Hazardous Area Classification in Petroleum and Chemical Plants : A Guide to Mitigating Risk book cover
1st Edition

Hazardous Area Classification in Petroleum and Chemical Plants
A Guide to Mitigating Risk

ISBN 9781138074644
Published March 30, 2017 by CRC Press
564 Pages 98 B/W Illustrations

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Book Description

Due to an increase in the wide-range of chemicals in petrochemical processing industries, as well as frequency of use, there has been a steady rise in flammability problems and other hazards. Hazardous Area Classification in Petroleum and Chemical Plants: A Guide to Mitigating Risk outlines the necessities of explosion protection in oil, gas and chemical industries, and discusses fire and occupancy hazards, extinguishing methods, hazard identification, and classification of materials. This book addresses these issues and concerns and presents a simple hazard identification system to help offset future problems.

It offers information on the hazards of various materials and their level of severity as it relates to fire prevention, exposure, and control. The system provides an alerting signal and on-the-spot information to help protect lives in an industrial plant or storage location during fire emergencies. Understanding the hazard helps to ensure that the process equipment is properly selected, installed, and operated to provide a safe operating system.

This text also includes a summary of the rules, methods, and requirements for fighting a fire, introduces various hazard identification systems.

• Includes a summary of the rules, methods, and requirements needed to extinguish a fire

• Introduces various hazard identification systems

• Includes concepts for layout and spacing of equipment in process plants

The book serves as resource for plant design engineers as well as plant protection and safety personnel in planning for effective firefighting operations.

Table of Contents

Classification of Fires and Fire Hazard Properties


Classification of Fires

Fire Hazard Properties

Classification of Hazards

Classification of Occupancy Hazards

Classification of Construction

Fire Protection in Buildings

Hazard of Contents


Fire Resistance

Basic Methods of Firefighting

Principles of Fire Protection

Extinguishing Methods

Suggested Hazard Identification

Hazard and Operability Studies


Further Readings

Hazardous Area Classification


The Basic Physical Principles and Definitions

Area Classification


Equipment Protection Level

Gas Explosion Protection Concepts for Electrical Equipment


Combustible Dusts

Class-Division Schemes


Further Readings

Layout and Spacing


Layout in Oil, Gas, and Chemical Facilities

Basic Considerations

Plant Layout

Layout of Control Room and Electrical Substation

Firefighting Requirements

Building Requirements

Layout in Process Units

Distances/Clearances Requirements for Storage Tanks

Layout of LPG Facilities

Equipment Layout and Spacing

Layout of Piping

Utility Layout and Spacing

Off-Site Facilities

Waste Treatment Facilities

Emergency Shutdown System

Blowdown Drums

Fire Training Areas

Tetraethyl Lead Blending Plants


Further Readings

Fire Alarm Systems and Automatic Detectors


Basic Principles

Alarms and Status Indication for Plant Units

Buildings, Warehouses’ Fire Detection, and Control Panel

Fire Detection System

Gas Detection System

Gas Detectors: Materials

Gas Detector Tubes


Instruction Manual

Principle of Operation, Combustible Gas Detectors

Use of Portable and Transportable Combustible

Gas- Detection Apparatuses

Maintenance Routine Procedures and General

Administrative Control

Combination Explosive, Toxic, and Oxygen Deficiency or

Excess Detectors (Portable and Transportable)

Chemical Sensing Detectors and Tubes


Firefighting Sprinkler Systems


Outline Design

Interaction with Other Fire Protection Measures

Buildings to Be Sprinkler-Protected

Classification of Occupancies


Wet Pipe Installations

Alternate (Wet and Dry Pipe) Installations

Dry Pipe Installations

Preaction Installations

Recycling Installations

Tail-End Alternate Pipe and Tail-End Dry Pipe Extensions

Deluge Installations

Water Supplies

Design Density and Assumed Maximum Area of Operation

for Fully Hydraulically Calculated Installations

Water Supply Pressure-Flow Characteristics and Velocity

Temperature Ratings, Classifications, and Color Coding

Hazard to Personnel

Outside Sprinklers for Protection against Exposure Fires

Deluge Foam-Water Sprinkler and Foam-Water Spray Systems

Further Readings

Carbon Dioxide Gas Fire Extinguishing Systems


Characteristics and Uses of Carbon Dioxide

Use and Limitations

System Components

Types of Systems

Package Systems (Kits)

Total Flooding Systems

Carbon Dioxide for Surface Fires

Carbon Dioxide for Deep-Seated Fires

Rates of Application

Local Application Systems

Manual Hose Reel Systems

Standpipe Systems and Mobile Supply

Storage Containers

Discharge Nozzles

Additional Requirements for All Systems

Safety Requirements

Further Readings

Dry Chemical Fire Extinguishing Systems


General Information and Requirements


Dry Chemical and Expellant Gas Supply

General Design Principles

Types of Systems

Total Flooding Systems

Local Application Systems

Monitor and Hose Reel Systems

Alarms and Indicators

Safety Precautions

Further Readings

Foam Generating and Proportioning Systems



System Design

Subsurface Foam Systems

Semisubsurface Systems

Pressure Storage of C and Lighter Hydrocarbons

LNG and NGL Atmospheric Refrigerated Storage Tanks

Foam Monitors and Handlines

Foam Concentrate and Solution

Foam Quality

Dike Area Protection

Water Supplies and Pumps


Foam Concentrate Pumps


Foam Concentrate Facilities

Automatically Operated Systems

Detection and Alarm Equipment

Foam Spray Systems

Discharge Rate

Medium- and High-Expansion Foam Systems

Local Application Systems

Safety Hazards

Wetting Agents

Reduction of Soil Pollution by Reducing Foam Exploitation

The Dynamic Extinguishing Strategy

Sample Calculation of Foam Compound Requirement for a


Brief Summary of Fire-Fighting Foam


Fire-Fighting and Fire Protection Facilities


Fire Prevention Practices in Offshore Facilities

Fire-Fighting Equipment

Water Monitors (Mobile and Fixed Offshore Installations)

Water Deluge Pumps and Water Deluge Main

Water Deluge Systems

Automatic Sprinkler, Fire Detection, and Fire Alarm

Systems for Fixed Offshore Installations

Pressure Water-Spraying Systems

Fire-Extinguishing Systems

Storage of Gas Cylinders

Fire Protection for Onshore Installations

Water Supplies

Bases for a Fire-Fighting Water System

Water Tanks for Fire Protection

Sample Calculation of Fire Water Flow Rate for Storage Tanks

Fire Protection System, Inspection, and Testing




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Alireza Bahadori, PhD, is a research staff member in the School of Environment, Science & Engineering, at Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW, Australia. He received his PhD from Curtin University, Western Australia. Dr. Bahadori is the recipient of the Australian government’s Endeavour International Postgraduate Research Award as part of his research in oil and gas area. He also received a top-up award from state government of Western Australia through Western Australia Energy Research Alliance (WA:ERA) in 2009. Dr. Bahadori serves as a member of the editorial board for a number of journals, and he is the author of over 200 articles and six books.


"…identifying the risks and hazards of process engineering processes appears to be very essential to guarantee the safety of a new plant design and/or process. Also, it is a strong belief that safety issue is the first step in engineering and science workplaces. The materials put in the book present the safety guides and proper reactions against industrial hazards over the urgent and non-urgent conditions through clear, possible and safe ways."
––Sohrab Zendehboudi Affiliation: Chemical Engineering Department, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada