1st Edition

Hardware Security
Design, Threats, and Safeguards

ISBN 9781439895832
Published October 29, 2014 by Chapman and Hall/CRC
542 Pages 93 B/W Illustrations

USD $150.00

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Book Description

Beginning with an introduction to cryptography, Hardware Security: Design, Threats, and Safeguards explains the underlying mathematical principles needed to design complex cryptographic algorithms. It then presents efficient cryptographic algorithm implementation methods, along with state-of-the-art research and strategies for the design of very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuits and symmetric cryptosystems, complete with examples of Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) ciphers, asymmetric ciphers, and elliptic curve cryptography (ECC).

Gain a Comprehensive Understanding of Hardware Security—from Fundamentals to Practical Applications

Since most implementations of standard cryptographic algorithms leak information that can be exploited by adversaries to gather knowledge about secret encryption keys, Hardware Security: Design, Threats, and Safeguards:

  • Details algorithmic- and circuit-level countermeasures for attacks based on power, timing, fault, cache, and scan chain analysis
  • Describes hardware intellectual property piracy and protection techniques at different levels of abstraction based on watermarking
  • Discusses hardware obfuscation and physically unclonable functions (PUFs), as well as Trojan modeling, taxonomy, detection, and prevention

Design for Security and Meet Real-Time Requirements

If you consider security as critical a metric for integrated circuits (ICs) as power, area, and performance, you’ll embrace the design-for-security methodology of Hardware Security: Design, Threats, and Safeguards.

Table of Contents

Part I

Mathematical Background


Modular Arithmetic

Groups, Rings, and Fields

Greatest Common Divisors and Multiplicative Inverse

Subgroups, Subrings, and Extensions

Groups, Rings, and Field Isomorphisms

Polynomials and Fields

Construction of Galois Field

Extensions of Fields

Cyclic Groups of Group Elements

Efficient Galois Fields

Mapping between Binary and Composite Fields


Overview of Modern Cryptography


Cryptography: Some Technical Details

Block Ciphers

Rijndael in Composite Field

Elliptic Curves

Scalar Multiplications: LSB First and MSB First Approaches

Montgomery’s Algorithm for Scalar Multiplication Inversions


Modern Hardware Design Practices


Components of a Hardware Architecture: Mapping an Algorithm to Hardware

Case Study: Binary gcd Processor

Enhancing the Performance of a Hardware Design

Modelling of the Computational Elements of the gcd Processor

Experimental Results


Hardware Design of the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)


Algorithmic and Architectural Optimizations for AES Design

Circuit for the AES S-Box

Implementation of the Mix Column Transformation

An Example Reconfigurable Design for the Rijndael Cryptosystem

Experimental Results

Single Chip Encryptor/Decryptor


Efficient Design of Finite Field Arithmetic on FPGAs


Finite Field Multiplier

Finite Field Multipliers for High Performance Applications

Karatsuba Multiplication

Karatsuba Multipliers for Elliptic Curves

Designing for the FPGA Architecture

Analyzing Karatsuba Multipliers on FPGA Platforms

Performance Evaluation

High Performance Finite Field Inversion Architecture for FPGAs

Itoh-Tsujii Inversion Algorithm

The Quad ITA Algorithm

Experimental Results

Generalization of the ITA for 2n Circuit

Hardware Architecture for 2n Circuit-Based ITA

Area and Delay Estimations for the 2n ITA

Obtaining the Optimal Performing ITA Architecture

Validation of Theoretical Estimations


High Speed Implementation of Elliptic Curve Scalar Multiplication on FPGAs


The Elliptic Curve Cryptoprocessor

Point Arithmetic on the ECCP

The Finite State Machine (FSM)

Performance Evaluation

Further Acceleration Techniques of the ECC Processor

Pipelining Strategies for the Scalar Multiplier

Scheduling of the Montgomery Algorithm

Finding the Right Pipeline

Detailed Architecture of the ECM

Implementation Results


Introduction to Side Channel Analysis


What Are Side Channels?

Types of Side Channel Attacks

Kocher’s Seminal Works

Power Attacks

Fault Attacks

Cache Attacks

Scan Chain-Based Attacks


Differential Fault Analysis of Ciphers

Introduction to Differential Fault Analysis

DFA and Associated Fault Models

Differential Fault Attacks on AES: Early Efforts

State of the Art DFAs on AES

Multiple Byte DFA of AES-128

Extension of the DFA to Other Variants of AES

DFA of AES Targeting the Key-Schedule



Cache Attacks on Ciphers

Memory Hierarchy and Cache Memory

Timing Attacks due to CPU Architecture

Trace-Driven Cache Attacks

Access-Driven Cache Attacks

Time-Driven Cache Attacks

Countermeasures for Timing Attacks


Power Analysis of Cipher Implementations

Power Attack Set up and Power Traces

Power Models

Differential Power Analysis using Difference of Mean

PKDPA: An Improvement of the DoM Technique

Correlation Power Attack

Metrics to Evaluate a Side Channel Analysis

CPA on Real Power Traces of AES-128

Popular Countermeasures against Power Analysis: Masking


Testability of Cryptographic Hardware


Scan Chain-Based Attacks on Cryptographic Implementations

Scan Attack on Trivium

Testability of Cryptographic Designs



Part II

Hardware Intellectual Property Protection through Obfuscation


Related Work

Functional Obfuscation through State Transition Graph Modification

Extension of STG Modification for RTL Designs

Obfuscation through Control and Data Flow Graph (CDFG) Modification

Measure of Obfuscation Level




Overview of Hardware Trojans


Trojan Taxonomy and Examples

Multi-Level Attack

Effect of Hardware Trojan on Circuit Reliability

Hardware Trojan Insertion by Direct Modification of FPGA Configuration Bitstream


Logic Testing-Based Hardware Trojan Detection


Statistical Approach for Trojan Detection



Side-Channel Analysis Techniques for Hardware Trojans Detection


Motivation for the Proposed Approaches

Multiple-Parameter Analysis-Based Trojan Detection


Integration with Logic-Testing Approach

Design Techniques for Hardware Trojan Threat Mitigation


Obfuscation-Based Trojan Detection/Protection

Integrated Framework for Obfuscation


A FPGA-Based Design Technique for Trojan Isolation

A Design Infrastructure Approach to Prevent Circuit Malfunction

Physically Unclonable Functions: A Root-of-Trust for Hardware Security


Physically Unclonable Function (PUF)

Classification of PUFs

Realization of Silicon PUFs

PUF Performance Metrics for Quality Evaluation

Secure PUF: What Makes a PUF Secure?

Applications of PUF as a Root-of-Trust

Attacks Model: How PUF Security Could Be Compromised

Looking Forward: What Lies Ahead for PUFs?

Genetic Programming-Based Model Building Attack on PUFs


Background: Genetic Programming and RO-PUFs




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Dr. Debdeep Mukhopadhyay is an associate professor at the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Kharagpur, West Bengal, where he has been instrumental in setting up a side channel analysis laboratory. Previously, he worked as an assistant professor at the IIT Kharagpur and Madras. His research interests include VLSI of cryptographic algorithms and side channel analysis. A popular invited speaker, he has authored around 100 international conference and journal papers, co-authored a textbook on cryptography and network security, reviewed and served on program committees for several international conferences, and collaborated with several organizations including ISRO, DIT, ITI, DRDO, and NTT-Labs Japan. He has been the recipient of the prestigious INSA Young Scientist Award and the INAE Young Engineer Award.

Dr. Rajat Subhra Chakraborty is an assistant professor at the Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, West Bengal. Previously, he worked as a CAD software engineer at National Semiconductor, Bangalore, Karnataka, India and a co-op at Advanced Micro Devices, Sunnyvale, California, USA. His research interests include design methodology for hardware IPIIC protection, hardware Trojan detection/prevention through design and testing, attacks on hardware implementation of cryptographic algorithms, and reversible watermarking for digital content protection. He has authored over 25 conference and journal publications and presented at numerous events including the 2011 IEEE VLSI Design Conference, where he delivered a tutorial on hardware security.


"… an excellent job introducing the field of hardware security. It is a good source for upper undergraduates, postgraduates, and practitioners. The book does not need to be read cover to cover, and a select subset of chapters can form an undergraduate or graduate course in hardware security. … an excellent reference and can help graduate students move quickly to the frontiers of research. With its 432 references, the book helps direct readers who want to explore a specific topic in more detail."
Computing Reviews, April 2015