Hazards Analysis: Reducing the Impact of Disasters, Second Edition, 2nd Edition (Hardback) book cover

Hazards Analysis

Reducing the Impact of Disasters, Second Edition, 2nd Edition

By John C. Pine

CRC Press

338 pages | 64 B/W Illus.

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pub: 2014-09-10
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Description

The impacts of natural and man-made disasters have increased exponentially over the past few decades. Moreover, with our global interconnectedness and the growing scale of disasters, today's catastrophic disasters can have regional, national, and even global economic consequences.

Following in the tradition of the successful first edition, Hazards Analysis: Reducing the Impact of Disasters, Second Edition provides a structure and process for understanding the nature of natural and human-caused disasters. Stressing the role of hazard risk management for public, private, and nonprofit organizations, the author and expert contributors cover problem solving, risk analysis, and risk communications to ensure readers are in a position to identify key problems associated with hazards and the risks that they present.

The bookdetails a systematic process of hazards identification, vulnerability determination, and consequence assessment for the natural, built, and human environment. Using a cross-disciplinary approach, this book effectively demonstrates how to use the results of vulnerability assessment, spatial analysis, and community planning to reduce adverse disaster outcomes and foster social, economic, and environmental sustainability. Throughout, the book stresses that hazards analysis is not an isolated process but one that must engage the local community.

Complete with clearly set objectives, key terms, discussion questions, satellite images and maps, and ancillary websites for further study, this authoritative guide covers every element of the hazard analysis process in a step-by-step format. Hazards Analysis presents time-proven strategies for building sustainable communities, identifying and prioritizing risks, and establishing successful disaster prevention and relief strategies prior to a disaster.

Reviews

"Professionals who work in disaster planning and emergency management will find the second edition of Hazards Analysis: Reducing the Impact of Disasters to be a valuable resource."

—John M. White, CPP, President and CEO of Protection Management, LLC, in Security Management

Table of Contents

Introduction to Hazards Analysis; John C. Pine

Objectives

Key Terms

Issue

Introduction

Terminology of Hazards

Views of Extreme Natural Events as Primary Causes of Disasters

A Changing Hazards Paradigm

Hazards Analysis

Hazard Identification

Vulnerability Analysis

Risk Analysis

Linking Hazards Analysis to Risk and Comprehensive Emergency Management

Communicating Risk from a Hazards Analysis

Community Involvement

Values in Community Engagement

Conclusions

Discussion Questions

Applications

Websites

References

Hazards Identification; John C. Pine

Objectives

Key Terms

Issue

Introduction

Hazards Identification Process

Organizing a Hazards Identification Team

Creating a Community Profile

Community Assets

Environmental or Natural Assets and Risks

Sources of Hazards Data

Social Assets

Economic and Constructed Assets

Infrastructure

Critical Facilities

Economic Activities

Mapping Community Assets and Hazards

Interdependence of Communities

Identifying Community Problems

Problem-Solving Process

Problem Solving in a Nonstructured Environment

Decision Traps

Perception of Risks by Citizens

Conclusions

Discussion Questions

Applications

Websites

Population Data

Health Data

Environmental Data

Transportation

Energy

Business Statistics

Mapping Resources

References

Modeling Natural- and Human-Caused Hazards; John C. Pine

Objectives

Key Terms

Issue

Role of Hazard Modeling in Hazards Analysis

An Example of a Hazard Model

Nature and Types of Models

Dynamic Models

Deterministic

Probabilistic

Models Used in Hazards Analysis

HAZUS-MH Model

Evacuation Transportation Modeling

Modeling Community Resilience

Communicating Risks from Models

Assessing Hazard Models

Validity

Quality

Availability of Model Documentation

Data Accuracy, Resolution, and Availability

Coupling Models with GIS

Static versus Adaptable Outputs

Uses of Model Outputs

Timeliness

Completeness

Advantages and Disadvantages of Hazard Models

Model Limitations

Hazard Profiles

Sources of Hazard Information for the Hazard Profile

Description of Hazard

Magnitude

Frequency of Occurrence

Seasonal Pattern

Duration

Speed of Onset

Availability of Warnings

Location and Spatial Extent

Conclusions

Discussion Questions

Applications

National Flood Insurance Program

Hazard Profile Sample for a Tornado

Websites

Avalanches

Dam Safety

Drought

Earthquakes

Flooding

Landslides

Snow

Tornadoes

Tsunamis

Wildfires

References

Spatial Analysis; John C. Pine

Objectives

Key Terms

Issue

Introduction

Definition of Spatial Analysis

Geospatial Data Set

Spatial Data Quality

Types of Spatial Analysis

Queries

Using Spatial Analysis to Answer Questions

Transformations

Buffering

Descriptive Summaries

Optimization Techniques

Hypothesis Testing

Spatial Data Visualization

Choropleth Maps

Conclusions

Discussion Questions

Applications

Websites

References

Risk Analysis: Assessing the Risks of Hazards; Kevin L. Shirley and John C. Pine

Objectives

Key Terms

Introduction

Process of Risk Analysis

What Is Risk?

Quantitative Analysis of Risk

Quantitative Analysis of Likelihood

Quantitative Analysis of Consequence

Qualitative Analysis of Risk

Qualitative Analysis of Likelihood

Qualitative Analysis of Consequence

Views of Risk

Using Historical Data in Determining Risk

Need for Complete Accurate Data for Decision Making

Using Technical Data in Decision Making

Indicators of Direct and Indirect Losses

Issues in Risk Analysis

Changes in Disaster Frequency

Availability of Essential Data

Depth of Analysis

Ranking of Risks

Quantitative Data

Likelihood–Consequence Matrix

Risk Strategies

Mandatory Risk Level

Extremely Low Likelihood of Risk

Accept the Risk

Determining Risk Acceptability

Personal

Political/Social

Economic

Hazard Models

Uncertainty

Logic Tree

Monte Carlo Method or Simulation

Uncertainty Expressed in Interval Estimates

Summary

Discussion Questions

Applications

Websites

References

Social, Economic, and Ecological Vulnerability; John C. Pine

Objectives

Key Terms

Introduction

Approaches to Vulnerability

Dimensions of Vulnerability

Social and Human Vulnerability

Economic Vulnerability

Environmental Vulnerability

Measuring Vulnerability

Indicators of Social Conditions

Indicators of Economic Conditions

Indicators of Environmental Conditions

Methodological Issues

Scale of Analysis

Weighting, Data Availability, and Accuracy

Type and Scope of Measures

Interdependence of Social, Economic, and Ecological Capital

Discussion Questions

Applications

Websites

References

Risk Communication; John C. Pine and Stephen L. Guillot, Jr.

Objectives

Key Terms

Issue

Introduction

Risk Communication

Risk Communication Process

Barriers in Risk Communication

Risk Communication Tools

Communicating Risks with Maps

Use of Figures

Social Media

Targeting Specific Audiences

Risk Communication Myths

Managing Risks

Decision Making

Community Engagement

Stakeholders Involvement

Ethics and Decision Making

Legal Issues in Decision Making

Indemnification

Acknowledging Risk as a Part of Risk Communication

Learning as a Part of Risk Communication

Discussion Questions

Applications

Websites

References

Hazards Risk Management Process; Greg Shaw

Objectives

Key Terms

Issue

Introduction

Terminology

Risk Management

Hazards Risk Management Framing Questions

Framework for Hazards Risk Management

Components of the Hazards Risk Management Process

Communicate and Consult

Monitor and Review

Step 1: Establish the context

Step 2: Identify the hazards

Step 3: Assess the hazard risk

Step 4: Sort the hazards by risk magnitude

Step 5: Analyze the risks from each hazard

Step 6: Group and prioritize the hazard risks and consider risk management interventions

Application of the Hazards Risk Management Process

Overview

Step 1: Establish the context

Step 2: Identify the hazards

Step 3: Assess the hazards risk

Step 4: Sort the hazards by risk magnitude

Step 5: Analyze the risks from each hazard

Step 6: Group and prioritize the hazard risks and consider risk management interventions

Hazards Risk Management and Comprehensive Emergency Management

Discussion Questions

Applications

Websites

References

Planning for Sustainable and Disaster-Resilient Communities;Gavin Smith

Objectives

Key Terms

Introduction

Sustainability, Disaster Resilience Climate Change Adaptation, and Hazard Mitigation Planning

Hazard Mitigation Planning Policy Framework

Hazard Mitigation Plan

Power of Plan Making: Tools and Process

Planning Process: Building Stakeholder Capacity to Confront Hazards

Discussion Questions

Applications

You Be the Planner

Websites

References

Creating Disaster-Resilient Communities: A New Natural Hazards Risk Management Framework;Gavin Smith

Objectives

Key Terms

Introduction

Hazard Mitigation Policies

Emergent National Climate Change Adaptation Policy

New Natural Hazards Risk Management Policy Framework

Expand Natural Hazards Analysis to Include Sustainable Development and Disaster-Resilient Themes

Use Risk Assessment Findings to Guide Land Use and Scenario-Based Planning That Assesses Current and Future Vulnerability

Assess Hazard Risk Management Policies, Programs, Plans, and Projects as Part of a Larger Effort to Build Local Capacity and Self-Reliance through a Risk Governance Strategy

Balance Incentives and Penalties Affecting Human Settlement

Pattern Adjustments: A Critical Look at Existing Hazard Mitigation Programs

Assess Losses Avoided and Build Disaster-Resilient Communities in the Age of Climate Change

Recommendations for Action

Draw Lessons from a National Assessment of Local Hazard Mitigation Plans

Place a Greater Emphasis on Land-Use Decisions and Human Settlement Patterns

Establish a Robust Training and Capacity-Building Approach

Enact Sanctions for Low-Performing States and Communities that Underperform and Provide Benefits to Communities and States that Develop Enhanced Hazard Mitigation Plans

Engage Professional Land-Use Planners in the Implementation of the Proposed Natural Hazards Management Framework

Facilitate the Use of Planners as Agents of Social Change and Policy Learning

Include Hazards Analysis in Planning for Climate Change

Summary and Conclusions

Discussion Questions

Applications

You Be the Policy Analyst

You Be the Planner

References

Index

About the Author

John C. Pine serves as the director of the Research Institute for Environment, Energy & Economics (RIEEE), and professor in the department of Geography and Planning, Appalachian State University, Boone, North Carolina. He joined the Appalachian faculty in 2009 after serving thirty years at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge where he directed the graduate and undergraduate Disaster Science and Management Program. At Louisiana State University, he was a professor in the Department of Geography and Anthropology and the department of Environmental Sciences. His research on disasters and emergency management centers on emergency planning, risk assessment, and disaster recovery.

He has worked for many years with public agencies at the federal, state, and local levels as well as non-profit and private entities to identify strategies to enhance preparedness and community sustainability. His publications focus on hazards and disasters including Technology and Emergency Management fromJohn Wiley (2007) and Tort Liability Todayfrom the Public Risk Management Association (2005).

He is currently on the board of directors of the National Committee for the New River, the Learning Lodge at Grandfather Mountain, and an advisory board for the American Meteorological Society. His publications have been included in The Journal of Disaster Studies, Policy and Management, Disasters, Journal of Race and Society, International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, Oceanography, Journal of Emergency Management, Natural Disaster Review, Journal of Environmental Health, and theJournal of Hazardous Materials. He received his doctorate in higher education administration and public administration from the University of Georgia, Athens, in 1979.

Subject Categories

BISAC Subject Codes/Headings:
SCI031000
SCIENCE / Earth Sciences / Geology
SOC040000
SOCIAL SCIENCE / Disasters & Disaster Relief
TEC010000
TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Environmental / General