Harnessing Formative Data for K-12 Teachers
Real-time Classroom Strategies
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Harnessing Formative Data for K-12 Teachers prepares teachers to apply real-time formative data to classroom instruction amid the expansion of online and blended learning in schools. In today’s changing, technology-enhanced educational landscape, teachers must rethink how to generate and use formative data to inform planning and develop systems that lead to all students’ success. This book’s strategic insights into actionable formative data use will yield differentiated supports for students, helping teachers to foster greater academic outcomes, independent self-monitoring, and readiness for college, career, and lifelong learning. Each chapter includes connections to social justice, best practices for applying data points and field-tested tips for technology integration, and a host of interactive planning guides to support implementation.
Table of Contents
Foreword by Jason Green and Tiffany Wycoff
About the Author
Part I: The Need to Reevaluate How We Use Data in the Classroom
Introduction: Changing Instructional Data Considerations
- Advancements in Technology Changing Formative Data Use
- Loss of Consistent Summative Data from Previous Academic Years
- Concerns about Data Reliability Due to Increased Remote Assessment
- Concerns about "Learning Loss" during Distance Learning
Chapter 1: Your Classroom’s Vision and Beliefs
- Assessing Your Classroom Vision
- Reflecting on Your Beliefs About Student Learning and Your Role
- Where Formative Data Fits In
- Key Takeaways
Chapter 2: The Impact of Formative Data on Student Success
- Formative Data Fosters Students’ Growth Mindset
- Formative Data Informs Instruction
- Formative Data Facilitates Differentiation and Promotes Equity
- Key Takeaways
Part II: Effective Formative Data Use in the New Classroom
Chapter 3: Maximizing the Effectiveness of Formative Data
- How Actionable is the Data You Are Gathering?
- How Timely is the Data You Are Gathering?
- How Much Data Do You Need?
- Key Takeaways
Chapter 4: Using Instructional Technology to Effectively Address Formative Data
- On-the-fly Formative Data for Whole Class Instruction
- Formative Assessments for Differentiated Learning
- Key Takeaways
Chapter 5: Building Student Capacity Through Formative Data
- Digital self-assessment rubrics
- Self-selected small groups
- Self-monitored digital success trackers
- Key Takeaways
Chapter 6: Analyzing Formative Data Collaboratively to Identify and Celebrate Best Practices
- Peer Observations – in-person and virtual
- Teacher-led Professional Development
- Success Celebration Events
- Key Takeaways
Chapter 7: Innovative Learning in the New Classroom
- Re-envisioning Learning for All Students
- Reflecting on the Focus on Summative and Formative Assessments
- Preparing Students to be Lifelong Independent Learners
- Key Takeaways
Stepan Mekhitarian is Director of Innovation, Instruction, Assessment & Accountability at Glendale United School District, California.
"Most school data attest what has happened and what students can and cannot do, and thus looks backward. COVID-19-era teaching has amplified the value of seeking evidence to also look forward. Data needs to help us make decisions about the next best teaching and learning steps and be bold yet confident in making predictions of future learning. Stepan Mekhitarian invites us to be bold, look forward, learn from our experiences during COVID-19, harness technology, and accelerate learning.
"‘Formative assessment’ is not about assessment. Instead, it is a teaching philosophy that uses evidence (from tests, student work, student voice about their progress, and teacher observation) to optimally make judgments about the next best teaching and learning steps. This message is evident in every chapter of these two complementary books—for teachers and leaders—which makes Dr. Mekhitarian’s message so powerful. Worthwhile data must lead to actions, acceleration, advancing confidence, and advising about impact for leaders, teachers, and students."
—John Hattie, Emeritus Laureate Professor in the Graduate School of Education at the University of Melbourne
"Timely, relevant, and immediately applicable, these companion books by Dr. Mekhitarian offer just-in-time, responsive strategies for both teachers and school leaders interested in using formative assessment data to support students learning in today's rapidly changing education landscape."
—Kasia Faughn, Assessment Communication Program Manager, Sacramento County Office of Education
"Dr. Stepan Mekhitarian provides a timely resource for public schools to reimagine their student-data practices. These companion books succinctly address the climate in which we are educating and how to improve instruction despite recent gaps in performance data. Leveraging the speed and accuracy of technology to transform formative assessment practices is how we, as educators, accelerate learning and dig ourselves out of learning loss caused by the pandemic."
—Robyn Anders, Coordinator of Instructional Technology, Burbank Unified School District
"Dr. Mekhitarian is a sought-after subject matter expert in the state of California who shares his vast knowledge of the formative assessment process in a way that is both robust and easy for readers to understand. These fantastic companion books include space to reflect on thought-provoking prompts that help us engage in the learning in a deeper and more meaningful way, and the tips called out throughout the books are pure gold!"
—Nikki Antonovich, Coordinator, Center for Student Assessment and Program Accountability, Sacramento County Office of Education
"Dr. Mekhitarian gives teachers and school leaders the tools necessary to help all students in the twenty-first-century blended classroom. He invites educators to reflect on student learning, involves us in the analysis of data collection, and offers real and meaningful direction in the pursuit of maximizing the effectiveness of formative data. This book is a great guide for any educator looking to leverage the power of formative data to innovate learning."
—Matthieu Hamo, Sixth Grade Teacher, Glendale Unified School District
"Dr. Mekhitarian is a seasoned educational leader who tirelessly continues his firm commitment to instructional innovations and academic excellence. His companion books are essential for any educator interested in using formative data to make great decisions for students. They are practical, informative, effective, inspiring, and timely, especially as we come out of the pandemic and reflect on what's next in education. The companion books are undoubtedly must-have resources for professional development in schools, districts, and teacher preparation programs."
—Silva S. Karayan, Professor Emeritus of Education, California Lutheran University
"Stepan’s innovative approach on formative assessment in a virtual setting has had a vast impact on our academy. The way he dives deep into the purpose and importance of meaningful checks for understanding has changed the way our teachers create, implement, and analyze assessments."
—Erika Tumminelli, Principal, Salinas City Virtual Academy
"Dr. Mekhitarian's two new companion books make the cogent case that formative assessments are not just checks for understanding, but key tools in fostering systemic and organizational change for the benefit of all students. By following the suggested activities, teachers and administrators can begin to dialogue about the role of formative assessments with respect to their schools' mission and vision, and figure out how to maximize the impact of these tools given a changing educational landscape spurred on by the pandemic and recent technological advances."
—Paul Hsu, Director and Co-Founder, Lotus Creek Foundation and t space Taiwan
"Dr. Mekhitarian provides a comprehensive, step-by-step process to help teachers and school leaders make formative data the primary driver in decision-making. His books offer key insights as to how schools can build a sense of shared accountability and urgency to meet the needs of all students. As a school district leader, Dr. Mekhitarian knows firsthand the challenges of building a strong data culture. His recommendations are practical and actionable, featuring timely advice on leveraging technology and empowering teachers and administrators to use formative data to promote equity in schools."
—Evan Bartelheim, Project Director, Accountability & Data Literacy, Los Angeles County Office of Education
"Finding the balance between gathering data to inform our instruction and respecting our classroom instructional time is a battle that teachers invariably struggle with. Dr. Mekhitarian's book takes us through both the theory and the practicality of achieving that balance. He shows educators how accessing and sharing data, using the technological tools that are available to everyone today, can make a beneficial difference in our teaching and in our students' learning.
—Shannon M. Clark-Reed, English Teacher and Instructional Technology Coach, Glendale Unified School District
"The principle that grounds my work is that all students deserve to thrive in an inclusive environment supported by adults who put them at the center of every conversation. Dr. Mekhitarian’s innovative approach to post-pandemic formative assessment provides an actionable plan to guide school/student/teaching improvement efforts."
—Vivian Ekchian, Superintendent, Glendale Unified School District
As education evolves from the adjustments made for distance learning, Dr. Mekhitarian’s timely book provides actionable steps for teachers to use newly learned instructional technologies to implement formative assessments that provide real-time feedback for students and teachers. From beginning to end of the text, I felt empowered to implement meaningful formative assessments that bring equity and differentiation to my classroom.
—Michelle Manalo, Elementary Teacher, John Muir Elementary School
"Dr. Mekhitarian's companion books are texts that provide educators with the tools they need in order to outline how to best utilize data. These texts allow readers to carve out their paths towards data analysis and establish best practices for utilizing the data to support learning. I have worked with Dr. Mekhitarian on many occasions to create systems to best incorporate the ideas suggested in his books. We have been successful in our results and continue to further develop and incorporate his strategies. I highly recommend these texts."
—Mary Mardirosian, Assistant Principal, Herbert Hoover High School
"These books are a staple that need to be in the hands of every instructional leader and classroom teacher. Dr. Stepan Mekhitarian provides valuable insight on how to effectively utilize formative data to improve student learning. Moreover, he addresses how to foster a data-driven culture, providing actionable steps that will help every school site reach its full potential."
—Natalie Kontogiannis, Director of Curriculum, Instruction, and Innovation, AGBU Manoogian-Demirdjian School
"The development of technology has delivered more data to schools than ever before. In these two companion volumes, Dr. Mekhitarian lays out a roadmap for teachers and administrators to leverage the data schools collect into timely actions for both the larger organization and the classroom. This work provides the connection between the data-rich world of high-stakes school evaluation and the inside-the-classroom moves made by each teacher. Using side-by-side texts focused on simple moves for the teacher and school leader with supportive and practical implementation tips, Dr. Mekhitarian’s work will allow your school to develop a vision around what educators can learn from the use of formative data and how it will positively impact schools, teachers, and students."
—Elias Miles, Assistant Superintendent, Fillmore Unified School District
"In a time when many educators are struggling to address the current challenges, Stepan brings his expertise and authenticity to provide support in this space. These two companion books provide practical steps to infuse formative assessment with educational technology to foster a growth mindset and increase student learning. Stepan effectively communicates both a vision and practical steps to operationalize this vision. These books are accessible for teachers and organizational leaders with a focus on increasing student agency and success."
—Dave Chun, Director, Mathematics, Sacramento County Office of Education
"Though most educators say they recognize the critical nature of formative assessment (FA), observations demonstrate repeatedly that teachers simply do not collect or utilize real-time data as often or as well as they should. Mekhitarian’s practical text not only clarifies the ‘what’ of FA but, more importantly, lays out the ‘how’ in a way that is extremely doable for busy teachers. His connections to technology, differentiation, social justice, and research throughout the text help to emphasize the importance, rationale, and ease of using regular, well-crafted FA in the K-12 classroom. The inclusion of questions, prompts, templates, tables, and key takeaways offers a scaffolding for readers as they consider their own situations and determine how to embed more formative data collection in their own practice."
—Wendy Murawski, Ph.D., Eisner Endowed Chair & Executive Director, Center for Teaching & Learning, California State University Northridge
"Dr. Mekhitarian compels us to consider our own beliefs about student learning and the role we play in making meaning out of rich, daily interactions with students within our classrooms. This book is not a primer but rather a solution-focused journey for practitioners who wish to promote equity through formative practices and use real-time data to make informed decisions about our teaching and their learning."
—Jessica Conkle, Director l, Los Angeles County Office of Education
"These two books provide school leaders and teachers with a wealth of knowledge and practical applications for implementing formative assessment practices and using data in real time to inform both classroom instruction and professional learning. These books are particularly timely in the context of the transition back to classroom-based instruction from time spent in distance or hybrid learning experiences. Educators are immersed in a changing landscape brought on not only by pandemic-based impacts on learning contexts but also by challenging academic standards and ever-evolving real-world contexts into which our students will become future workers and citizens. These books can support educational leaders and classroom educators to select high-quality assessment strategies, collect immediately actionable data to feed back into teaching and learning, and apply both the assessment practices and the data to promote social justice and ensure equity and access to rigorous learning and academic outcomes."
—Sally J. Bennett-Schmidt, Retired Director of Assessment, San Diego County Office of Education