1st Edition

Hazardous Area Classification in Petroleum and Chemical Plants A Guide to Mitigating Risk

By Alireza Bahadori Copyright 2014
    564 Pages 98 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    564 Pages 98 B/W Illustrations
    by CRC Press

    Due to an increase in the wide-range of chemicals in petrochemical processing industries, as well as frequency of use, there has been a steady rise in flammability problems and other hazards. Hazardous Area Classification in Petroleum and Chemical Plants: A Guide to Mitigating Risk outlines the necessities of explosion protection in oil, gas and chemical industries, and discusses fire and occupancy hazards, extinguishing methods, hazard identification, and classification of materials. This book addresses these issues and concerns and presents a simple hazard identification system to help offset future problems.

    It offers information on the hazards of various materials and their level of severity as it relates to fire prevention, exposure, and control. The system provides an alerting signal and on-the-spot information to help protect lives in an industrial plant or storage location during fire emergencies. Understanding the hazard helps to ensure that the process equipment is properly selected, installed, and operated to provide a safe operating system.

    This text also includes a summary of the rules, methods, and requirements for fighting a fire, introduces various hazard identification systems.

    • Includes a summary of the rules, methods, and requirements needed to extinguish a fire

    • Introduces various hazard identification systems

    • Includes concepts for layout and spacing of equipment in process plants

    The book serves as resource for plant design engineers as well as plant protection and safety personnel in planning for effective firefighting operations.

    Classification of Fires and Fire Hazard Properties


    Classification of Fires

    Fire Hazard Properties

    Classification of Hazards

    Classification of Occupancy Hazards

    Classification of Construction

    Fire Protection in Buildings

    Hazard of Contents


    Fire Resistance

    Basic Methods of Firefighting

    Principles of Fire Protection

    Extinguishing Methods

    Suggested Hazard Identification

    Hazard and Operability Studies


    Further Readings

    Hazardous Area Classification


    The Basic Physical Principles and Definitions

    Area Classification


    Equipment Protection Level

    Gas Explosion Protection Concepts for Electrical Equipment


    Combustible Dusts

    Class-Division Schemes


    Further Readings

    Layout and Spacing


    Layout in Oil, Gas, and Chemical Facilities

    Basic Considerations

    Plant Layout

    Layout of Control Room and Electrical Substation

    Firefighting Requirements

    Building Requirements

    Layout in Process Units

    Distances/Clearances Requirements for Storage Tanks

    Layout of LPG Facilities

    Equipment Layout and Spacing

    Layout of Piping

    Utility Layout and Spacing

    Off-Site Facilities

    Waste Treatment Facilities

    Emergency Shutdown System

    Blowdown Drums

    Fire Training Areas

    Tetraethyl Lead Blending Plants


    Further Readings

    Fire Alarm Systems and Automatic Detectors


    Basic Principles

    Alarms and Status Indication for Plant Units

    Buildings, Warehouses’ Fire Detection, and Control Panel

    Fire Detection System

    Gas Detection System

    Gas Detectors: Materials

    Gas Detector Tubes


    Instruction Manual

    Principle of Operation, Combustible Gas Detectors

    Use of Portable and Transportable Combustible

    Gas- Detection Apparatuses

    Maintenance Routine Procedures and General

    Administrative Control

    Combination Explosive, Toxic, and Oxygen Deficiency or

    Excess Detectors (Portable and Transportable)

    Chemical Sensing Detectors and Tubes


    Firefighting Sprinkler Systems


    Outline Design

    Interaction with Other Fire Protection Measures

    Buildings to Be Sprinkler-Protected

    Classification of Occupancies


    Wet Pipe Installations

    Alternate (Wet and Dry Pipe) Installations

    Dry Pipe Installations

    Preaction Installations

    Recycling Installations

    Tail-End Alternate Pipe and Tail-End Dry Pipe Extensions

    Deluge Installations

    Water Supplies

    Design Density and Assumed Maximum Area of Operation

    for Fully Hydraulically Calculated Installations

    Water Supply Pressure-Flow Characteristics and Velocity

    Temperature Ratings, Classifications, and Color Coding

    Hazard to Personnel

    Outside Sprinklers for Protection against Exposure Fires

    Deluge Foam-Water Sprinkler and Foam-Water Spray Systems

    Further Readings

    Carbon Dioxide Gas Fire Extinguishing Systems


    Characteristics and Uses of Carbon Dioxide

    Use and Limitations

    System Components

    Types of Systems

    Package Systems (Kits)

    Total Flooding Systems

    Carbon Dioxide for Surface Fires

    Carbon Dioxide for Deep-Seated Fires

    Rates of Application

    Local Application Systems

    Manual Hose Reel Systems

    Standpipe Systems and Mobile Supply

    Storage Containers

    Discharge Nozzles

    Additional Requirements for All Systems

    Safety Requirements

    Further Readings

    Dry Chemical Fire Extinguishing Systems


    General Information and Requirements


    Dry Chemical and Expellant Gas Supply

    General Design Principles

    Types of Systems

    Total Flooding Systems

    Local Application Systems

    Monitor and Hose Reel Systems

    Alarms and Indicators

    Safety Precautions

    Further Readings

    Foam Generating and Proportioning Systems



    System Design

    Subsurface Foam Systems

    Semisubsurface Systems

    Pressure Storage of C and Lighter Hydrocarbons

    LNG and NGL Atmospheric Refrigerated Storage Tanks

    Foam Monitors and Handlines

    Foam Concentrate and Solution

    Foam Quality

    Dike Area Protection

    Water Supplies and Pumps


    Foam Concentrate Pumps


    Foam Concentrate Facilities

    Automatically Operated Systems

    Detection and Alarm Equipment

    Foam Spray Systems

    Discharge Rate

    Medium- and High-Expansion Foam Systems

    Local Application Systems

    Safety Hazards

    Wetting Agents

    Reduction of Soil Pollution by Reducing Foam Exploitation

    The Dynamic Extinguishing Strategy

    Sample Calculation of Foam Compound Requirement for a


    Brief Summary of Fire-Fighting Foam


    Fire-Fighting and Fire Protection Facilities


    Fire Prevention Practices in Offshore Facilities

    Fire-Fighting Equipment

    Water Monitors (Mobile and Fixed Offshore Installations)

    Water Deluge Pumps and Water Deluge Main

    Water Deluge Systems

    Automatic Sprinkler, Fire Detection, and Fire Alarm

    Systems for Fixed Offshore Installations

    Pressure Water-Spraying Systems

    Fire-Extinguishing Systems

    Storage of Gas Cylinders

    Fire Protection for Onshore Installations

    Water Supplies

    Bases for a Fire-Fighting Water System

    Water Tanks for Fire Protection

    Sample Calculation of Fire Water Flow Rate for Storage Tanks

    Fire Protection System, Inspection, and Testing





    Alireza Bahadori, PhD, is a research staff member in the School of Environment, Science & Engineering, at Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW, Australia. He received his PhD from Curtin University, Western Australia. Dr. Bahadori is the recipient of the Australian government’s Endeavour International Postgraduate Research Award as part of his research in oil and gas area. He also received a top-up award from state government of Western Australia through Western Australia Energy Research Alliance (WA:ERA) in 2009. Dr. Bahadori serves as a member of the editorial board for a number of journals, and he is the author of over 200 articles and six books.

    "…identifying the risks and hazards of process engineering processes appears to be very essential to guarantee the safety of a new plant design and/or process. Also, it is a strong belief that safety issue is the first step in engineering and science workplaces. The materials put in the book present the safety guides and proper reactions against industrial hazards over the urgent and non-urgent conditions through clear, possible and safe ways."
    ––Sohrab Zendehboudi Affiliation: Chemical Engineering Department, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada