1st Edition

Harmful Algae Blooms in Drinking Water Removal of Cyanobacterial Cells and Toxins

By Harold W. Walker Copyright 2015
    175 Pages
    by CRC Press

    174 Pages 30 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) occurring in freshwater, and the associated toxins they produce, are dangerous to animals and humans. Mitigating the increasing presence of HABs presents a major challenge to water managers and drinking water utilities across the world. This book explores the current research on removal of HABs and toxins from drinking water. It provides the necessary tools so that treatment plant operators, engineers, and water managers can understand the vulnerability of drinking water treatment plants to HABs and develop treatment processes to minimize the impact of these contaminants.

    Although conventional treatment processes can be effective for the removal of HAB cells and some HAB toxins under optimal conditions, the potential exists for significant breakthrough of toxins during normal operation. As a result, there is a recognized need for more advanced techniques. Possible advanced processes for removing HAB toxins include granular activated carbon (GAC), powdered activated carbon (PAC), or oxidative processes. This book reviews both conventional and advanced treatment processes and presents clear and easy-to-understand procedures for the design of systems for optimal cell or toxin removal.

    About the Author

    Harmful Algal Blooms and Harmful Algal Bloom Toxins
    Causes of HABs
    HABs and Drinking Water

    Occurrence and Ecology of Harmful Algal Blooms
    Types of Harmful Algal Blooms
    Occurrence of Freshwater HABs
    Ecology of Harmful Algal Blooms
    Toxin Release and Modes of Expression
    Models and Early Warning Tools

    Toxin Properties, Toxicity, and Health Effects
    Nodularin Properties
    Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Nodularin
    Genotoxicity and Carcinogenicity of Nodularin
    Skin Irritation and Other Effects Induced by Nodularia and Nodularin
    Microcystin Properties
    Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Microcystins
    Genotoxicity and Carcinogenicity of Microcystins
    Skin Irritation and Other Effects Induced by Microcystis and Microcystins
    Anatoxin-a Properties
    Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Anatoxin-a
    Genotoxicity and Carcinogenicity of Anatoxin-a
    Skin Irritation Induced by Anatoxin-a
    Cylindrospermopsin Properties
    Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Cylindrospermopsin
    Genotoxicity and Carcinogenicity of Cylindrospermopsin
    Skin Irritation Induced by Cylindrospermopsis and Cylindrospermopsin
    Saxitoxin Properties
    Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Saxitoxin
    Genotoxicity and Carcinogenicity of Saxitoxin
    Skin Irritation Induced by Saxitoxin

    Regulation of HABs and HAB Toxins in Surface and Drinking Water
    Funding for Research and Risk Assessment on HABs and HAB Toxins
    Drinking Water Regulations
    Recreational Water Regulations
    Nutrient Regulations
    Case Study: Grand Lake–St. Marys

    Source Water Control of Harmful Algal Blooms and Toxins
    Natural Attenuation of HABs and Toxins
    In Situ Mitigation of HABs and HAB Toxins
    Artificial Destratification and Aeration
    Alum Coagulation
    Clay Flocculants
    Other Approaches

    Conventional Treatment Processes for Removal of HAB Cells and Toxins from Drinking Water
    Coagulation, Flocculation, Sedimentation, and Dissolved Air Flotation
    Modeling Powdered Activated Carbon Adsorption
    Modeling Granular Activated Carbon Adsorption
    Chemical Disinfection
    Other Disinfection Technologies

    Advanced Treatment Processes for the Removal of HAB Cells and Toxins from Drinking Water
    Membrane Processes
    RO and NF for Removal of HABs and HAB Toxins
    Ultrafiltration and Microfiltration
    Ultrafiltration–Powdered Activated Carbon
    Advanced Oxidation Processes
    Potassium Permanganate
    Photolysis and UV/Hydrogen Peroxide
    Sulfate Radical
    Fenton Reaction

    Summary and Conclusions



    Harold Walker is director and professor of civil engineering at Stony Brook University. Prior to coming to Stony Brook, Dr. Walker was a professor in the Department of Civil, Environmental, and Geodetic Engineering at The Ohio State University. Dr. Walker also served as the director of the Ohio Water Resources Center, the federally authorized and state-designated water resources research institute for the state of Ohio. Dr. Walker served on the board of directors of the National Institutes for Water Resources as well as on the board of directors for the Water Management Association of Ohio. Dr. Walker is a registered professional engineer in the state of Ohio. He has a BS in environmental engineering from Cal Poly San Luis Obispo and MS and PhD degrees in civil and environmental engineering from the University of California, Irvine.

    Dr. Walker’s research focuses on understanding surface chemical processes in natural and engineered systems, with an emphasis on clean water. Current areas of research include predicting the fate and transport of manufactured nanomaterials, cyanotoxins, and other "emerging" contaminants in groundwater, lakes, oceans, and water treatment plants; developing novel membrane treatment systems and membrane cleaning approaches; and determining the vulnerability of the public to cyanotoxins in finished drinking water. Dr. Walker has secured external funds to support his research from a number of sources, such as the National Science Foundation (NSF), US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), United States Geological Survey (USGS), Department of Energy (DOE), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (through Sea Grant), and a variety of state agencies, industries, and other sources.

    "Harold Walker’s Harmful Algae Blooms in Drinking Water: Removal of Cyanobacterial Cells and Toxins is well written and easy to understand. This book is a great resource for students, managers, water treatment plant operators, anglers, and beach users. With this book, Walker clearly explains the biggest water quality problem of the twenty-first century and its solutions."
    — Dr. Jeffrey M. Reutter, Director, Ohio Sea Grant College Program and Stone Laboratory, Ohio State University

    "This is an excellent book for people to learn the general aspects about harmful algal blooms, cyanotoxins, their occurrence, and treatment."
    — Dr. Dion Dionysiou, Professor and Graduate Program Director, School of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Cincinnati