Handbook of Virtual Environments: Design, Implementation, and Applications, Second Edition, 2nd Edition (Paperback) book cover

Handbook of Virtual Environments

Design, Implementation, and Applications, Second Edition, 2nd Edition

Edited by Kelly S. Hale, Kay M. Stanney

CRC Press

1,456 pages | 357 B/W Illus.

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A Complete Toolbox of Theories and Techniques

The second edition of a bestseller, Handbook of Virtual Environments: Design, Implementation, and Applications presents systematic and extensive coverage of the primary areas of research and development within VE technology. It brings together a comprehensive set of contributed articles that address the principles required to define system requirements and design, build, evaluate, implement, and manage the effective use of VE applications. The contributors provide critical insights and principles associated with their given areas of expertise to provide extensive scope and detail on VE technology and its applications.

What’s New in the Second Edition:

  • Updated glossary of terms to promote common language throughout the community
  • New chapters on olfactory perception, avatar control, motion sickness, and display design, as well as a whole host of new application areas
  • Updated information to reflect the tremendous progress made over the last decade in applying VE technology to a growing number of domains

This second edition includes nine new, as well as forty-one updated chapters that reflect the progress made in basic and applied research related to the creation, application, and evaluation of virtual environments. Contributions from leading researchers and practitioners from multidisciplinary domains provide a wealth of theoretical and practical information, resulting in a complete toolbox of theories and techniques that you can rely on to develop more captivating and effective virtual worlds. The handbook supplies a valuable resource for advancing VE applications as you take them from the laboratory to the real-world lives of people everywhere.


"A key attraction of this text is the diversity of chapter offerings that span a range of successful research and applications in academia, industry, defense, medicine, and education. A second aspect that is very important is the discussion and interplay of the science of learning and applications of virtual environments as well as the underpinning of theory and research in each chapter. I find this interplay to be very important regardless as a means of informing both science and practice along the way."

—Dr Winston "Wink" Bennett, Jr., US Air Force Research Laboratory, Warfighter Readiness Research Division

"… provides a comprehensive view of each of the elements impacting the design, implementation, and total cost of virtual environments. The list of authors features an all-star cast of simulation practioners rarely assembled for such purposes. The book is well organized and describes each of the antecedents of good design in a pragmatic way making it easy for novices or experts to easily find selected topics gain knowledge from reading."

—Robert Sottilare, Ph.D., Simulationist & Adaptive Tutoring Scientist

"… a comprehensive guide to the latest technology and ideas in the resurgent field of VE. The editors have brought together a distinguished list of expert contributors and covered a broad swath to provide a definitive guide of the current state-of-the-art for students and experts alike."

—Scott S. Grigsby, Ph.D., Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp

Table of Contents

Virtual Environments in the 21st Century, Kay M. Stanney, Kelly S. Hale, and Michael Zyda

Virtual Environments Standards and Terminology, Richard A. Blade and Mary Lou Padgett

Vision and Virtual Environments, David R. Badcock, Stephen Palmisano and James G. May

Virtual Auditory Displays, Michael Vorländer and Barbara Shinn-Cunningham

Dynamic Haptic Interaction with Video, Nuray Dindar, A. Murat Tekalp, and Cagatay Basdogan

Olfactory Interfaces, David L. Jones, Sara Dechmerowski, Razia Oden, Valerie Lugo, Jingjing Wang-Costello, William Pike

The Perception of Body Motion, Ben D. Lawson, Bernhard E. Riecke

Eye Tracking in Virtual Environments, Xuezhong Wang, Brent Winslow

Gesture Recognition, Matthew Turk

Avatar Control in Virtual Environments, James Templeman, Robert Page, Patricia Denbrook

Virtual Environment Models, G. Drew Kessler

Principles for Designing Effective 3D Interaction Techniques, Ryan P. McMahan, Regis Kopper, and Doug A. Bowman

Technological Considerations in the Design of Multisensory Virtual Environments: How Real Does it Need to Be? Brian D. Simpson, Jeffrey L. Cowgill, Robert H. Gilkey, and Janet M. Weisenberger

Embodied Autonomous Agents, Andrew Feng, Ari Shapiro, Margaux Lhommet, and Stacy Marsella

Structured Development of Virtual Environments, Richard M. Eastgate, John R. Wilson, and Mirabelle D’Cruz

Cognitive Aspects of Virtual Environment Design, Allen Munro, Jim Patrey, Elizabeth Sheldon Biddle, Meredith Carroll

Multimodal Interaction Modeling, George V. Popescu, Helmuth Trefftz and Grigore C. Burdea

Illusory Self-motion in Virtual Environments, Lawrence J. Hettinger, Tarah Schmidt, David L. Jones, Behrang Keshavarz, Rudolph P. Darken, Barry Peterson

Technology Management and User Acceptance of Virtual Environment Technology, David Gross

Virtual Environments and Product Liability, Robert S. Kennedy, Robert C. Kennedy, Kristyne E. Kennedy, Christine Wasula, Kathleen M. Bartlett

Direct Effects of Virtual Environments on Users, Erik Viirre, BJ Price, and Bradley Chase

Motion Sickness Symptomatology and Origins, Ben D. Lawson

Motion Sickness Scaling, Ben D. Lawson

Adapting to Virtual Environments, Robert B. Welch, Betty J. Mohler

Visually-Induced Motion Sickness: Causes, Characteristics, and Countermeasures, Behrang Keshavarz, Heiko Hecht, and Ben D. Lawson

The Social Impact of Virtual Environments, Sandra L. Calvert

Usability Engineering of Virtual Environments, Joseph L. Gabbard

Human Performance Measurement in Virtual Environments, James P. Bliss, Alexandra Proaps and Eric T. Chancey

Conducting Training Transfer Studies in Virtual Environments, Roberto Champney, Meredith Carroll, Glen Surpris, and Joseph V. Cohn

Virtual Environment Usage Protocols, Kay M. Stanney, Robert S. Kennedy,and Kelly S. Hale

Measurement of Visual Aftereffects Following Virtual Environment Exposure: Implications for Minimally Invasive Surgery, John P. Wann, Alan D. White, Richard M. Wilkie, Peter R. Culmer, J. Peter A. Lodge, MD & Mark Mon-Williams

Proprioceptive Adaptation and Aftereffects Paul DiZio, James R. Lackner, and Roberto K. Champney

Beyond Presence: How Holistic Experience Drives Training and Education, Dustin Chertoff, Sae Schatz

Augmented Cognition for Virtual Environment Evaluation, Kelly Hale, Kay Stanney, Dylan Schmorrow, Lee Sciarini

Applications of Virtual Environments: An Overview, Robert J. Stone, Frank P. Hannigan

The Use of Virtual Worlds in the Military Services as part of a Blended Learning Strategy Maxwell, D., Griffith, T. and Finkelstein, N.

Team Training in Virtual Environments: A Dual Approach, Tripp Driskell, Eduardo Salas, William B. Vessey

Visual Perceptual Skills Training in Virtual Environments, Matthew Johnston, Meredith Carroll, Kelly Hale

Virtual environments as a tool for conceptual learning Lindgren, R., Moshell, J. M., & Hughes, C. E

Applications of Virtual Environments in Experiential, STEM, and Health Science Education, Angelos Barmpoutis, Benjamin DeVane, James C. Oliverio

Design and Development of 3D-interactive Environments for Special Educational Needs, Sue Cobb, Tessa Hawkins, Laura Millen and John R. Wilson

Virtual Environment–Assisted Teleoperation, Abderrahmane Kheddar, Ryad Chellali,and Philippe Coiffet

Evolving Human-Robot Communication through VE-based Research and Development, Stephanie Lackey, Daniel Barber, Lauren Reinerman-Jones, Eric Ortiz, and Joseph R. Fanfarelli

Clinical Ritual Reality, Albert "Skip" Rizzo, Belinda Lange, Sebastian Koenig

Modeling and Simulation for Cultural Training: Past, Present, and Future Challenges, Kathleen Bartlett, Denise Nicholson, Margaret Nolan, and Brenna Kelly

Immersive Visualization for the Geological Sciences, William R. Sherman, Gary L. Kinsland, Christoph W. Borst, Eric Whiting, Jurgen P. Schulze, Philip Weber, Albert Y.M. Lin, Aashish Chaudhary, Simon Su, Daniel S. Coming

Information Visualization in Virtual Environments: Tradeoffs and Guidelines, Nicholas F. Polys

Entertainment Applications of Virtual Environments, Adams Greenwood-Ericksen, Robert C. Kennedy, Shawn Stafford

Virtual Environments: History and Profession, Richard A. Blade, Mary Lou Padgett, Mark Billinghurst and Robert W. Lindeman

About the Editors

Dr. Kelly S. Hale is Sr. Vice President of Technical Operations at Design Interactive, Inc., a woman-owned small business focused on human-systems integration, which she joined in 2004. Her research and development efforts in human systems integration across areas of virtual environment design and evaluation, augmented cognition, multimodal interaction and haptic interfaces, and training sciences. She holds a patent for a tactile display language, and serves on the Editorial Board for the International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, and Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science. She has received funding from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), Office of Naval Research (ONR), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA), Department of Homeland Security (DHS), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and Department of the Army. Through these efforts, Kelly and her team have developed advanced neurophysiological measurement techniques, including a patent-pending Fixation-locked Event-Related Potentials (FLERPs) approach to capture electroencephalography ERP data in a naturalistic setting, and have advanced real-time mitigation strategy framework and induction techniques to optimize training, situation awareness, decision making, and operational performance through optimization of user cognitive and physical state within simulated training environments. In addition, Kelly has guided Design Interactive, Inc. to be a leader in developing advanced performance metrics and diagnostic capabilities, including behavioral, physiological and neural metric suites for capturing traditionally ‘unobservable’ behavioral data to evaluate perceptual skills and cognitive processing in real-time by synchronizing data with system events/areas of interest dynamically throughout simulated scenarios. She received her BSc in Kinesiology/Ergonomics Option from the University of Waterloo in Ontario, Canada in 1999, and her Masters and PhD In Industrial Engineering, with a focus on Human Factors Engineering, from the University of Central Florida in 2001 and 2006, respectively.

Dr. Kay Stanney founded Design Interactive, Inc. in 1998 and serves as President. She provides executive leadership and strategic direction, formulating and driving key business strategies across DI’s three business units. Dr. Stanney is recognized as a world leader in virtual environment (VE) technology, especially as it relates to training. During her 25+ years of carrying out research in the area of VE training, she has led numerous efforts involved in furthering adaptive VE training techniques. Recipient of 2013 Women Who Mean Business Award, 2012 and 2011 Top Simulation & Training Company for innovation, and the IEEE VGTC Virtual Reality Technical Achievement Award. She has an MS and PhD in Human Factors Engineering from Purdue University, a BS in Industrial Engineering from SUNY Buffalo, and is a CHFP.

About the Series

Human Factors and Ergonomics

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Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Industrial Engineering
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Industrial Health & Safety