. With the recent recognition by the World Health Organization of snakebite as a neglected tropical disease, the section on snakebite has been expanded and includes several chapters dealing with the problem broadly and with new technologies and the promises these new approaches may hold to counter the deleterious effects of envenomation.

    This greatly expanded handbook offers a unique resource for biologists, biochemists, toxicologists, physicians, clinicians, and epidemiologists, as well as informed laypersons interested in the biology of venomous reptiles, the biochemistry and molecular biology of venoms, and the effects and treatment of human envenomation.


    About the Editor



    Section I: Introduction and Technologies Used in Toxinology

    1. Reptile venoms and toxins: Unlimited opportunities for basic and applied research – Stephen P. Mackessy

    2. Present and future of snake venom proteomics profiling – Juan J. Calvete and Bruno Lomonte

    3. Applications of genomics and related technologies for studying reptile venoms – Drew R. Schield, Blair W. Perry, Giulia I.M. Pasquesi, Richard W. Orton, Zachary L. Nikolakis, Aundrea K. Westfall, Todd A. Castoe

    4. Snake venom gland transcriptomics – Cassandra M. Modahl and Rajeev Kungur Brahma

    5. X-ray crystallography and structural studies of toxins – Vinícius Lucatelle da Silva, Ricardo Barros Mariutti, Mônika Aparecida Coronado, Raphael Josef Eberle, Fábio Rogério de Moraes and Raghuvir Krishnaswamy Arni

    6. Envenomations and Treatment: Translating between the bench and the bedside – Nicklaus Brandehoff and Jordan Benjamin

    7. Current assessment of the state of snake venom toxinological research with a view to the future – Sarah Natalie Cirilo Gimenes and Jay W. Fox


    Section II: Venom Gland Structure, Systematics and Ecology

    8. Reptile venom glands: Form, function, future, concepts and controversies – Scott A. Weinstein

    9. Advances in venomous snake systematics, 2009-2019 - Wolfgang Wüster

    10. Biochemical ecology of venomous snakes – Cara F. Smith and Stephen P. Mackessy

    11. Resistance of native species to reptile venoms –– Danielle H. Drabeck


    Section III: Reptile Venom Non-enzymatic Toxins

    12. Three-finger toxins – Rajeev Kungur Brahma, Cassandra M. Modahl and

    R. Manjunatha Kini 

    13. Myotoxin a, crotamine and defensin homologs in reptile venoms – Lucas C. Porta, Pedro Z. Amaral, Paulo Z. Amaral and Mirian A. F. Hayashi

    14. Reptile venom disintegrins – Anthony J. Saviola and Juan J. Calvete

    15. Reptile venom cysteine-rich secretory proteins – María Elisa Peichoto and Marcelo Larami Santoro

    16. Bradykinin-potentiating and related peptides from reptile venoms - Daniel Carvalho Pimenta and Patrick Jack Spencer 

    17. Exendins and its related proteins – Michelle Khai Khun Yap and Nurhamimah Misuan

    18. Reptile venom C-type-lectins – Kenneth J. Clemetson

    19. Snake venom Kunitz-type inhibitors and cystatins – structure and function – Elda E. Sánchez, Emelyn Salazar, Montamas Suntravat and Francisco Torres

    20. Small molecular constituents of snake venoms – Alejandro Villar-Briones and Steven D. Aird

    21. Cobra venom factor: Structure, function, biology, research tool and drug lead – Carl-Wilhelm Vogel, Brian E. Hew and David C. Fritzinger

    22. Snake toxins targeting diverse ion channels - Matan Geron and Avi Priel


    Section IV: Reptile Venom Enzyme Toxins

    23. Thrombin-like serine proteinases in reptile venoms – Stephen D. Swenson, Samantha Stack

    and Francis S. Markland Jr.

    24. Snake venom metalloproteinases  – Charlotte A. Dawson, Stuart Ainsworth, Laura-Oana Albulescu and Nicholas R. Casewell

    25. Snake venom matrix metalloproteinases (svMMPs): Alternative proteolytic enzymes in rear-fanged snake venoms – Inácio L. M. Junqueira-de-Azevedo and Juan David Bayona-Serrano

    26. Snake venom phospholipase A2 toxins – Bruno Lomonte and Igor Križaj

    27. Reptile venom L-amino acid oxidases – structure and function – Juliana P. Zuliania, Mauro V. Paloschi, Adriana S. Pontes, Charles N. Boeno, Jéssica A. Lopes, Sulamita S. Setubal, Fernando B. Zanchi and Andreimar M. Soares

    28. Snake venom nucleases, nucleotidases, and phosphomonoesterases - Jüri Siigur and Ene Siigur

    29. Reptile venom acetylcholinesterases - Mushtaq Ahmed, Wasim Ahmad, Nadia Mushtaq,

    Rehmat Ali Khan and Maria Rosa Chitolina Schetinger

    30. Inhibitors of reptile venom toxins – Ana F. Gómez Garay, Jorge J. Alfonso, Anderson M. Kayano, Juliana C. Sobrinho, Cleopatra A. S. Caldeira,  Rafaela Diniz-Sousa, Fernando B. Zanchi, Juliana P. Zuliani, and Andreimar M. Soares


    Section V: Global Approaches to Envenomations and Treatments

    31. Snakebite envenomation as a neglected tropical disease: new impetus for confronting an old scourge – José María Gutiérrez

    32. Current industrial production of snake antivenoms – Mariángela Vargas, Melvin Sánchez, Andrés Hernández, Aarón Gómez, Mauricio Arguedas, Andrés Sánchez, Laura Sánchez, Mauren Villalta, María Herrera and Álvaro Segura

    33. Antivenom in the age of recombinant DNA technology – Andreas H. Laustsen

    34. Epidemiology and treatment of reptile envenomations in the United States – Daniel E. Keyler and Nicklaus Brandehoff

    35. Envenomations by reptiles in México – Edgar Neri-Castro, Melisa Bénard-Valle, Jorge López de León, Leslie Boyer and Alejandro Alagón

    36. Snakebite envenomation in Central America: Epidemiology, pathophysiology and treatment – José María Gutiérrez

    37. Snakebite in Southeast Asia: Envenomation and clinical management– Nget Hong Tan, Kae Yi Tan and Choo Hock Tan

    38. Snake envenomation: Therapy and challenges in India – Ashis K. Mukherjee, Bhargab Kalita, Sumita Dutta, Aparup Patra, Chitta R. Maiti and Dileep Punde

    39. Snakebite in Africa: Current situation and urgent needs – Jean-Philippe Chippaux

    40. Approaches to snake envenomation in Southern Africa - James Pattinson, George Oosthuizen, Colin R. Tilbury and Darryl Wood


    Section VI: Reptile Venoms – Production and as a Source of Therapeutics

    41. Large-scale snake colonies for venom production: Considerations and challenges – Kristen L. Wiley and James R. Harrison

    42. Toxins to drugs – biochemistry and pharmacology – Zoltan Takacs



    Stephen P. Mackessy is Professor of Biology in the School of Biological Sciences at the University of Northern Colorado (UNC). His research broadly encompasses the biology of venomous snakes and the biochemistry of snake venoms, and he has published over one hundred scientific papers, book chapters, and natural history notes.